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Full text of "Laws and customs of Israel, compiled from the codes Chayyê Adam and Kizzur Shulchan 'Arukh"

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University of Toronto 

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Under Pat. "Ref. Index File" 


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University of Toronto 

oddish ••& ^ rmpi r6p simd ?uh 

-pny )nS^ napi cpw w n 

trp^n njpiib 

*i » p 9 n 

nma jjYoiaa nva ,pmn nona ,rmiDx nto*D ni^n wpa *w 
,nvtjn pna^ prai ,KpDy ,Jvan ,]nDi nb>d w ,teun nana ,\ww 
np^i /itt^toi nra* ,fpfi ( nw3»i rf?R» ,]idd *pM /tow rmi 
,ym nton /wo^i d^tw ,o«n ^jd ny* ,*|ttn nYD* ^ryoi 
pm 3k wa ptrhn vid ; y&p n«npi a'nya rAsm nroo n^sn 
,ddu tm ,D^in mp^a ,*§nm nSin ,m^j wk ,cro6a ,n^D niata 
jtAvm matoi bai pw jfgnp 

H> n*feuH dsb6 pnjw ^ I 

nyBD^DDDjm p"pa pnrta r» ipoo 

P. VALLENTINE & SON'S (Succrs.) 9, Commercial Street, London, E. 









Laws Concerning Forbidden Food : Benedictions to be said when enjoying the Gifts of Ood 
Rules concerning errors in regard to the benedictions. The benedictions l^nnC »nd 7Qljn 
I, MM concerning buying and selling, interest, business (with the money of another), prosecutor 
and defendant and evidence procedure, theft and robbery, monetary damages, borrowing and 
hiring, trusts, things lost and found, unloading and loading. Rules concerning physical well- 
being, cruelty to animals, vows and oaths, prayer for a journey, afternoon and evening prayers 
aad the reading of the Shema' and regulations for the night. The precept of hono'iring father 
and mother, laws concerning circumcision, Kilayim (cf. Lev. xix. 19 and Deut. xxii. 9-11), the 
prohibition of shaving. The laws concerning sickness and the physician, visiting the sick, one 
who is dying, rending the garment, the mourner in the period between death and burial of a 
kinsman and all the regulations concerning mourning. 





9, Commercial Street, London, E. 


:o^:i>n pin 

?e p nmonn mux »sn 

n B p rrViynirfi «n 

asp t>k naaimiBiiwi 

tacp rrana *6aian 

vp anaa wSa Wi 

*xp no *?y nnnpi ypyp na*na now 

Mxp jprm »mn mire mbuiiaw 

laj tpa'r hS UMtrn oniD«n onai 

axp npH rnoip 

a*p puBino noai neiim nSinn »m 

•up n^in npa »ih 

rap iniaai wna dd-jjh wi 

nxp nnp w 

81 pi* 3H 

ti naa men -iidmi pananm mntan wi 
n ...,pin proi. ,vmiSi non rwwin »:n 

m niiapn n»ai irnapnwi 

Kn ana ava m>apn *an 

an ncr yan 18*1 nyiS iaxy lanon »ih 

in jna n8oia »an 

»n Sa«nnS a"n ^o by »>*i 

nn niYaan nVnno *no>8 *jn 

si nwian miya wi 

«a-i . ana8 Bin>a w 

aai npim nyion naup nyiotsnan 

wnyatca ihbd im nanSo iibk w 
aai n^a« 

Suan nS^yai naw rwm new «n 
ai... rmn &"o&>™ 

aiSr nVnn nun naSn iid'k w 

ran SanS 

nan ana hbh bann:? anain wi 

m ,nno*» aitfo ,DrrD8n anai wi 

Si nyaar inab 

hSi... nwH m»^ 11B8 banny »sn 

mSi man nnxS Sia* Sawn VMBttn 

aSi wia inv nan by mvpmb *bB> *i 

,dw?* nv nxpai >y>2B> av nxpa »an 

aSi anin a"* pi 

aSi mSaM ana *S» ^a »*i 

jbi mbanb nny »an 

iSi a"n nava niba* -an 

nbi bnn <*y n^aa D'irSri nyaicnff «n 

nx niiiBH nibana maSn 

p .pi tt»a niyana ana8e by maia an 

ap a^aam aian naiai p«n naia «m 

■p numn nmaa E^SSa 

rap nipi'i niYfi bv nprai awi p 

n^p ^©w fc pv p 

ap nianaa nanp p 

jop -.maiaa nira pi 

a"n«i np»D by im Ss«a Sy ll»a p 

aap ny ib w^* 

i3p „ rmn naia p 

lap siomsim Win* naia p 

B3p m«1?i main p 

aSp... waifi niaia mp njn Soun nana 

r?p .,. ]nai Hiya maSn 

nyi aiaJiVi anaia main 1 ? iibh VI 

np wian 

nSp iiDKn nana mino nitt'yS rtv «n 

uSp n*^ ii^*" 1 

nap Kp^y wa^n 

map rwv?n »m 

wp ..,. v . . B'cbs nu^a^ 'iH 

ap nriyi |ywi jyia *an 

rip nSui na^a *in 

Dp poo *p» wi 

Mop *)«n *P» ft i^ n 

top mvain nSnr wabu 

nop BiBnn kS maSn 

nap mwrai m»an waVn 

iBp.'.'. ■ ... pipe now 

tap m^wnpne maSn 

nsp nvwn ?2^ *|un n>o^ maSn 

nBp... biyb iib^hi D^n <bya iy* iio»k 

BDp myia«n ami. »in 

p5nx» anal ihwi "pin nSfin pi 

ayp ;.Tn»wS 

nyp , nnaa nSfin »sn 

ryp.V. anya nScn wi 

nyp.'.' rvVbn inc 

tayp em a* naa »ah 

acp...)nai ,Dan ^a^ni ,|pn ,iai naa »an 

acp manVaaiimn fw tfwn 

jap nra w 

ifip jan pnB norm 



Laws concerning forbidden food 95 

Laws concerning tho benediction 

over the Five Species of Grain 100 

Laws concerning the benediction 
to be pronounced over Wine, 
also relating to the bene- 
diction avoni anon 103 

Rules concerning the benedic- 
tion to be said before enjoy- 
ing the gifts of God ...100 

Rules concerning the concluding 

benediction (mnriK nais) 100 

Rules concerning the benedic- 
tions nc mm j*yn no mia 

bsrw) nan«n 112 

Laws concerning the benedic- 
tions to be said over Soup, 
also over Fruit and Veget- 
able extracts 116 

Laws concerning that which is 
important and that which is 
accessory thereto 118 

Laws concerning the order of 
precedence relating to bene- 
dictions 120 

Laws concerning benedictions 

pronounced erroneously 121 

Law as to the benediction over 
an article of food, where 
more was taken than was 
originally intended 122 

Laws concerning the benediction 
to be said when smelling fra- 
grant spices 124 

Laws concerning the benedictions 
TV and S'Bom 31M 126 

Benedictions concerning seeing ...129 

Laws concerning the benediction 
Soun also other benedictions 
on di vers occsaions 132 

Laws of buying and selling 134 

Laws prohibiting verbal oppres- 
sion and deception of one's 
fellow creatures 137 

Laws dealing with the prohibition 

of trading in forbidden things 138 

The laws concerning interest 139 

Rules concerning business part- 
nerships 145 

Laws concerning loans 149 

Laws of release 151 

Law concerning a claimant and 
respondent also regarding 
testimony 153 


Laws concerning theft and robbery 157 

Laws concerning financial damages 160 

The laws concerning physical in- 
jury 161 

Laws concerning borrowing and 

hiring 1G3 

Laws relating to the command- 
ment "Thou shaltnot muzzle" 165 

Laws concerning a lost thing and 

the finding thereof 165 

Laws concerning deposits ...166 

Laws concerning unloading and 

loading 167 

Laws relating to physical preserv- 
ation and to the precept 
"Not to Destroy" 168 

Laws concerning cruelty to ani- 
mals and castration 168 

Laws regarding vows and oaths ...169 

The law regarding the prayer for 
a journey and other matters 
to be noted when travelling. ..172 

The laws concerning the afternoon 

service (nttio) 174 

Laws concerning the evening ser- 
vice 177 

Rules for the night 178 

Laws concerning honour due to 

parents 179 

Laws concerning the honour due 
to one's teacher, to the aged, 
to a scholar, and to a priest ...182 

Conditions to be observed for the 
fulfilment of every command- 
ment 182 

Laws of circumcision 183 

Laws concerning the redemption 

of the first-born 186 

Laws concerning forbidden images 187 

Laws concerning fruit which is 

counted as uncircumcised ...188 

Laws concerning diverse kinds of 
cattle 189 

Laws concerning garments made 

of linen and wool 190 

The prohibition of tatooing and 

making bald for the dead 191 

Laws forbidding the shaving of 
the hair of the temples and 
the beard 191 

Prohibition of a male putting on 

a woman's garment 192 

Laws concerning one who is sick, 

the doctor and remedies 192 

Contents of voL ii (continued) : — 

Laws concerning visiting the sick 194 
Laws concerning one who is dying 196 

Laws concerning the rending of 
garments for the dead 198 

Laws of a mourner 201 

Laws relating to purification (Ta- 
harah) and the shrouds also 
the prohibition to enjoy any- 
thing belonging to the dead... 204 

Laws concerning the removal of 
the dead, the funeral, and the 
burial service 206 

Laws concerning the internment 

and the cemetry 208 

Laws concerning burial on a festi- 
val 211 

Laws concerning a suicide and a 

wicked person's daath 213 

Laws concerning the defilement 

of a priest 214 

Laws concerning those for whom 

one must mourn 217 

Laws governing the time when 
mourning should begin 218 

Laws concerning the meal of con- 
dolence 220 

Laws concerning the comforting 
of mourners 221 

Laws concerning the timely and 
delayed news of a relative's 
death 222 

Laws prohibiting work or busi- 
ness during the seven days 
of mourning 223 

Laws concerning the prohibition 
to bathe, to anoint, to wear 
boots and to cohabit 226 

Laws prohibiting the study of the 

Torah and greeting 227 

Laws concerning things which 

are forbidden to a mourner 228 

Laws concerning rejoicing, forbid- 
den to a moutner even after 
the first seven days of mourn- 
ing 230 

Laws prohibiting a mourner to 
marry during the thirty days 
of mourning 231 

Laws concerning the time when 
a mourner msy leave his 
house 231 

Law forbidding excessive grief ...232 

Law concerning "part'' of t 
seventh day and "part" of *he 
thirtieth day,also the law con- 
cerning the twelve months ...232 

Law concerning one who did not 

observe mourning 233 

Laws concerning testimony that 

makes mourning obligatory ...233 

Law concerning mourning on a 

sabbath or festival 234 

Law concerning the seven and the 
thirty days of mourning that 
are annulled by a festival 235 

Laws 2 — i 

pii m 

.ii& D*?n 

♦rvrvoK rvteKB rnawi 

p^t J rrnDH nran to dw^i iidk twaa imun di f tf 

•|mn pruA &» trona to to«n mnpwa 
pyn rpKio ^sa iidm *toa ixap dm -jh mia dvii di ^ 

♦imo twpwp ia pw pja dmid kvw wi dm la^sS 
Tit iaan su to wpd di m^i nonai laa iw dm # J 
ato pa toia xma own pap Din /»pi?^ Din aipo iinn 5 ? 

jiawa *6i ^rm 
me aton oy ht dtw aton ^ina di mvdj owa^ 4 1 

•n*» roa nwj^ pa*nn nsnan 

idmj dm pto n«onai toroai n^ana iick atoa 10a # n 
*a "D nwyb na ntot? nwpb jws atoa i»a rnanyna iai nwt 
.nMjna idm: wh dwh^i rnona dj idmj dw^ 

m to m ty»TBpD on ^bm n? dm nr ttTaan d^mii^ m» 4 ) 
nm wjnw iy ato toMD nn 10a nr 'm jnto*a toaiA on 1 ? hd# 
pa fbwn to vron* im ito nsa to inn to tean* jua lavi 




Vol. 2. 

T \ws Concerning Forbidden Food. 

1. The blood found in eggs is forbidden and occasionally it is 
prohibited to eat the entire egg on account thereof, therefore one must 
examine the egg before using it for cooking purposes. 

2. The blood of fish is permitted, but if poured into a vessel its 
use is prohibited owing to its appearance (resembling blood which 
might be forbidden) but if it be evident that it is the blood of a fish, 
e.g., if it contain scales, then its use is permitted. 

3. If one bite a piece of bread (or anything else) and if blood 
from his gums should come upon the bread, he must cut off the part 
where the blood is and throw it away. The blood from the gums, 
may be pressed out on a week-day, if it had not discharged itself,. 
but this does not apply on a Sabbath. 

4. Blood is sometimes found in milk, because the blood comes 
from the animals udder together with the milk, when that occurs the 
ecclesiastical authorities must be consulted. 

5. Meat and milk are prohibited to be eaten or cooked together, 
nor may they be used together for one's benefit If, therefore, in any 
dish they have been mixed together and are thereby prohibited, then the 
ecclesiastical authorities must be consulted as to whether one may have 
any benefit therefrom, as in some cases this might be sanctioned. 

6. Two Jewish acquaintances, even though they be particular 
towards each other, one of whom desires to partake of animal food and 
the other of milk food, are forbidden to eat at one table unless they 
make a certain mark to distinguish between them, e.g., by having a 
separate cover laid for each, or by placing upon the table between 


mwb tbv tmrn ww dp nrnfr "on p*w iai nwt d^skoh 

,^aa pau SaNarw ^sa im ^ao 

$br\ ojn i#a ay 'k iaan toaiA n^ "flrt panw 0*31 ♦? 
*a a^n ^awA 'ki 10a ^3«dS '« ntei tria irrf? p*ro pi 
♦ntea ^3nb w tfiKtwi rtaa rta« wsprt 
<6a ta pi a*?n ^3kd^ invnn paon n« owib panu # n 

.^^n *vb itc k^» aSn 
a^n ^3kd ^k" «S 10a to ^«ftn pi *M ntc 10a fen JD 
nnw D'ya ,pnor6 a"; -p* pirn 1 ? prfem w «w nrw* iy 
pnorb "px wh taw .Yiwft "ps D<wn r 3 ^ 3 N * D DK W? 
tan ,vs n rop*i ns oma ^airw wn ,m vs na rop"» pi a"n* 

•nppB intra ik onsa vino 

*>ra;w xbx 10a te pw 1A1 i#a kS Tirana rm 16 dn f 

♦a^n virw ^laa 1 ? into ptjd^ nmiD rum n 1 ? 'vh 10a to rnnpa 
nina rrnpoa td 10a vinn toiA nmo hmm tan ♦fcO 
eirni* in ona pan warn iai mv pn dm w p\ian» natoi 
moyiw wn rwp wain rwi dni vd rv»Ti wv ip^ on n^oa 
a ff nx ^iai6 rren dk ny^ina kvw in twin rnw rw*i napa 

jnjw w pnonb a"j "pi* 10a "6a«D 
pton tyn iyab -ps iwa bxxb mrrti tom to* dk # S , » 
10a i^aap iiBfi ^ waj bia*6 iidni wan ny ibaxt* ns to 
pi n^aj oy i^aa 1 ? ns i»a bv paoa imn 1 ? iid« dj tudvA pi 
i*? iniD Ttta Kint^ pw pmn nyt^ai ,^pa paon d« i^b«i "psvA 
waj d^ ^ia^ aavi aasi n^pai '•pa Kinra i»a ^ paoa "yinn 1 ? 

.^sMa pi 
q:dji ^m iai in» i« trttt i»a ^» i^aoa -]nn dn ^ 

♦can d'wp nityy^ i>iit -pevia ix abn ^a«Di 


their respective food a certain article that does not properly belong 
there, they should also be careful that they should not both drink from 
one vessel as the food clings thereon. 

7. One should be most particular not to eat bread of the same 
loaf with both meat and milk, and it is customary also to have separate 
salt-cellars, one for meat and another for milk food, for it happens that 
the food is dipped in the salt and part thereof may remain therein. 

8. It is customary to mark the knife used for milk food and all 
other milk and butter utensils in order that they may not be exchanged 
(for those used for meat. ) 

9. One who had partaken of meat or even of a dish prepared with 
meat should not partake of milk food until an interval of six hours had 
elapsed, and one who had masticated the food for an infant is obliged 
also to wait that period. If, after having waited the proper period, one 
found meat between his teeth he must remove it but he need not wait 
thereafter, yet he should cleanse his mouth and rinse it, that is to say, 
he should eat a little bread and cleanse his mouth therewith and rinse 
his mouth with water or any other liquid. 

10. If the [dish had neither meat nor meat fat therein but had 
been cooked in a pot used for meat, even if that pot were not thoroughly 
cleansed beforehand, it is yet permissible to partake of milk food after 
(partaking of this dish). 

11. After cheese has been eaten, one may partake of meat 
thereafter at the next meal, but he should carefully examine 
his hands to see that no particle of cheese clings to them, he 
should also cleanse his teeth and rinse his mouth. If the cheese were 
stale and hard, that is to say, because it was curdled by rennet and was 
six months old or if it had worms and he desires to eat meat thereafter 
he must allow an interval of six hours to elapse. 

12. If he had eaten cheese and he desires to eat meat he must 
remove from the table the rest of the bread of which he had partaken 
whilst eating the cheese. Cheese should not be eaten upon a tablecloth 
whereon one had eaten meat or vice-versa, nor should one cut bread 
which he intends to eat with cheese with a knife used for meat or vice- 
versa, even if the knife be clean, however, in an emergency, e.g., when 
one is on a journey, he is permitted to cut the bread he wishes to eat 
with cheese with a knife that was used for meat, or viceversa t if 
the knife were thoroughly clean. 

1 3. If one had cut onions or any other pungent article of food 
with a meat knife and had put the same in food containing milk, or 
vice-versa^ the ecclesiastical authorities should be consulted. 


Dnpp laina n»rt "pw ,onpp abna ^ao bnwi npiyn # "p 

•]W anid ^ea 
.n:^n ik ie>aa tt rewri^ ^bn ^3 ^jmtA nte pma ♦IE 
ra ,|TAir in pTpsar jcd ia pxtp jit nawi ntpai p JQ 
pi bffiaD p bax ,niDnin kv *px ,n»n ^n-h^ to r'aai o ff iay 
,'n Dnina *jd ,wa:n nsi af?m p *?# porm 
nrmxi ww -px ,pra nai mi rspa in nVtr dn 4 P 

•icnnbi nrpbi d-:£2D 
inp in o^mp spy w nana ,D"iay >"y rtrr yvN dn 4 PP 

♦Dan rf?NP nrr ,onin N^a nan 
omna onp s"yn ,D"iay n*a anp onai inpi nira: # o*i 

•pro* pnn *n uyv xbv ba ,onpa ontsr 0121a in 
nvnp vir o'layi ^N-iBn nib* 1 ? in Stra 1 ? xbv ,w*b r* 4 3 
^xn /impn mjnb n^i /isnia nt^a mi ,ira ntra nr ,11 ^xn it 
.dm:i rcm wm maa Sni^ pNra ninsm 
rropb ^idn ,nviraa prniD ainr oth yvm |*r ^ 4 JO 
i^n rnKnj dn ima f *nmi6 ona pin 5 ? r*r onan nx^ in p ubd 

.wn Nin» ib jnu nSp ba idv bain 
ndp ,&nnS rn* ^a D^iaj? n>aa rrxfm /wb «n ,33 

,ia t£^nty , » 

3 ff nNi ,nxiK win p^-roi roea spy pnpA myrt 4 JO 
iy in 11 " iS |*n bi:v c\*y in nana *a ,tibj wn nth miN canity 
wb panx o^jyai mraaa dji ns^ 76*1 n w t -|bn» a"nN pimr 

♦ind nra 

ni:op niyia inxbjp mrw n5a ikd mar }»pn ^D"a ^3 
j^anx a"v /"P ^R nisioi nanm d^» ^aa (p^x*nw) nba^ ]^Da 
.Dan dSnp rwr riu^p myia N^ajtrii ,d*?d ^:an pnab mrt 



14. One who prepares a dish of meat and milk of almonds must 
put almonds therein on account of its resemblance to milk (and thereby 
allay any suspicion of having transgressed the Law). 

15. It is customary that no uttDsil used for milk should be 
(ritually) purified by boiling water in order to make it fit for use for 
meat or vice-versa. 

16. If one had given wine, meat or a piece of fish, all of which 
had no special mark (by which they might be recognised) into the care 
of an idolater or an Israelite, who is suspected of tampering therewith, 
to store or to forward, the same must have two seals (apiece), but for 
boiled wine or vinegar, milk, bread and cheese one seal suffices. 

1 7. If one forwarded or gave on deposit anything in a sack, it is 
necessary that its stitches should be inside and it must be tied and 

18. If it happened that one had forwarded through a non-Jew a 
ritually slaughtered beast or fowl or anything else without a seal, then 
the ecclesiastical authorities must be consulted. 

19. Cheese or other articles of food which are in the hands of a 
non-Jew r , although they be sealed or stamped stating that they are 
ritually fit for food (iffa), are nevertheless prohibited as w r e do not 
know who sealed them. 

?0. Care should be taken that two persons, one of them an 
Israelite and the other a non-Jew, should not cook or fry together in 
two pots next to one another, one pot containing food ritually fit for 
use (wa) and the other containing food which is not fit (nfclfi), nor 
should the pots be left in the care of servants (upon whom one cannot 
depend in the matter of wa food) if a professing Israelite be not present 
to supervise it. 

21. It is forbidden to purchase wine or food of which the nvura 
(i.e. ritual fitness) is in doubt of one who has not an established repu- 
tation for mwa (i.e. complying with the Jewish laws), however if one 
became that person's guest he may eat with him so long as no sus- 
picion arose as to his mra. 

22. Care should be taken not to allow one's culinary utensils to 
remain in the house of a non-Jew, lest he may make use thereof. 

23. Sometimes people buy a fowl with its legs tied and they 
throw it upon the ground. Subsequently it is ritually killed and it is 
strictly forbidden to partake of it ; because a beast or fowl which fell 
may not be declared as fit for food unless one saw it walk (after the 
fall) at least four cubits. It is therefore proper to be careful in this 
matter with lambs or calves also. 

24. In the summer time slight swellings like warts are to be 
found upon the intestines of ducks and many become ritually unfit 
for food thereby, it is therefore proper to examine the intestines at 
that time and to consult the ecclesiastical authorities regarding them. 


b6 oki ,n^a oy nan ^ mdp ; a*?na nD s y |nrt jm ,!"D 
dm ,nffa Dy Aaw nat* rrro inaS ^axS i^sk nioa nan ^d 
pn pi ,nma n#a Dy i^aM*? nW ns\j nan nnv* nw> 
i« pN*?s d? na dip maM 1 ? pro ,npa to pit* oy no^ b6 dm 
nnn pipn ]D im nMDnn p aw Nat* p^nn nuna ,ntbp3 


••toni DinD ni;nn nvi dn ,nnx nuna ••ton oy ibnp na ^3 
n\np ix noiaa n\n •'ton dm ^aN ,a^na ^d«^ nsn ton n^jia 
nito^ Nto nm^» an n^nna 1 ? a"ai ,nnia ^ru nun roni mns nunn 
♦nan nnn pitsvi p am Map pntwi ,na ia paw m:na nts>a 

ny ,pna povi -pn* ,aSn in pw ito ppnpa aw tun # Q 

♦p^i ifro us by vhtm ia^» 

WN pa N*a: dm ^m ^sn 1 ? ounu dwidd D^uunn ,)T3 

♦piDM ]n ,*iNna puia \vx& pn '^n f nmjm 

Tin niTan nM ounuv ,pnpina nwa nipy 1 ? pama ♦122 
TinS nnw praya "pi nana nvnatoa its nM pnanpi poaai n^niS* 
,nn»3 nanaa mnaton Nnnp nnrt pa*ns ^w inpinw on nun 

♦^ana nmm nrptoa dj nnafavn 

pmtrt niDM D'yHn Drroraa «w ppmw ninrwi mnxa 4 ^ 
niDM pi .niDM 1 ? «n D^a om«a tou dm nayna '^sro ,]niN ujid^ ny 
D^pan: D^mn *a ^aaa nan ona nnn 1 ? im nts>a nto D^aa nvwb 


Nto nan -pn d^d 1 ? nnnb ow* ,D^an nM p^oa^a ♦N7 

•ppnat* pn ybin i^bn mayS •ntraNa rm* 

Ppna» pn ytoi i^bm ^a ,p^D *"^ niDM ybnrw pam # n? 


25. One should not knead dough with milk, for it is to be feared 
that it may be eaten with meat, and therefore on that account it is 
forbidden to eat even the bread itself, if entirely prepared in that 
manner. If, however, the bread were formed in a manner so that it 
would be easy for one to discern that it is not to be eaten with meat, 
it is then permitted to prepare it with milk. The same law is applic» 
able to the use of fat in the kneading of dough. One should not bake 
bread with pancakes or pies in one oven, as it is to be feared that the 
butter or fat may flow under the bread. 

26. If bread had been baked in one oven with roasted meat and 
the oven had been closed whilst the meat was uncovered, it is forbidden 
to eat that bread with milk ; it is permitted, however, to eat the bread 
with milk if the roasted meat were covered or if the oven, which was 
as large as a regular baker's oven, were open. Care should, however, 
be taken not to roast meat in an oven in which bread is being baked, 
as it may be feared that the grease will flow under the bread. 

27. If grease or milk flow upon the floor of an oven it should be 
purified by means of glowing heat in accordance with the Law, that 
is to say, glowing coals should be spread on it so that it is heated white. 

28. Castrated cocks may be eaten, but if any cause for doubt as 
to their ritual fitness should arise, (e.g.) if the entrails be not in their 
proper position, then they are forbidden to be eaten. 

29. It is customary in preserving fruit to place the same in a jar 
which is covered and tied down with a bladder skin over the opening 
In this way it is placed in a warm oven so that the fruit may be pre- 
served. The bladder skin must be from an animal ritually fit for food 
and it also needs salting and proper rinsing to make it fit for use. 

30. It is forbidden to drink the water of wells and rivers reputed 
to be infested with worms before the water has been strained, and if 
one had inadvertently cooked in such un filtered water, the use (of that 
food) should be forbidden. It is likewise forbidden to soak meat in 
such water or to wash therewith articles of food, because the worms 
cling to the food. 

31. The water should be filtered by means of a cloth which 
Bhould make the passage of even the smallest worm an impossibility. 

32. Vinegar, which contains worms, is unfit for use if it had only 
been filtered. For even the smallest worm in vinegar will pass 


fDinn n« nbnn mmn 1 ? ^naiam .nsa ^ -pi iaiy paina mrow 
.pro liar n 1 ? aw nnvnn +y na yf?vint* inaan a"na ijud^i 

«^ a"y« ,pic« nninaa BT.ya m^aa a^ian a^bin f )D 
pas ni^api j^iaa pi naa nvbj awabi ,Bipaf? Bipaa ipyd 
ot^a i*?a^ -pw ,apwfc j^mn ^nnnp aipa mm n*vro rnipj 

.navy nj^mn iaa -rom ,paiya 

a' 711 v^y nap dn •naina -roya r^nnS tamp na ^a # n^ 
,0-nn a* a^pna itk b*jp in p«t^ nna ^a *a ,mia rt«w Pin 
pn* pAna ijnbrn aap awn bipbi ,mo*?W *naya new iaai 
b^bS b^ a"nm .pna ihitd:^ pennavn B^mn ybm^ \pisb 
,DD^t^i ntya^ . B^apuam B^inn i*?m ,na* na* pim goto 
.pna' 1 abi tb nia^ ny^in ia ihbm bnp pnii aro aw a"nxi 

nnm nna f?a nma 1 ? -p* npna pnw nvvan ^a *n9 
nra inn 1 ? pnn ,ne^ na 1 " jpia*? ^ prt pyun na -ptento 
i^am jmrpo piap no una *6i ppixi paia niTa ppiapa inb 
.nai *-» f?a pna 1 ? yn xbx una nS ar.n hk pna 

naaatfa mbi d^iu bhAw ia mn*ai napa kvbj awa 4 f? 
wia *b p*o ia wbj ax ^ax ,anaw ayfnnn pt» naaa vyih 
.aana^ -pa Ban n*?«ff n»r pjAma pvi ^ t^p ibi ,naan 

a^ma ipitft ynn pw w mm ptavwr iai bz # t9 

viibi /»n»^ uiaa*i firm kbp ^n^ b^m y D' ; i:jrS naa^ iidk 

•«jw p i:aa nwyb 

miaw a^jn» nbi ,a^na pprma mpn^ ^a nam # n? 
ropv ^'•a pi niTs ^a em # ^jno wm t^xa p-wi na pananav 
ht ^a 1 ? men / ipna t ? n^ax ^ ajran^ nj; a^Vina -p Sa j^«ma» 


through any cloth, but when once the wems are dead owing to the 
boiling they will not pass through when the vinegar is strained. 

33. Worms that grow in the fruit whilst attached to the 
tree are forbidden even if they did not move from place to place (in the 
fruit). A black spot is sometimes found in fruit as well as in beam 
and lentils : this is where the worm takes its origin and this must be 
removed from the fruit and it is forbidden even as the worm itself. 

34. All such fruits, that usually have worms when they are 
attached to the tree, may be partaken of without examination, provided 
twelve months had elapsed from the time they were taken off the tree, 
as no living creature without bones can exist longer than twelve 
months, and they have therefore become as dust, however as it may be 
apprehended that the fruit had become wormy since it was picked, 
they should be examined and cleansed from all worms and animal- 
cula found upon the surface, after which they should be placed in 
cold w r ater and thoroughly mixed together and as the worms and tho 
worm eaten fruit will rise to the surface they should be thrown away, 
the rest should be placed in boiling water, so that if any worm remain 
it will perish immediately before becoming separated from its place. 

35. All fruits requiring examination (because of having worms) 
should be opened one by one and the stones removed, in order that 
the examination may be thorough, great care should be observed there- 
with when preserving them in honey and sugar. One should not rely 
upon the examination of a portion of them, even the greater portion, 
but each fruit should be examined separately. 

36. Flour and other cereals are sometimes found to contain large 
worms, it suffices therefore if they be sifted with a sieve through which 
the worms cannot pass, but if the flour contain mites sifting is useless. 
One who possesses wormy wheat should consult the ecclesiastical 
authorities as to the manner in which it should be ground. 

37. It is forbidden to sell an article of food containing worms to 
a non-Jew, if it be of the kind not usually examined to ascertain if it 
be free from worms, for fear that the latter will, in turn, sell it to an 
Israelite, but one is permitted to distil brandy therefrom. 

38. There are many vegetables that are infested with worms. 
There are housewives who say that if they singe them they will be 
destroyed, but that is useless. There are certain kinds of fruit and 
vegetables infested with worms to such an extent that it is well nigh 
impossible to examine them ; therefore a God-fearing man must nob 


D^ma D^prniD prjnJiW niTD ^pd 0*1 bbi j^a*6 >6p dw 

,lf?3l6 vow 

n^D^ PW npw t^aia tfnpna nvrsa kxdj dws 1 ? ,12^ 
ny tenon id dj nxp mp*i ,aavi ini« ipr ,pVa ■'ten a^ao 

.tenon -jinn iK^j 160 wa nm» 

cna rww ny^nn dj -jr,m proa px in ns inn 4 Q 
oipoa mp ^p 11 nsn p i« p»n p dji ,ao%n paon nn mp* 


in iaaa ix moa D^Sin D^ysS inxdj o\nn Tina # fta 
D^in ia an oayn nip:in :na tansai owna in nsa in o^oa 
ma» jo*wna pi ,npna psnx mot Dipoai ,BWim b*pi 
o^nn ^ tent? moipo w ,npH3 pa*w D^pn o^in aten -pna 
D\smn ^mm nan ^nai p*won te dh pTs:on ten pnao 
.aovi ]yi:6i pnaS pa*w ,nenya wbuy Dm ino D*»p 0^10 

pnio vby ppnoa p<n dk nrcaa trnxoan twnn ,2D 

.noA i»ts nSff pi te 

ton0f> iS tok .noNi ,-6n0 nwt romn m*A Wot Jfi 
•men 1 ? jwmn n*yin *iaa0 ijmn a"n n^k inn nmn n*noS 117 

pjo^aa nnan ne kvw n^x jn wo nrono mnr on 1 ? # K 
pm /*fcw -p* ^ H n " 1 ^ D wap WW nins ijoo tew on 
ten ,mnon by vnnnfn nwro to ma nSk ,n*xion vte panao 
n^o: "pm t«m onte ot vh myo nrap *njp0 i:dd ^au« dk 
•pmn nana inniAi mi vby j^anaDi ^on* 



partake of any of them. There are also certain kinds of fruit whose 
kernels are infested with worms and it is forbidden to eat them. 

39. Sometimes one finds that fruits preserved in honey and sugar 
have mites on the surface at the edge of the vessel containing same. 
This part must be thoroughly cleansed and some of the fruit should be 
removed until it is quite clear that no mites are in the rest. 

40. If, whilst cutting fruit or radish with a knife, one had also 
cut a worm that was therein he should wipe the knife well, and also 
peel a portion of the fruit or radish at the place where it was cut. 

41. Worms are often found in the interior of fish, such as the 
brain, the liver, the intestines, the mouth or the ears, especially is this 
the case with the fish called pike, which contains long and thin worms, 
and such places where they are likely to be found must be examined. 
Thin worms are found in the fat of herring and it requires examination. 
In some localities the fish is found to be infested with very small 
insects, round as a lentil, which are upon its surface near its fins, also 
upon its fins, in its mouth and behind its ears, they should ba 
examined there and well scraped off. 

42. The mites found in cheese, if they be not loathsome, are per- 
mitted to be eaten (with the cheese) as long as they are not separated 

43. If one had consulted the ecclesiastical authorities who had 
prohibited the use of the thing in question, then he must not consult 
other ecclesiastical authorities unless he notify them that the previous 
ones consulted had prohibited the use of the same. 

Laws Concerning the Benediction over the Five Species 

of Grain. 

1. If one should eat bread of any of the five species of grain 
made for the purpose of serving as sweetmeats, but less than the fixed 
quantity which is reckoned as a meal (the size of an olive), he need 
neither wash his hands nor say raion, but only miuD »5*B K*na and 
thereafter RfiM bv. If, however, he should eat thereof the 
fixed quantity reckoned as a meal, then the rule applies as in the case 
of a whole loaf of bread, and he must wash his hands and say tosnorti 
and thereafter Grace after meals, 


|^TJ pi vd n^DHD d^xo by mara w m 

43^3 p3 .ItfjW nfi KW K^ ,pD*33 HN3H HB UTD ,2 

,pi6fi 103 npyjps pi ,13 *rv3\ nroia in 1*033 in niTB3 n^db 
watt 0^33 in 3^3 in #3131 pwa in pitta rfcw db mnv k^i 

JJN1 ayiDH KVW N^N D^D QJ 13 3YV I^BN ^niTfi *D 1NP3 IN 

•jwm nN3n n*b i*?ni i*?n pp^nni *?prf? onw n^3 pnapj 

^3 3i*ia k^x pnjwo nnna in 1 ? rmjfo wap iijw ♦} 
on ,in3»S any mi>*D3 in Dnmc miyoa ^isn 1 ? |^\nr nna din 

©N1 flXlh 1D3 W »"D ,y3tf WN NW B'tyN ,Ht 11JW3 *?3N NV1 

tns^ mi« ptoi* im onn« dn d*j py»o ,\nsh ny m ns tea 
vn dn onnNi y3# ami pp iiyn* ins 1 ? n*?3 *?3n dni ,d^3» in 
1\1 ins 1 ? ny miN '^din vn dnp n*?n ,d^3P im n 1 ? 13 ptom 

♦nn^ pi A n^ ••in ,ttjtt» 

3"nNi D"D3 "pai taya pi ^n 1 ? mjn3 n\n rtrwiD dn 4 1 
ny ^isn 1 ? rmi amp nn dn ,miyo nrap "row *?i3N*? -^im 
13 *?3ik ,onp ^3x» no b|W» n*?n rrnyo nyap iijw 13 pN 
urt* 13 «n ,ny <?i3N^> nsii «in» nr3 dn f?3N ,?"Dn3 3"nN -p3Di 
nm ttvw na *?y iraon nsi3 "ji3^ vt f?urf? -pi* ,miyo njrap 

OV spBW '•S 1 ? *?3NP HD *?y -J13 1 ? *"N iTTOn ty A313 *?3N ^ttlA 

.t"a.i33 tbs<i toitn* hd 

'<BN IN 11Jn3 HNBN DN ,n31 nnWfcl tt»3 H»1^W HD7 # H 
T1DW «1^'» N^ JDW3 DS^NH nN HtfD I^SNI /lp»D N^3 DSSN3 
m3 pi liDD *?31N I^^BNI /WM On 1 ? 1D3 1iH1 ,np^D 3Wn nS Ht 

^••bk «m on 1 ? in 1 ? np»D3 i^a dni ,t"»n3i N^iani ^bm in* 

01B13 pfllNtf 1ND ppi p» pp^pi jniK pi JTy"»3» ^3 ^DO ^?31N 
1130 /1S^3» n3 DnD *?31K I^BNI DH 1 ? p DH^ p« 1^H3 "J» ^3 

••omi 1ND n3i no^ pt^y tob^i ,nran by innNSi a w e3 pi 



2. What is the meaning of y:z % 22 rwan r* ? Some authorities 
say that it is bread which is prepared like pies filled with fruit, meat, 
cheese and the like, also when it is prepared like pancakes. Some 
authorities explain the expression as referring to bread kneaded with 
oil, fat, honey, milk, eggs or cheese, or with fruit juice, even if a little 
water were also added. We adopt both interpretations to facilitate 
the practice of the Law and include both explanations in denning 
po^a rwan nt. 

3. The quantity of food constituting a nital is not to be reckoned 
by one's own appetite but by the average amount usually considered 
sufficient for the mid-day meal or for supper when one eats till one be 
satisfied. If one had eaten this quantity and although he be not 
satisfied, nevertheless it is governed by the same law as applies to 
bread. If one eat such bread w r ith a relish, we estimate the amount 
according to that which would satisfy other people who would eat the 
same with a relish. If he were to eat a small quantity without a 
relish and he felt satisfied, whereas other people would not be satisfied 
therewith but only with a relish would they be satisfied, then the law 
which applies to bread holds good in this case also. 

4. If it were originally his intention to eat only a little and he 
said nttNB ^a n*i"D and then he changed his mind and resolved to eat 
the quantity constituting a meal, if there be not a sufficient quantity 
for a meal left of the food he desires to eat, unless he counts in that 
which he had eaten before, he should eat and then say the Grace after 
the meal. If the quantity be more than the amount which constitutes- 
a meal, he should wash his hands and say the benediction K^non over 
that which he desires to eat, but it is not necessary for him to say bv 
PPHDn over that which he had eaten, as the Grace which he will subse- 
quently say, exempts it from that benediction. 

5. Dough that was kneaded with water, and loosely mingled 
together, if it were baked in an oven or even in a pan, without any 
liquor, even if the pan were besmeared with oil, in order that the 
dough should not burn, this is not considered as a liquor, and is 
governed by the law that applies to proper bread, and to eat even a 
piece the size of an olive requires the washing of the hands, the saying 
of M'llDil and also Grace after mejls, however if it were fried in any 
liquid it is not counted as bread even if he ate thereof till he was 
satisfied. Likewise such wafers which are very thin and which are 
baked in a mould in a gridiron are exempt from the law applying to 
bread, even if one had eaten thereof to satisfy his appetite, he need 
only say c"a *nia and thereafter n<nbn bv. Sometimes the dough is. 
made so thin, that is to say, flour and water are put into a pot and after 


P7I pn ^d rwDno d^kd by rtera w\ m 

^y fw nnia paw -pa ani« piyai nnpa a^ai nap ptnw 
•jwaa «an ns p V? v tn ,o^yn f?y nana ns*oi mpii 

•fpYn firm toj an 1 ? ,fwa pa ronu a"n>o rhnnam n&y # 1 

♦ami nswffa 

uaa wn '•'bn ,nanai rwana ujd in iteat* iiaj on 1 ? J 
ybp an 1 ? p to ,ma nonea «n bn a^aa mow pa en 1 ? mvi 
nans tea «n insa bi«r»an *yv b"j;n ,ma nans tea p Din 
iron an^y &n '••sni bm »u nwi bwan *fr paw w nna 
,nYian te nniAi a"aa pi rtp pnaai /Qn 1 ? p i 1 ? p a"a ,art> 
/inn aan an*>te nnw «*?« ifafa *A dni ,njr*ap ^a tea "•bn* 
t« nr py 1 ? ^wra awn wy •w \b Kpsaan aura .naia psa m 
]m» *6n ,f?tto Mb am itrv^n Tina n^n nw fcaiA pn /N 1 ? 
pa r* dm *6n ma ,rwa maiisa pti ^anai piaa in a*p»Da 
p dni # *T\taa on 1 ? p V'm anS nam jnb 0* nxv ,xb in on 1 ? nam 
*pn -paa nyw na tea frwn jDrt p on 1 ? p on 1 ? iton jDrft 
nwifin nana ppvan ntna rurm bn ,nYjan by tnmth aiaa 
"ny on 1 ? p ana pa wj ax jai .onb nam ana ia«w jnra 

.en 1 ? -win 

^a'aa .Tte -paa ,nteai naS a^aa "<bn rantav no^ 4 n 
pjw (^s^nna) yw pi ,nyap tow tea 'mdk i-pnan te ,nnniAi 
,nTian by pnn*Ai a"aa aM jfr»te piaa ,]^ai pi vd n^ana 
•ptewp no^ ^a«a pi .pian ny j*?aw dni ^n^at^ iijrw tea /s £n 
-a ,aSnm plan by -pa 1 ? *"« ,na iStyanjiy a*?nn ny in pian oy 
4pnJ ik nwab aj;a pi bti^a qj< te« .jn^ 1 ? o^aai d^sb nan 
liaai ,^aa p^ nr ,]^a aSnn in aainn ^a#a pn m:iia np^i 
•aSnni aainn ^n ^nm nia^a^n dj tewp b^ni f ^an» p^y 
lia 1 ? *un ^^a mvn iv ^v fwyb na a*ai ,np^n p» pa ^nibaa 



being mixed together, it is poured over vegetables and baked in an 
oven (i.e. a pie crust), this dough is governed by the law which applies 
to pj0taa N2n nc (see supra §2). 

6. Dough, which has been boiled and afterwards baked as in the 
case of certain puddings, is considered to be bread proper provided it 
be well baked. 

7. Regarding proper bread, cooked or fried in butter and the like, 
even if the appearance of bread had been taken therefrom, eg , by 
being smeared with eggs, all the laws concerning bread relate t) a 
portion thereof the size of an olive, but if there be not the amount 
equal to the size of an olive in each portion, although on account of 
the cooking the dough expanded so that each portion was the size of 
an olive, or if the cooking made it to cling together and it became a 
large mass, and even if it have the appearance of bread, yet the law 
concerning bread does not apply thereto, and only the benediction «-na 
nuNB »5*fi before eating and rvnen bv after eating are to be said, even 
if he ate till he was satisfied, but if he did not cook it, but merely 
poured hot broth upon it, the benediction to be pronounced thereon is 
doubtful, because "we are not sure whether the pouring out of the broth 
is considered in this manner to be cooking or not ; it is best not to 
partake thereof in the course of a meal. If it were not cooked but 
soaked in some liquid or soup and the like, and the portions thereof 
were not the size of an olive, the law depends upon the following 
consideration : whether it possess the appearance of bread or not, in 
the former case the laws relating to bread apply, but if it have not 
the appearance of bread the laws relating to bread do not apply 
thereto, and he should say only the benediction nunc »J*0 N*n2 before 
and rrncn hv thereafter, eveu if he ate till he was satisfied. If the 
appearance of the liquid were changed by the portions of the food 
soaked therein, it is evident that is has lost the appearance of bread, 
likewise if it were soaked in red wine it has lost the appearance of 

8. Over dough that was cooked, after having been kneaded with 
water only, the benediction mttt& VB K1\a must be said before partak- 
ing thereof, and the benediction rvnen bv thereafter, even if he had 
eaten till he was satisfied. Likewise barley, which belongs to the five 
species of grain, that was cooked, requires also, prior to being eaten, 
to be preceded by the benediction ntttt& »J»fi WVQ and followed by the 
benediction rpncn bf % even if one had eaten till he was satisfied. If ho 
had eaten this with soup, or farinaceous food which he had eaten with 
soup or milk in which it was cooked, he is not required to say a bene- 
diction over the soup or the milk, for they are secondary to the 
farinaceous food, and have lost their essential value, however if one had 
cooked but little of the farinaceous food or barley, and his main object 
was the preparation of the broth or milk, then the latter do not lose 
their essential value, and he should first say the benediction bxw 
over the broth or the milk. Although he has partaken of the farina- 
ceous food or barley, the broth or the milk must be considered as tha 


pT) zttom ym ravs\ pi nm ot m 

inn* 1 a"nai ,mp niwbi nab a^nn by in aann by banp nbnn 
mvon p& s^x ,mbsa pw nan dw ,a"aa jwan in mrabn by 
ba inaia Tosnb Sdd npyj win awn Nin pi pp ^b ^b^a 

.ni"»ipa oya prt to* 

,bnstep) msa anba in nffina nsaa D^y» a^baxa ♦B 
pjaa in pb»aai ptowi abm owi ]awa ]niK-D^iyat* (bnayip 
•nron by nrinrurtn a"aa pby piaa ,ini« 

fffl NW 1D3 DTO INt* Dy jbttDtf pi TOa D^iai / 

in -pbuxa Dy b^siNB) wasp in pbis ay no^y *ms pb#aa» 
■pv y"sa biaia 'n ^nt^ \V2 a"a sm win inN pa # *bki (paiy 
can no^y nvrs mp by nbnn iiaat? wn ,maia vw -pab 
ima jbaiN a"nNi ,ibawi N ff nsa pis mp by -paa a"nNi ,jtoun 
pa im iaiynrt iayan: dn baN n^by iiab *"ni baa mn aami 
s'yx mix D^btraa in p^jboi ftiwi D^ai nap piyat? baNa 
piaai awn Nin pi to 'na mn» pa a' ; a ayian Nin napn» 
b'wa napn hn dwvuwd Npn djdni ,nnDn by mnNi a"aa rty 
■pm mnt* laa ,Nabya pan 5 ? nap aya pi ppib dn baN ,oya jnw 
ipwi anp^a nsiN npya pia pi ,nap ayaa jnsb to ppnat* 
pi ,napn baa m ,Nabya paib nap aya pi ia owui nw\ 
nap mp ay mix ppnai pbtfsap aan pi ,ip*yn by pi piaa 
Nin dn baN ,banp N"a atsni by piaa p ,nNana jtfaai *ibp 
DiTby iiab Tilt ,oavy usa obaiNi pjiaan amvsn dn ma 
.'iai rrnan by onnnN yvb "p* w* ona baiN dni ^a'aa 

Asaom man nroi pn rom "»n 

p^a pibn pi /iai ]s^n by vinNbi /nsa piaa p\i by # tt 


staple element of the dish. Nevertheless in order to do the pioper 
tiling, it is right to say the benediction hzr.z' first over the broth or 
milk alone and to drink a little thereof, and thereafter to Bay the 
li 'nediction m;iia 'd '2 over the farinaceous fond <>r barley, since 
T ey also are not of secondary importance although the main object in 
preparing the dish was not on their account, but bb they belong to a 
species of c rn they are of value and do not become of secondary 
importance so as to lose their appropriate and special benediction, 
which would otherwise be the case when anything is used merely to 
give a flavour to a dish. 

9. Food prepared from ground n*B or pieces of bread mixed 
with fat, eg^s, or milk and which are kneaded, cooked or fried, are 
subject to the benedictions rmuc Wfi K*na and bp before and 
thereafter respectively. 

10. If one had cooked certain kinds of corn flour with flour of 
different species as is the custom of cooking little pieces of dough with 
bay-leaves or beans (or peas), and if the majority helo- g to one species, 
since eacii species is distinct from the oiher. he must say two benedic- 
tions, preceding with the benediction niJttB *3*e mia and partaking of 
the dough, and then following with the benediction K'nta over the 
beans, etc. • f which he should also partake, then he should eat these 
together and the broth is held to be Oi sec ndary importance and 
no bene liction need be said on its account. If. however, they were 
dissolved and merged in one, such as takes places with a dish consis- 
ting of ri"ur. eu r gs and cheese which is co >kra or fried, even if the flour 
be but little, nevertheless because it belongs to the five species of corn 
it is esteemed and the benediction mttW »3*o mia must be said before 
partaking thereof and rpnen bv after partaking thereof, but this only 
ap (.lies when the iiour is required in order to flavour the dish, but if it 
were used merely as a thickening ingredient, just as occurs when 
different kinds of relish are prepared with a little flour or when 
almonds, sugar and eggs are used for making pastries, it is then that 
the flour loses its identity and over t:ie principal component of the 
dish alone should he say the benediction. Likewise over broth which 
is cooked or prepared with a little flour which has been roasted or fried 
in butter, we say only the benediction bxw. But if he pick out the 
pieces which have been fried and eat them he must say D'D'a before 
partaking thereof and if he have eaten thereof an amount equal to the 
size of an olive he must say thereafter nTtcn bv. 

Laws Concerning the Benediction to be Pronounced Over 
Wine, also Relating to the Benediction ansoni men. 

1. Over wine the benediction ;"n£3 is said and thereafter jean by 
and it makes no difference whether the wine were still bubbling, or 


jwrp ia ^lao p i^sni loyyo ar ^sm ,ddvi pn? mn -frs* 
ma pn i^sn ,ia nto ruj^ w ,owai Pan iamS ww uwi 
ppa p anna dn ^dn ,naia pjrt p *in ,p oya "6 tw p*a ^aina 
pn pf?i ;voiaa p£D w /inran "osa irnn^ pyaasp din ^3 pn* 

.did p ty n*?nn -pa* a"NN vnrari 

rraa vwyj n 1 ?"! nam *y pi ,p?i ana in^to awna ,2 
i^sn in •arotp nan inv ma nS i^sn d*b ar^y urn dn /ran 

DN ^3N ,]Mfl *lfi KTO Vty p*DB ,P laya DN a"a ,mn& IK^D 

o^a urw in D^a arr^y una a'nxi nan rraa D^rnnn raya 

,D^3 N*?N WK ,p *1B» *?y 

d*d^^ ^pbn nwa ii-in nSn pa px dn D-aa aiynap p # J 
aipan wn -pi dn pnv p ia ^ dni ,a*aa pi taw ,pvi ^aa wn 
ty vin«^ a*nsa vby "pan ,p aipaa vnnrti a"a imx a^D^ 

•inyi ntea ,16 am ,]sn 

on ,pn -p ^aaa \ra ^a ia*.a vby yap dn nsrw D^a # T 
fwrm naiaai ruwm naiaa pppa ink? iais p mntrt j; w n yaip 
mn» in ,]«n f?y -pat? rrjwa vasS pioty vn ppwn on Npm 
nrm n^ vasA nvi n 1 ? dn ^aN ppvn arm nvwS inyia s'ay 
?"n yaa* p *?y ,16 in jrrty "pa 1 ? -pi* dn pso m orrSy viyi 
72nd iai hpn Sy -jia^ in ,pn ^ N w a -jia^ ihn 1 ? i^ dhd 

•pp»on nN dj nias 1 ? pa*i f ^ant 

n 1 ? d^i *m« -pi nn» n*?n # p nvw^ y"N yap n 1 ? dn 4 n 
n:^Ni nana Tia 1 ? t«ix wn tn ,D*»inN D^pm mnt^ 1 ? vijn nnvi 
niDS3 dn .niiinN nataa pso nd^n ^nam n^n pnn» wpm hv 
Tia^ ne hpn ^^n 1 ? m a*y .n 1 ? in pn ^ iia^ ]©an by naiaa 
♦l^p^cn nN dj iibsS ,mai nwu niu vm« 


exuding by itself, or if it were prepared with spices, (i.e. it contained 
honey and spices) or if it were absinthe which is bitter, or if the wine 
gave forth the odour of vinegar, so long as it tastes like wine, it is 
considered to be wine with reference to a benediction. But if it 
turned sour to such a degree that there are some who would avoid 
drinking it on account of its acidity, the benediction to be pronounced 
thereon is a matter of doubt, he should therefore not partake thereof 
until he had pronounced a benediction over good wine. 

•2. If he poured water upon kernels that yield wine upon a slight 
pressure and which were not yet squeezed in a wine press, although 
the wine he finds does not exceed the quantity of water which he had 
poured upon them, or even if the wine they yielded were less than the 
quantity of the water, nevertheless, if it taste like wine, the benedic- 
tion Jfcsn ns H*na must be said (before partaking thereof) ; however, if 
the kernels had been squeezed in a wine press, after which water had 
been poured upon them, or if water had been poured upon wine dregs, 
it is considered as water only. 

3. When wine has been mingled with water and if the wine were 
only a sixth part thereof, the wine is disregarded and it is considered 
to be merely water. If, however the wine be more (than a sixth part 
of the water) and if it be the custom in that place to mix wine in that 
proportion and to drink it in lieu of wine, then before partaking 
thereof the benediction :"n£2 must be said and thereafter )tzn by, but 
if this be not the case the wine therein may be disregarded. 

4. Just as bread when fixed as the staple food includes all kinds 
of food (in its benediction), so with wine, (if one resolve to partake of 
wine by way of refreshment) he may drink all other beverages provi- 
ded they were set before him when he said the benediction over the 
wine, or if he intended to drink these beverages as well when he said 
the benediction, without being required to say the benediction that 
precede and follow their consumption. But if they were not before 
him nor did he intend to drink them, it is doubtful whether they 
require a benediction or not, one should therefore avoid partaking 
thereof until he has said the benediction after wine, or until he has 
said the benediction ^antr over some kind of food having then the 
intention of including the beverages. 

5. However if he drank the wine casually and had no intention 
of drinking other beverages, he is required to say the preceding bene- 
diction over the other beverages, but there is a doubt as to the 
necessity of saying the benediction thereafter owing to the possibility 
of it being exempt by saying the benediction ]tin bv over the wine, 
therefore one should partake of some fruit that necessitates the saving 
of mrtt ima thereafter, whereby the beverages may be exempt from 
the concluding benediction. 


p-fi awm yuan rcni pi rona m m 

dx pso t^ ,ysxp ix »"' nwS mini ,pvi Sy anpon J 
a"Byxi ,d*idbS xSp piaS I s ? w 2"y t nb ix ,pvi byv naiaa new 
.pptPDn nx dj iids 1 ? Saw npis eya by yt9f 

Dnnx onwx dj d» «n imvon imn pn Sy "paD^a ♦? 
yiDP 1 ? jn^axo ipDBV na jno»f? Danm un ^i /man nao pDr 


miyon T»na xSp pa rmjon linn pa ,inx pna nn& ,n 
xSi -jSdj *6t* p*a ,]Bjn ns rna vty tod wn pnx p if? mam 
W * wan dx pi pwam ami vty -paa Sax ,pna nvijn hdx 
.nam Sy pi pvnrn aitan vSy a*:i ranao *^» p 

•hb kid nw "paS fw pixa wdd "jtea rwi dxi # b 

.y'nsa a"nxi p^oni ami nSnn tdb ,pjn 

p jni:i utww jnr ttk0 onoa npri D"men pwaoi xn ^ 
pit dx Sax ,pvmn p rows mn dx jrrp wxp s"j;x ,ptwtin 
p w *yuS xna x™a -jx t xbp paiaa pic jHMtin p inn kvw- 
jrtimi vSy paiao ,Dyaa jnru iww s"yx ,fmnn 

im vjbS vn xSp xSx ma* w nSnnD on 1 ? nvi frw t jp 
put* wi dx Sax ^rtiwi nav&n wn Sy "pan ^"nsa -pwa 
nawon Sy "pao y'nsa xSx eftnvi "paa wh f pibvn Sy vjbS 

.jjtui nx oj h&bS 

own pmn pn p ny e^ dx xSx a'man paiaa px ^ 
nSa ptwnn pro nana dx Sax ,p ^v dib^d wn nx nin^S 

,yby panaa pn ,wn nx px^ae 

a f ; rmw mm w in« »^a xSx Mm paiao pn ♦!> 



6. One who says the benediction of sanctification (Kiddush) over 
wine and intends to drink brandy or coffee thereafter, it is doubtful 
whether the latter are exempt or not from a separate benediction by 
that pronounced over the wine, he should resolve that he 

B not exempt them, and therefore he should say the benediction 
73JW over some confectionery (requiring such a benediction) and thus 
exempt the beverages from a separate benediction. 

7. When one is about to say the benediction over wine in the 
course of a repast and also in the presence of others, he should say 
*mai **DD (" Give heed ! my friends ") in order to direct attention 
so that they should interrupt their meal and hear the benediction. 

8. If one had partaken of one kind of wine, whether in the 
course of the repast or not, and another kind of wine is brought to him, 
lie does not say the benediction \tza ne Hiia over the latter, since he 
has neither changed his mind on this matter nor has his attention been 
diverted from his wine, but he should say the benediction ya&m ZWU 
Likewise if they bring before him a third kind of wine, he also says 
over this the benediction 3»&am atari and so on. 

9. If his mind were diverted therefrom in such wise that it is 
necessary to say the benediction Jfcjn ns mu, he should first say j'nta 
and thereafter a'emm aian. 

10. The benediction yearn 31BS1 is to be said only on the assump- 
tion that the one who partakes of the second kind of wine has no 
knowledge of it being inferior to the wine he previously drank although 
he is not certain that it is superior thereto, but if it be known that it 
is inferior to that already used, then no benediction is to be said but if 
it be also more wholesome than the former, although its taste be 
inferior, he should say over the same the benediction 3*aam sian. 

11. Even if they had from the beginning of the repast two kinds 
of wine but they were not both on the table when the benediction ;"nsa 
was said, then over the second kind which happens to be superior the 
benediction a'man is said. If the two kinds were on the table, the 
benediction D'man is not to be said, but a'n&a must be said over the 
wine of superior quality to exempt the inferior kind from any 

12. The benediction B'man is not said unless there be some more 
of the first kind of wine used, as the second sort is partaken of merely 
for the sake of varying the wine used. But if the second kind be pro- 
vided because the first sort is exhausted the benediction a'TOBTI is not 
said over the same. 

13. The benediction B'man is not said unless there be 
another person present who also di 


vwk dx n ff m ,vKffb am-n A yen ya^o *arn ,nwi <:pd 

/paa W *W Ktl DV ^X ,1D? TO31 

to pjpn nx jnu a*nyan dx p*njra toK aonsp mm # T 

Kin pn a"x ,rv6?H nniyoa ppiyp idd ,nvYP ">a nnww p^n 
/did inx bA jnu a*nyan dx to* .a'man pa*DDi nwwa idd 
wx nwi toa i^bki r pa nisnw orn pK» p'o ,D*mon pama px 


/tn nao n^nn wi dSid nx xm-6 Tiab toa* inx f lt3 
iwa inx to^ rwa xpm /ircraa ww px um port aS urw 
wnwb reran pa posn xrr xbv yd nyww wsh 
yab "p* ttk pnx p did to pan nana -paa dx # TQ 
•anaem aian p?8n ronaa *idkw naa ksv xinp ; aHsom aian vto 

.won nroo nawm rtma yn 

by '••bk nai to to torw "pen npa dx najma^ s"yx ♦*< 
mut parfc ncbb "p* xbx ,p rmyh ydx nbnnaS ,xr p toi ns 
p» hpxd Yiann? A x"xp nana iki ,pdi pa to to "pa* naia 
naiaa pxsv» tx jnar6 ypsx w ttpoisn ipBHWtf ix jwi 
/to *pjf rrwon "pro iids 1 ? Van* iai im emi ,torw 

ik ia mrt ix wvnrt w itoKb vto panaw "Din ,2 

m* pw /una* Ta naian dyp imx npw -p* nrao \a m^j6 
ip^ Kinr Dvn n« niarvar na v^ -pa 4 ? -pv Kin na^ih 
••jb 1 ? n\w k^n ,^a wik n 1 ? dxi ,Tia^ d«dv no n^ nmn 
ikwtw kSk ina^a SSd y**h mn nS dk ^ax ; kx^ ,rty i"ia»3 
T^a^ T*ivn ^x^^ nb ,vby wji rum roian nyvzv s /y rx yD^nx "6 

LAWS a:;l> customs of Israel 

implying that God is good (xmn) to him and that He dispenses good 
(3'BDftl) to his companion. This is also the rule if one have his wife 
and sons with him at table, but if he be alone he does not say 
the benediction b'men. 

14. Guests who are at their host's table may indulge in as much 
vine as they wish, the host having placed on the table a decanter of 
a\ ine, as is the custom at bauquets, then the wine is considered to be 
their common property, and they should say the benediction 1W1 
d'B&m. If the host had given a glass of wine to each guest, they 
should not say the benediction ans&ni aion inasmuch as the wine is not 
their common property, even the host ►hould not say that benediction. 

15. One person may say the benediction and exempt all the rest 
of the company from their obligation of saying the same and he should 
first say w,2"i »T3D to direct their attention to the benediction and they 
should respond |&M implying that they are exempt by this benediction. 
"This applies only if each one have his glass before him in order that he 
may immediately drink without interruption between the benediction 
and the drinking. 

16. If he recite Grace after the meal over a glass of wine of a 
different kind (to that which he had drunk previously) he need not say 
the benediction 3<B&ni aion thereafter, as he is exempt by the section 
3'B&m 3UM1 which he says in the Grace after the meal. 

Rules Concerning The Benediction to be Said 
Before Enjoying the Gifts of God. 

1. If one had inadvertently said the benediction ^anr over any 
article of food or drink, be it even bread and wine, his religious duty 
is done. But this must not be done intentionally. It is therefore a 
duty to learn how to distinguish the various benedictions and to say 
the appropriate one according to the kind! to be enjoyed. But in the 
case of something of which he is in doubt as to which class it belongs 
or concerning which there are varying opinions held by the ecclesiasti- 
cal authorities, and no definite decision is available as to the appropriate 
benediction, he should say tanr, but it is preferable if he should 
exempt it from any benediction by partaking thereof in the course of 
the meal. 

2. He should take the article, over which he is about to say the 
benediction before eating or drinking or smelling the same, in his right 
hand and think devoutly which benediction he ought to say, so that 
when mentioning the Divine Name, which is the principal part of the 
benediction, he may know how to conclude the same. If he had said 
the benediction over the article without having taken it in his hand, 
so long as it was before him (at that time) his duty is done, however if 
the article were not before him when he said the benediction but it was 
brought to him later, even if his mind were centred thereon whilst 
saying the benediction still his duty is not done and he must repeat 
the benediction. 


I'm j** 1 w^oa www m-im ^ m 

dko: in ,nawi ira ^sn vtyj Tpai -baN 1 ? *ia rr»a ^m j| 

DN ,Dian ^BW ,np»D DID ty TTO DN pi ,fl^a*6 ^K1 WK» IV 

HDD tjtp nin^S in b^nh nn\i injn on f m paa t# vjs 1 ? ^ 
,nw -paS 7*1* law iKtwn bv dj nanan nn\i a"a ,rpa npte 
,mt* Tin 1 ? "pirn ,vra rpra na Sy pi naian r6n n 1 ? ,Dnoa *?3« 
ns 1 ? nvi x 1 ^ «^« /w mntrt i« SS?? mjn n*n dn '^x p 
rrn dnp pjya V^bk ,nw -pa 1 ? -pi* ,nny ib «avn naian ny»a 
«an ,A aa™ nt ty -paS "pis n\n n 1 ? prmn n« nnw in ^aw 

*b*iw\ ,n^atf? naian pa w naa w pw k^ t 1 * ♦! 
naian pa tana p^dbh dm ,j^aw ny ptiBn 1 ? tidn hd^S nypa 
np^nra nnp dn ^a« ,fiaVi T?rA -p^ f n^aien p:ya «^ n^aaS 
posn awn nS ,n^a«n -pw 1 ? amp nwi /pa^i Tin 1 ? -p-re ijv< 
nsnpa "pa^ ,jyowi uaa-pnrftt ^ ^s ^2*6 nrnpa-p^ .^a 
kmp owa ,poan *in n*? nwm ,oton by -pa? itodt owa ,d^ 
pt6 ani inv A pm ne nrN ^axb nvn^a i* ,n^a«n -pw 
Dtp rupw runw jkvmh nntn row* ny^ina it *is ndp 


D^nn d^d «wn awa in^nt* D*np aya -pwi D^a nnwn «n 

.naian pna di^d ,naian tin *&i "paS tam* dtp "psteh 
■pTnr»N fibm ia Nvi^ai nSa t«iv dm ^t^ann n« oyian ^ 
*"« i« ^"D «vi» pa iiaS inx dm psa ^ ,i>^a dn ^ax ^^ 
nmna uaa nmb piav im^ p^i ,n^a«^ vwo p«» pa -jiaS 

uaa rtfrm oya^a *iai wn dk hnibi^ nnw in (?ai«n J 
pa f w* lan km /s sni ^ n^«in naia nnn^i ws^ rhy iiaa 


3. If he took in his hand some fruit to eat and he said the 
benediction and it fell out of his hand and was lost or became too 
loathsome to be partaken of, or, if he had said a benediction over a 
<dass of liquor and spilt it, if at that time there were more of the same 
kind before liim of which it was also his intention to consume 
even more than was in his hand, consequently the benediction which he 
had said referred also to what remained before him he need not th< re- 
fore repeat the benediction, but if this were not the case, then th<> 
benediction applies only to that which is before him. and he should 
repeat the benediction. Likewise, if he intended to partake of more 
of the same article, but if it were not before him at the time he said the 
benediction but was brought later, he must repeat the benediction 
even if he would ordinarily have been exempt from repeating the 
same over that which would be brought later had he partaken of the 
first (quantity), in this case, however, it is different. 

4. Between the benediction over food and its consumption he 
should avoid a pause lasting as long as it takes to say a few words. 
Even when masticating the first mouthful of food he must not pause 
until he has swallowed it. If after saying the benediction, he inter- 
rupted himself before eating by speaking of something irrevelant to 
the meal, he must repeat the benediction, but if he delayed in eating 
by pausing silently, he need not repeat the benediction. Any delay 
necessary for the purpose of the meal is not considered an interruption, 
therefore should one desire to partake of a large fruit which he must 
cut up before eating, a he must say the benediction while it is whole, as 
it is proper to say the benediction over an entire article, inasmuch 
as the subsequent delay, caused by cutting up the fruit for the purpose 
of eating it, is not considered an interruption. However, if one 
desire to eat a fruit that might contain worms and therefore improper 
to partake of, and if there be no more, he should open it and examine 
it before saying the benediction. 

5. If one were about to drink water, but before partaking thereof 
he spilt a little fearing that the surface water might be unhealthy, he 
should do this before saying the benediction and not thereafter, so as 
to avoid any disrespect with regard to the benediction. 

6. One who tastes food to ascertain if it need salt, or for similar 
purposes, if he eject it instead of swallowing it, he is not required to 
say a benediction, however, if he swallow it, there is a doubt as to his 
obligation to say a benediction, inasmuch as he swallowed it, although 
he did not intend to make a meal thereof, he should therefore bear in 
mind, when he partakes thereof, that he relishes it as a meal, and he 
should first say a benediction and then swallow the food. 

7. One who partakes of food or drink as medicine, if it be some- 
thing savoury which he relishes, even if it be forbidden food, he should 
say the preceding and the concluding benedictions appropriate thereto, 
gince the Law permits him now to partake thereof, even if the article 


pi 1 ! pn:r\ reran nn^Kin nrm ot !T\ 

uw id nan Kin A*em ,\Ay inn 1 ? nm -p* nnj; A mwi rrnnrw 
,vbv "paci p l^i wtBD mn nana id^ed rtffu 
ne navin ^aix in pptPD nnw Tjvua im A Daaa «n 
*?aN /inruAi rort lAy "pa 1 ? -p* r ubB rurup iai *w in ,yh& 
wua i 1 ? D:a:p na yAarA *ia n"?n ikdiA nbv &n nrw dn 
iAk o^n mvwa din 1 ? nun pw •'sA /t^ *A #*w T^A ^ 

Mtnvb nnw mwa 

*oi mn dn ,031a *Aa vs -prA jAaia warn na» ,a 
k 1 ?'! ,"\Ay "pa*i ,vp Tin 5 ? «Atf ,dnd: Km n 1 ? ibAs* dn *|np 
pa ,dnd: am ibAj^ dnp nai mn Dm ,vm rriya ?Ay ?pa* 

Vtn w» #iAy TDDi nn« is 1 ? ttt pteo ^AaiN isn*? toot 

TIP "6 IT DN W /1HK IV 1 ? p^D 1 ? I 1 ? 1PSN *HW ]*pWK& ]3 A 

ttj^Dn 9 m by pirn mm w A pa Dm /na**A Am bA^ ypwo 
iA runriN naia f?a« /iwwn naia a"nN ina*! y |iAia vs -pna» 
jurvuc nam d: "pa* mrai nn&n p mn on in /"pa* 
■^aw mam ruN pia nnp Dmniaiav dtd y» toA vn / 
ruvoa iriN *?y "pa'? A T©m p rwjA a*n wn d: iibiAi 'k *?y "pa 1 ? 
anA tidn-j owd ^"sa vty dj -pa 1 ? na wn n« tibsA nS# 
iAp e"yN wn 1122:1 awn wwi *?y "pa^i fispn twkv nana 
ibs: •u^k ai^n « % k» m ^ "jTa dn ^a« 4 nnBsf? in:ro nmn 
•wrA i^v ,DnDa "|ra dx bix ,nas^ inj;T nsi a tf « n^« ai^nn 
.Km: in ai^nS awn \rnw Tassn? pa ir^n awnn ^y inaS 

nai in noi«n nsi pyn ns pa dwd ••:» on dn to« ♦H 1 ' 
^Ta^ in San^ o^a by "jro DK lajrnai ^"j;n ^an^ inanaa? 
l^a^ n^n ^a nwjA tdn rAnna^ d^b ; n^ «*nsa \yn na ^ 
A^sm ; nBmp K'nsa nanai f A mnvan nana 'm ; n ^d ^ 
fi"rN ^nea ttsdi Dtp p nvwA mnm o^a^i p ?^ ^ 



be of a bitter taste and unpalatable, he should say a benediction over 
it, because he enjoys the nourishment it affords him. 

8. One who drinks some beverage or eats a piece of bread or any 
other food which affords him some benefit, for the purpose of aiding 
him to swallow something that had lodged in his throat, should say 
its preceding and concluding benedictions, but if he drink water, not 
because of thirst, but for the purpose of aiding him to swallow what 
had lodged in his throat or for any other purpose, he is not obliged to 
say any benediction, for a man does not enjoy the drinking of water 
unless it be to allay his thirst. 

9. If one had inadvertently taken food in his mouth without 
having said its benediction, he should act as follows : If it be 
an article that can be ejected without becoming loathsome, he should 
eject it into his hand and say the benediction over the same, but he 
should not say the benediction while it is yet in bis mouth. But if it 
be an article, the ejectment thereof would make it loathsome, inasmuch 
as wasting food is prohibited, he should let it remain on one side of 
his mouth, while saying the benediction. However in the case of a 
beverage, w r hich it is impossible to place on one side of the mouth (so 
as to say the benediction) if he have some more of the beverage 
besides, he should eject it and let it be wasted, but if he have no other 
and he is ir. pressing need of the little that he has in his mouth he 
should swallow it, and then say its preceding but not its concluding 

10. If two kinds of food subject to the same benediction were 
before him, e.g., a nut and an apple, so that he can say a 
benediction over the one kind and exempt the other, then he should 
do this. He is forbidden to say the benediction over one kind with the 
intention of not having the other kind exempt so that he would have 
to say the benediction also over the other kind separately, since it is 
forbidden to give occasion for the saying of a benediction when it is 
unnecessary to do so. Therefore he should say the benediction over 
that which belongs to the superior kind and exempt the other kind, 
although he may not have the intention to exempt the latter. But if 
he said the benediction over the inferior kind, then the other kind is 
not exempt thereby unless he had the intention of doing this. If he 
therefore merely said the benediction over the inferior kind without 
any further intention, he must say the benediction again over the other 
kind which is superior, for it is not proper that the benediction over 
the inferior kind should unintentinally cause the superior kind to be 
exempt from its benediction. 

11. If there be two kinds, e.g., fruit of a tree and fruit of the 
earth or if there be also a kind over which the benediction fonv is said, 
he should say the benediction appropriate to each, in spite of the fact 
that he had inadvertently said ?an* over all of them, or if he had said 
the benediction rt'fc'a when he would have done his duty, nevertheless, 
it is forbidden to act thus intentionally. When partaking of the three 
kinds aforementioned the order is as follows : the benediction nVa takes 


pm jwiro* ran* wi m 

r6nna^ d"d vias 1 ? toa* o*awn dj it naiaa tidb^ pane Kin on* 
onAy dj -paS to ,dw fin iidsS i6» pa< a 1 ?* ,p rwjp «S 

.pyn ns *ma Hints? ,njpmDn naia 

iron nto b"j/k iDipo run* dm nan p pn o*iann ^aa ,T 
nn« inns nmtf i« Sawtp na pSi fipvi novr laa at*ro ,vijri 
]wmn i^dd ^sk mvwi in^an dp iidA inn nnS iVm a"n*o 
b"d -man innn *?« ik»ui npren in tanon n* ira rnin Awi 
no ty jTututk na^a ^aa rowHi naia anna dp iAy "p*^ "p* 
.pvurt nfwn ,«pDa tcv naian ^a ,-p* wk n^nn Hants' 

■p* m^an tidA iDipoS inn a ff nai pn^> ^n dx pi Jp 
in naS baiK nvwa dhidh tihai noa /TOwn naia PiriD "paS 

S? IHtM 1HH DK *?aN ,DDip& DN \5V tfroi D*tf!N DJ/ f?3W NVW3 

jna *ikw» m *?n jNa 1 ? Tim 1 ? Drum* pa iafcw Ah dj nn vanpo 
mna -pa 1 ? **h jvw in jAaini pinwa pb jrA*an |hd toAi 
atwui jnirapf? pmn dVdi ,nirapn tearu n 1 ? 'n jna intwi* pai 

,nn« miyoa ton 

*m hS tod Svia win* b^h nwA nrsa 'n Tina /p 

.oipD w* 

niYB to T«n nwna *piD imr pa nvpa toin dn ,ib 
niAwD dj ^an 1 ? bw ,wim mA*D dj SiaN^ njn to 'n j^hd 
-paS *"jo mjn nw n^p to iopD nnii mcv s"j;n d^ihh 
hS *inH ]A nt pa r'am ni^^nn Bjpia pn pn dk ^an f n^r 

♦rUTTPlK Ham EW93 
wpfi b bjn o^anan nyatwa pn j^nn rtcr% by & 



precedence over bzrnt. If one had wine and grapes before him and 
he desi] ed to drink the wine first, and he must say the benediction :"nc2, 
although if he have the intention to exempt the grapes from a separate 
benediction by the prayer ]t:n nc hiis over the wine he may 
do so, nevertheless he should not intentionally act thus, but he should 
resolve not to exempt the grapes (by the benediction said over the 
wine) and should say its proper benediction yyn nt WWX 

12. Whilst partaking of all kinds of food except bread, if one 
had changed his place although his thoughts were not diverted from 
the food he was consuming, nevertheless the change of place ig 
reckoned as though he had diverted his thoughts from this food, con 
eequently if one ate or drank in one room and then went into another 
room to conclude the eating or drinking, even if the food be of the 
kind he first consumed, and even if he held that food or beverage in 
his hand and earned it into another room, nevertheless he is obliged 
to repeat there the preceding benediction over that food, but he is not 
required to say a concluding benediction over that which he had 
first consumed as the concluding benediction will do for both. 

13. Likewise if he went outside (his house) and thereafter 
returned to his former place to conclude his repast, he must say the 
preceding benediction again. The foregoing applies only to one who 
had eaten alone or to one who had eaten with others and all had 
left their place, however if one of the company had remained in his 
place whilst those who went away had the intention of returning to 
their companion in their former place to finish their repast, then on 
their return when they resume the meal the benediction need not be 
repeated, for inasmuch as one of the company had remained there, 
their gathering together did not cease since they all return to their 
original meeting place, and it is all reckoned as one meal. 

14. Change of place is not involved when one goes from one 
corner to another in a room, no matter how large the room may be. 

15. One who ate fruit in an orchard that was fenced around, 
and said a benediction over the fruit of one tree with the intention of 
partaking also of the fruit of other trees, even if they be not in view 
of each other, so long as he did not divert his thoughts from his 
intention he is not required to repeat the benediction ; but if the 
orchard were not fenced around, and more especially if he went from 
one orchard to another, it does not avail him that his thoughts were 
not diverted therefrom (and he must repeat the benediction). 

Rules Concerning the Concluding Benediction (mvmx nna). 

1. After having partaken of the fruit of the tree (not of the 

seven species mentioned in Deut. viii. 8) and of the fruit of the earth, 


*ma d.titu& t°° ,pia p •frru p*w w Sai rnpn ntrwn 
,nnK nanaa tosj ,nmn bs* *<&x\ 'lai nwea 

/nyn*a ten a"K n^k paiaa pM rtwra pi runrw nana 4 S 
,ppira bjn ,njnrtti naia *"« mpwaa mns by baa /wa twi 
on «"* ^ran nn» a"« k^x n^nn« naiaa a^n wm n" 1 

ap^ao *td nx* 1 ? pbi jiwrw naiaa a«n ma nw dk pp#a by 
pa pbn pto rpra*i i« maa mns aba nuwb xbv inrt w 

&pvn *\xwb w» 

ib*B»n ns *m» in 'x ma wn ,in»iaa mvw w J 
tbw *is amp ]va a"a nna ia pit* b»j/n «"<» 'a jroap 
pa 'pea *pd nxtb pb ,ppbn an ruvroc nana nrra pa*iaa 
wo tea nb^aan amp nain pbn/u dxi ,nnaa mna biaab 
♦maa ninsa «"a vby paiaa pa aaby *biabi rronnffl 

nana nn wa b::a oao nnab panava pbaian ba # 1 
»b» pjrs nana vby panaat* nam rw nrnai ,n":a mna panaat* 
xr»? ^na baa d«i ,n*J3 jirnnab -paa na m ••vna ">sa ia 
vnnab panaaff paa m nrnai pyn by pnnab panaap mvDD 
nrrp baa aa /V'ja pnnab -p^a na nn •■sna w mnan ^jn 
pnnab tod ,ns m ^nai rwian by vnnab panaat* pop nn 

•pBiDVD p« nb<aa nv wrm /wan by 

nbnna aa /tn wia baai nrm rron m ^vna ^aw 4 n 
n^a» na x"a inv jdt wn nb nb^nn c]id tj ruwuvi nb'oien 
nhv nn«f dn* ^ax 4 row»i nana "iiaai ni^a^n ^n» psnaitD ; dis 
.psiD^D p« n?D nina nn» i^sh /rroai ^s^jq^d px 

'« oyaa nnittf w» ]va d^d aj/Da nan np»D nn» # 1 


and of vegetables and of any food that is not the direct produce of the 
earth, one should say Va KTO, even if lie ate and drank, for one 
benediction thereafter suffices for all that he had consumed. 

2. The concluding benediction as well as the Grace after meals 
must not be said unless one had eaten the maximum quantity which 
is the amount equal to the size of an olive. After having partaken of 
food that is less than the quantity equal to the size of an olive, one is 
not required to say the concluding benediction. According to some 
authorities one is not bound to say the concluding benediction after 
having partaken of liquor unless it contained a rwm. Other author- 
ities hold that he is required to say that benediction after having par- 
taken of liquor that contained a n*». Therefore in order to avoid any 
doubt one should take care to drink less than the quantity equal 
to the size of an olive ( rwa) or to the quantity iwa\ It makes no 
difference whether the beverage be brandy or any other liquid. 

3. If a thing be exactly as it is produced by nature, eg., a nut 
or any other fruit, or even a bean, although its quantity does not equal 
the quantity of an olive, nevertheless since the article is whole we say 
thereafter the concluding benediction. The authorities, however, 
differ on this point. Therefore to avoid any doubt one should not eat 
unless there be the amount of an olive. If the article had been divided 
before it was eaten, it loses its special value (from the ritual stand- 
point) and according to all the authorities we do not s«y the concluding 
benediction if less than an olive measure had been consumed. 

4. All articles of food can be combined together to make up the 
required quantity of a nna (with reference to the concluding benedic- 
tion), thus if one ate half of the required quantity of a r*;i of a food 
after which nivfc) mia is said, and another half of a una of another food 
after which the benediction vbv prta is said, or if it were half the 
required quantity of a nna of bread after which niffEJ mia is said, and 
if he ate half the required quantity of a rvia of such kinds of fruit 
after which yyn by is said and half the quantity of a nta of a kind of 
of food after which rpnnn bv is said, or if he ate half the quantity of a 
rwa of bread then in all the aforesaid cases rVMPfc) mi3 is the 
only benediction that is said ; however, if one ate half of the required 
quantity of a nns of a kind after which the benediction rpncn by is 
said and another half of the required quantity of a ntta of bread — the 
benediction rpn&n by should be said; eating and drinking are not 
reckoned together in this respect. 

5. If one ate half the required quantity of a n*tt and also drank 
and then resumed eating the second half of the quantity of a n*ta, if 
the interval between the two occasions of eating did not exceed the 
time taken to eat a piece of bread, then the two occasions of eating are 
considered to be one and thereafter the concluding benediction is said. 
If, however, the interval exceeded this limit then the two occasions of 
eating are reckoned as separate. With regard to drinking, if he made 
a pause of less time than the limit just mentioned the separate acts of 
drinking are not combined. 

6. If one drink a hot beverage gradually, since he does not drink 

I n"TD lit- ' ikc an olive. 


Laws 2 — 2 

stria 113a wn piava p a'a *\n nrww ttw B f w /rows 

*wi3D ontav jwi ^m»* p* itonw bv»b nj/303 ,T 
nan pw pn wb jwdhd anbn ty id 1 ? ,113*01 mwi ntam rmfD 
nan3 ]^33 3»j an# psw tora nton pdidbi pmam mwn 
aian nsi3 on ,nia^ non3 trt» pw ,i*Bh3 Vina pi3B ,nnwi 
vb nt^an ibaa nuw wa *Ak Tiaj on 1 ? uw ta ^k ,3naam 
p 0^3^ p3 by6 p a\uy an p wn psi ty pi pi una 
mann #3i ant? a^ani bvhi bwbii a^ani a^ap p b^tu 
nsi3 ,njnn« HD13 pi3D tai to by ,P3*in 3r ana» *ri mvia 
a'nian bji ni3T3 vbvn wp3 n^iD kvw »te pa nn« 

♦pian nn33t* 

bin nvian by nms ( nwiD wb iwhv vbv pa nsi33 4 fi 
{*i«n ^ 'n nn« "ps nvian by\ pan ty i 1 ? mui anim ,ntoton 
anim ,pn *is tyi pan by nnis ,pi byi ph&an bin .-man bin 
imw bjn # fui ne by\ Y *wn by n ff *3 pan ns byi pan by 
by n"*o nrran byi pi«n by anim pyn ns bpn ?yn by nnie 
^n niYsa bsx ax b"TD *bk ik banBh pK3i) niYsn byi pan 
b?i3 p nnp bji nuna \pb bsa ^nwro byi fixn by ibik 
nuiie wbi ,jwb ,]" ,a*3jy lbwi .p niYs pi nna n3i33 anw 
3"nNi n^nan by anp^i jnt?b» %i3 nvwi j^i n^ira ^'•a i^b« i« 
na^nrn ia«> k 1 ? ,p *uw aj; n-nan ^y W^vsi ,f yn ^ 3 f, n«i p^n ^ 
ik f pjn ns "jjn iTnan by\ pHn S^ "»*H3 iaN , » *ta ♦n^bn ^jn 
jmw Sjn pm ns ^jn n^nan ^ in .nwsn f?jn n^nan ^ 

161 nsty bni ,HBin «r^a n3 p^tB n'hi b'w n3t^3 JQ 

•iniK pnna p ,tan 

.pan nsi33 ibs it n3i33 YannS w s 


the minimum quantity (required for the benediction) although this is 
th«'< usual way of drinking it, nevertheless the ditferent quantities con- 
sumed are not combined and no concluding benediction is to be said. 

7. The land of Israel is famous for the seven species which it 
produces. Moreover concerning bread the Torah is explicit in ita 
precept : "And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and thou shalt bless" 
(Deut. viii. 10) ; therefore one who had eaten bread of the five species 
of grain, vi?... wheat and barley, (mentioned in Deut. viii. 8,) and also 
spelt, oats or "ye, which are included as belonging to wheat and 
barley, must sa\ the Grace thereafter. This consists of three complete 
benedictions, including also the benediction ro&ffl aion. However 
after having partaken of food, which is not really bread but which is 
farinaceous, prepared from the five species of grain aforementioned, also 
after having partaken of the vine, in the form of wine or grapes, 
either fresh or dried, large or small, or of figs, pomegranates, olives or 
dates, the latter being the " honey " of which the Torah speaks, inas- 
much as honey exudes therefrom, the grace known as vbv ppfi nn« na*ia 
should be said. This Grace contains in a brief form the three bene- 
dictions as well as the benediction D'nUDfl of the Grace after meals. 

8. The Grace ?T7;r pwa which is said after various kinds of food, 
other than breai, prepared from any of the " five species of grain " begins 

thnc • -iS-^-i ijvn rvnrn Su 'n'^'K^'H'" /" B! «s^d art Thou. O Lord our God. King of the\ Qri ,l 
L11US . n?373n 7>/l iPncn 71 H C N « - ^ Universe for the sustenance and the nourishment' ; anCl 

concludes thus : bvi tvnan byi y ihh to '^K'a rrnen bv\ y\Kn 7y y? mui 

^L~^- /"And we will give Thee th.nks for the land and for the sustenanceA TV«P fi-rono off^n 

il/Jz-il VBlessedart Ihou. O Lord, for tlw land and for the sustenance."/' -»-uo v^idLC dlLbl 

wine begins (after the usual introduction): \tx\ ns fei \tsn bv C- or tb 5 
Se f ™ne° f ) aud concludes thus : Jfcjn ne tyl pun bv Wa pan nc bvi y\nn bv 

/"for the land and for the fruit of the vine. Blessed art\ AftPT frilit the GrflPA Vk*»rrir»a 

VThou. u Lord, for the land and for the fruit of the vine.")' ^LCI II Ulb Hie VriaCO DeginS 

(after the usual introduction) : yvn »■» ton j»?n 7? ( iZ^fZ™?*") and 
concludes nVHtfl 771 pan ^ "'«'- nri£n ^ P™ k (wi^X'SfiLS'^iS 
Mta!")' I n Palestine and even elsewhere should we eat the fruit of the 
Holy Land we conclude the Grace thus : rPnVUJ 7?i y*\xn Jy GSmhStr'"*) 
If one ate various kinds of farinaceous food and drank wine also he 
should combine in one Grace the benedictions relating to both, so also 
with fruit and wine. So also after grapes, wine, fruit an I farinaceous 
food or even after farinaceous food, and wine and si. ii its he should 
combine the three benedictions in one Grace, first mentioning rpnen bv t 
then pan bv and finally yvn by. When he combines nti&n bv with any 
other formula he should not say at the conclusion ,-17:572,1 b % ;\ but 

.*._ k»». L„« -«-*»-, L.»« »>is»n U%* '<'v>'-i /Mossed for the land and fov the sus-\ /->»,-,-.«.- L»» 

\tm nfi 7in rvnen 7vi pan 7/ x 3 \ teaKace ^a for the fruit 0J - tlie yiner ), or rpnnn vv 

n ,«,f<- L„, /"for the sustenance^ nr n ,^j.-. L, M -/j,/... )«■*•* ("tor the sustenance and for tl^ 

nns.n 771 ^ and for the (ruir j 01 nrwn 7-1 n Kyi n , ^ fruit of the vine tJidtorxhetrait :). 

9. On Sabbath or Holy day or .New Moon, he should insert 
what relates especially to these days, but if he had forgotten it, he 
need not repeat the Grace. 

10. One should be as particular with this Grace as with the 
Grace after meals. 


p-fi term rinnan na irrai yyn nu tmn n^^ qn m 

^p pi .map n"*i rutw n'" 1 m»BJ nto nanaa # j<0 

«31 nwajn ma# ,p™m man jwbj trna km naian W pwsn 
]ni>n D^p "pisS D^rnm onm ant* *pis*B ws to w\-n a-nana 
o"d a^man ojw «inw a^nain nw *?a by on d s b.ti ar6n iaa 
w&biyn ti ,yna aonaa uk nanai nrvfi iaa ,ona wnn 1 ? vh* 

.nnsa n''Tin naV? panx 

bji ,»S» pya nana on^ roniK nanat? nvre *?a« J} 1 * 
pya nana inaa ,nwBJ uma ton p^p minn* nanat? ppn rws 
/?a«p yv ^fi *?a nra a^na&j py ^s ona Tare kvi» p^ai ,^0 
naiaa nas: wk nn« pa *?y nwfij mia nana a^nn: dk ^k 
♦/wbj kto a"n*<i trtv pya nana r6nn -pa^i ,trt» pya 

nan rone pioyS i« iBipaa na* 1 ? anaS niDK n^nnab # J*» 
iBipaa Kitnao /wnai .-pate na&» kbit ,mvmK nana -pan* n^ 
-pi* dk ^w ,d* kvw aipaa "pa 1 ? bia^ ,n"ja pa^-p* wn ok 
•pian nanaa iaa laipaS *rorw y*w vhw pj«a nana paS 

nj; pa 1 ? %w njinnK nana td p*a hSi nnpi ^aa # *p 

Sa nvw nnKbi jyitb b^vh a«n wt* pi *?a u^m ^y ny# 

w*w ^ai my paS toa* wk iV« o^ar nrwrti ,kb* uw pi 

pa by pa* runrut nana -pa ate nautra 1 1 ? *i*o ,*\yvb >pa 

♦pawnn riN dj mas 1 ? njinn« nana ina^i ^aap j^ds 

5^*1^ fcj^n ,njinn« nana -|W «b ; N^,-n nn» ik ^aN 4 ia 



11. In the Gisce TWTt) K*na some authorities decide that we 
should read rn m z? ("that Thou hast created ") and others decide M*ttV 
(•' that He has created "). The latter seems to be more correct, for 
the meaning of the Grace is : " who has created many living beings with 
their wants," i.e., He has created the living beings and also their wants, 
meaning thereby all things needed for their wants, namely the things 
which are absolutely necessary for life's existence, such as bread and 
water and also all the other things which He ha* created, but which 
are not absolutely essential but are rather for purposes of enjoy- 
ment, e.g., fruit and the like — " for all we thank Thee." "We must read 
D'Dtan *n (the letter n with a Patach). 

12. If one had partaken of fruit after which the Grace r'rr pwa is 
said and had also eaten fruits after which mrw H*»ia is said, he should 
say the Grace vbv pn and as he mentions therein pffi na ("the fruit 
of the tree ") he thereby exempts all the other fruits which he had 
eaten from the Grace nitres KTO, but if what he had eaten requires 
thereafter the Grace mvn una as it is a different kind of food, it is 
not exempt from its Grace by the formula V*?V pjrD. He should first 
say the Grace vhv pwa and then rwtti WHX 

13. One is forbidden to deliberately leave his place or to 
engage in any occupation before saying the concluding Grace, lest ho 
forget to say it. But if he had left his place, and if nvu KTO were the 
Grace he is obliged to say, he should say it where he is, but if it were 
tfhv pva he should return to his place and say it there, just as he 
would do if it were the Grace after meals. 

14. If after eating or drinking he did not immediately say the 
concluding Grace he has time to do so until he has digested the food, 
which lasts so long as he has no desire to eat or drink, after such time 
he should no longer say it, but if one be unable to properly estimate 
that time, then if he remember that he had not said the Grace, he 
should say a benediction over some more of that food whereof he 
had partaken and eat thereof, utter which he should say the concluding 
Grace and thus exempt that which he had eaten previously. 

15. If one ate or drank and vomited, he should not say the 
concluding Grace, as it is (with regard to the Grace) the same as 
though the food had been digested. 

Rules Concerning the Benedictions pin »na wva 
bstan n&ittn nc nydi 

1. Before eating fruit which grows on trees one should say 
the benediction pm »U Hlia ; before partaking of produce which grows 


pn tentyi rami nu rriai ppn nb rra roia »n m 

piao o^m iw»pi nip^ ywb wo Sa nm ntrma D^-un 
dj onMtw lte dwhp ,nt i6« fro «^pa mSi flmnn ne xYia 
,p*g ^wa:ia pi on i^sxi ,o*Myn p D^y a'riM n^di «pna 
Kipj m 1 ? t wy\wn pi mw yw spina nwfr D^a d^jim dm bin 

♦nami ne mto rrnw *?y p-mai i^m 

waj ^n p>n ,10a iDa pun p Are p* nan ^ Jj 
nawi ,f?an» piao ,ni pan pn p pn ,o*prD wo ta Sy pi 

.papa Tim ^ n« 

p«n nvrbnta pfcu pw s"j;m (pDfflw) wiwn paa ♦! 
/Kmn ni pnpa pn pSn # *wnn p *6m K^ Nn P ro* KP^ 

Aan«f p^y piaoi 

M mvw w ty *h* K'fisa im ynsa piao p /I 
i6m <n *aKS inn p« dm ^a« ,*i ifaiA mn T^n m ^ n ^-^ 
awi w* d"d m mrwft oj ^md 1 ? aio nvw &"j/m btrooa 
*n *aM dm *dm ^tsnaD AaiK»a k*?m inaia rtjr vaiao pi ,a ff a 
avta ty pto ^«naoa mn m roai r tarwf m^m ■rfv "pao wm 
^rooa mn rrto pi ,ntnMn ns ma piao ^iaa (p*rp} 

.m payV 

o^tai o^w by pi imn n» Miia pnao pirn Sy 4 n 
oniK D^aiK dm arm n& ^jw s fl r« D"n of?a«^ wn pi pva 
*ib mto pty piaa ,ns N^a obaiM dm dj d"d na ,oy pi 
*d ,D"n D^aM 1 ? pn J % m imd win Dnt* tptn dm *?aM naiMn 

Aanv orrtjr iiaD D^n D^aNty 

Vw^anr D^wiaD Dnt^aa D^n Dn#a inv o^aia ont^ D^an 4 1 
Mr «jm ian» «S« o^wiao on»a nrrtjr piao p pw jrnsa 


in or on the ground, such as turnips, vegetables, beans and herbs, one 
should say n&mtn nu HTO. A tree (for the purpose of this law) must 
have branches which remain in spite of the winter, and which produce 
leaves in the spring, even though the leaves be as thin as the capsules 
of flax. But a plant whose branches perish in the winter and whose 
root alone remains, is not called a " tree " and over its fruit we say 
n&nttn nc mta. 

2. Before partaking of food, which is not a product of the ground, 
such as meat, fish, milk and cheese, also on drinking any beverage 
except wine and olive-oil the benediction taw should be said. We 
read n\ia with a Kamez under the \ 

3. Although mushrooms and truffles imbibe nutrition from the 
moisture of the earth, and their growth is not dependent on the soil 
but on the atmosphere, therefore they are not called "fruit of the 
ground," and the benediction taw should be said over the same. 

4. The benedictions pwi *to «*>w or ft&nMn nc *nia should be said 
only over an article fit to be eaten when raw, and which it is customary 
to eat in this state, but if it be not customary to eat it raw and it is 
eaten only when cooked, although it js also fit for food when raw, 
nevertheless, it is inferior food when raw, and its benediction should 
be said only when one eats it cooked, but if one ate it raw he should 
say the benediction bzrw. Pickled food is considered the same as 
cooked food, thus before partaking of pickled cabbage one should say 
the benediction n&nttn »*te ima. Salted food is also governed by the 
same law as cooked food in this respect. 

5. Before partaking of radish one should say the benediction 
n&IMii nfc *ni2, likewise over garlic and onions that are soft and which 
are usually eaten raw ; although they are generally eaten only with 
bread, nevertheless, if one ate them without bread the benediction 
fiMKn *ifi »nva should be said, but if through being old they became 
very pungent in taste and it is not usual to eat them raw, one who ate 
them raw should say the benediction taw. 

6. Some articles are more proper for food when they are raw 
than when they are cooked, as the cooking spoils them ; one who is 
about to partake of them when cooked, should say the benediction taw 
although if one cooked them with meat and its taste became improved 


p"fl bsnm rrQixn na rtdi pn na ktq nana -:h fH 

pm 'ipvn Kin naon b"d inantw nran *jn nt?a ay nbwzv 

b"bi ip^n ant? piKa )^a bk ttm ,*?an0 k^k an^y panaa 

nanan an^y pnaa /o itrrcn #ana ik pwa p^cst^ jijd inawa 

,wti pipa ik a^aa i^aru dk ^ nan ,]r6 rmnnn 

n^a ik a^ipi bhbk ty a^n:n tryvun niTfi wa *T 
nanm nr ^msn iaa nw* v6 qwu k^i jh^kd ikw di^k 
"ipim t?ana pra ik rt»^w s"yK ,n^DKb pKn b^k a^n antral 
(B^Symn) pi 1 ? *?aK ^arw k*?k p*by pnaa tk jpi^aR^ pKn jm 
♦y"nsa an^y a^anaai ,an o*awn ,T3 d^u* a"yK 

^dk? pan pp a"y *]k nyni ^a bh^kd a^mn a^atpy *n 
,iniK pym? j-k^ pa aipa ^aa awn ^dkd Kim thw i^ski am 
pnaa ,ynw nanai bk^d ^k ,f?arw v^y pnaai ,na awn ir« 
rove arts t^ ck b,T7kb d^wi owya a:n ,na-iKn "ns Kma vbp 
♦naiKn ns Kma an^y pnaa ayj^Kai Dy-UK' 1 pJia a-awn. 

w k^k iavy nan iaa awn wr ,nsn np^ irow nan .0 
*ns Kin axi R"nsa ^san *?y pnaa ,f>y Kin bxp nnK w*m 
ptorw (D*DJnysNp) *{yt j^r pfa ,ten» ^san *?y pnaa nanm 
^ pbya iaa a^abia a^nan pa j^ya m ,n^aR^ p^n i/» 
iaa nsn a^ao^ ns^pn jn jwfipi ^nsn npry p .n^vaKi nany- 
*]inB r nsn np^ p» rm^Hn ^ .h^sk 1 ? d ,; j ^kii jtjjkti nis^p 
pi ; naiKn ^ns kyd r fD^ttpn ^ nmann ^1 p^n ^1 jr'rttti 
fi ff j;« K^nsa pnao ,npixi t^ana inpn^ (n^ayteajrtKn) n*m ^5; 
inpnaw p^Kn^DKS ms^p pi /nan np^y ]rx» ^bb t ]b*tto nb™ 
trnna j^jibb^ j^rw^p ms^p by* ,K ff nsa an^jy j^nao ,npin trana 
^b ^ p]Kmntra "»jnw nvaapna pa^an^n ^jn ^an» pnaa ,npi^> 
B^ni^ i^ki ^anr arpty panao nwapn K^>a ]f?a« bk o^pino ;n^ 



because of the me^t, nevertheless, inasmuch as the meat is the princi- 
pal article of food, only the benediction bzTW should be said over the 
same, however, if one cooked them in such a manner that they became 
the principal article of food and also improved them thereby, as for 
instance, if he had fried them in fat or honey or the like, he should 
say the proper benediction, as it makes no difference whether they 
were cooked in water or in fat or in horey. 

7. The inferior kinds of fruit which grow on thorn-bushes and 
briars, or on other shrubs which are of spontaneous growth and are 
not planted by man, such as wild apples and the like which are not fit 
to eat when raw, even if he cooked or fried them in honey or sugar, 
thus making them fit for food, only the benediction hznv should be 
said, but hazel-nuts, although they grow in the woods, are considered 
superior articles of food and the benediction ppn nc mia should be said. 

8. Herbs which grow spontaneously without cultivation, 
and are fit to eat when raw, although he had cooked them so that they 
are a proper dish, inasmuch as they were not planted they are not 
considered as fruits, and the benediction bsrw should be said. Over 
lettuce, however, and similar vegetables that were planted, one should 
say the benediction nciKn »1B Kits. Over the herbs of spontaneous 
growth if they include fruit of a superior kind, such as 
gooseberries and raspberries, the benediction rurwn nc mu must be 

9. That portion of the fruit which is not its principal part is not 
esteemed as highly as the fruit itself but is slightly inferior, thus over 
such inferior portion of a fruit tree one should say the benediction 
nc-iNn ne mia or in the case of a fruit of the ground one should say 
the benediction birw, therefore with the caper tree, the leaves of which 
are fit for food, for they have fruit-like excrescenses (as on the leaves of 
the myrtle) and are called caper-berries and they form the chief part of 
the fruit. But caper flowers, which are the husks around the fruit, 
like the shells of nuts, are also eatable, therefore over caper-berries 
which are the essential fruit w r e say 9'nfca, over the leaves and berries 
we say n"he2. Likewise over preserves made from rose leaves with 
honey and sugar we say the benediction finnan nt mia, over preserves 
prepared from orange-peel and over preserves prepared from the rind of 
melons one should say the benediction tanr. Over the pods of peas 
that are cultivated in the field, although they are sweet in taste, still 
if one eat them without the peas he should say the benediction bznz: 
If, however, they were cultivated in the garden for the purpose of eating 


I'm ^nsn noi^n ns ami yyn na ktq rona uh m 

v /nn^pa^itwi toiKtw '^k r inwmrap*n ]b^xb njn ^ nu:a 

•naiKn ns ktd -p^ 

ns ktq nrvby 7x212 japnn on dk nws to pa^ma ♦** 

WK "p ]S31« OKI ,^3 D^tfm D^K D^DH DTjnJ S2K nBIKfl 

.ten^DiT^ -paa ^arai nan *t ty pna dki ,%a nwby -pisa 

rte^pn kvi jrt'OK ipy wp D^ap Dfwa anan anp» ^ 
a^i-u antra ,y"nsa \wby Tda ,amK pyau p Tjn hid raws? 
■psa wk "p a^aw ax pa hvti a^satp na Kin rtrcMtn ip^ m» 
Ty bji wj "nan po ,in« 121 in mien *p jpna dm *«jk ,^3 
B"y« ipsa painan DHp» l jr*nB3 arrty "paa ,aniK pyau p 
♦f j/n ns k*vd a.-pfy paiaa aipa ^a .am inn ipww 

pjna ik f^n i^sk ,fwtn by \bw naa k 1 ?^ nims Jj"» 
in ffina naM *6p hits pa 1 ? inn Kin» iaa nanai ffsia 
*•» ,ipwa ik both piaa jvwk ty -jk ,bxw nwby -paa ,ipra 

•in •ns m i-d 1 ? 

f?na )a iSsn ■Am amn ja isi&w jtiys pi ^ton ji 
/>anp pi vby pnaa pK t bpbpttt0 w Kin» pa ,iteanw amp 
dk tea ,Sanp prty paiaa nvp ^rtpnw Warn n»a^» ne pi 
pi ,fria jrrtjf pa*Taa. pK ntaiA piKi pw ny naA Ap^pnj 

^Sd vty paiaa pK pKn ^ miK pasiewa yayaat* hbj pari 
Aanp v 1 ?:; paiaa nvnrt *tKiP -iy a^aa iaiy dki 

,mirDi pni »p -pra dhin pmjo |^kh jd pteut* nn« k^k ,^\sn 
*|3a pn» jva (jvn»K) o^apn d^djkh p:a ^^^na 13 *r ^jn 

^•nsa p^ psiaa 


them raw while in their pods, lie should say the benediction ** NTO 
nDTMn even if he should partake of the pods alone. 

10. Before partaking of the seeds of fruit one should say the 
benediction riMKn **te Klia providing they be sweet, if, however, they 
be bitter they are of no value whatever, and the one who partakes 
thereof need not say any benediction over the same, yet if he sweeten 
them by the fire or in a like manner, the benediction bznv is to be said. 

1 1. Over bitter almonds when small and whose husks are therefoi e 
not bitter, which are planted for the sake of the latter which are then 
eaten, the benediction yvn ne m« should be said, but if 
the almonds be large the kernel is then the principal part thereof, 
but as that is bitter he need not say any benediction on partaking of 
the same, however if he make them palatable by putting them o\ e • 
the fire or in any other way, inasmuch as they are fruits and are 
planted for that purpose, the benediction to be said over them is WTO 
p«l nfi. Sugared almonds, even if the sugar were profusely sprinkled 
on them, require the benediction pjwi •>» mia when one partakes 

12. On partaking of fruits that are not yet ripe whilst on the 
tree, which one had cooked or fried in honey or the like, as this is the 
method of preserving unripe fruit in honey or sugar, one should say 
the benediction ^anr. On partaking of preserved citron one should 
say the benediction yvn *ifi mia. 

13. Over spoiled fruit such as became withered through the heat, 
and fell from the tree before they were ripe, since they have deteriorated, 
one says only the benediction banr. Likewise over bread which is 
stale, or over a dish which became slightly spoiled, one should say the 
benediction tanr, but if they were spoiled to such an extent as to make 
them unfit for food, no benediction should be said. Nor should a 
benediction be said over strong vinegar which ferments when poured 
out on the ground ; however if one had mingled it with water until it 
became fit to drink, he should say the benediction tanv. 

14. Some fruits never become ripe whilst on the tree, but after 
being plucked from the tree they become ripe by being placed in 
stubble or straw or the like ; e.g., certain kinds of small pears, inasmuch 
as that is their usual way, the benediction pm nc wvo should be said 
over them. 


■pna aua xafrya spp k'jx ana pt» hits Ta 0*1 ♦10 
amx a^xia x*?x n^a*A D*nm arxi (wbxp aunpai) a'umnn 
j^u kvi Vrsxi ,taw it rre^a ty piaa ,ni9^pn ppiw 

Aarw pi -paa ira pyiim ns^pn dj 

ns «vi» mp nawa k?« ,x"naai y ff nsa paiaa px JO 

K^JTHKB) IKBpyf? ]U3 ,NVT Ha Wa "D^ UW "1? pamj D« *?ax 

paiaa ,nanai naA pans* nvoapi ,pswa pforaw (:njnia*6 
an axi ,xr nnb mutTi naia arn^ ^Ya ax najmai /?arw arrty 
paiao ,*nxttb amx ppaiat* pian •>*? Kin jiitb amx n^aa -pn 

•pb rr»i*nn naia rrtnna*? *]x p^y 

-paa wan: xS a* Ateww (Pm »im) pvn nix # p 
pi^n «n ,na ]na my\ pa» ix /oyan: axi ,naixn na kits airSy 
/?anp pnn by\ ,a"aa -paa nixn by pn -rea "»a ,pvA mx pa 
kt p 1 ? ,"p976 ix t*i jrmi ?Tn xm nix ax paa i:b pw x^x 
njwai jrrvwa T n * nSx warm p*i pa n*n pa tew x 1 ? a^at? 
dtti*6i ^ana? ?«i ^ pa wi Sy pa -paa ,ns A pxt* pmn 
y^byn jfnpv xmya) nv:apa wyn na *?y ,jwbj xiia 
3anp v?y paiaa ,rn an^a piw mrpaa i^bk (pii tfw*pTa 

/?anp nipma a^p pmn pi ,ten» "paa ipivn ^ J-p 
•paa "pot pabifii aya pi \yb)2\ paaia» pnpxVi ana** 


♦npTi niTB ^ nptwsi nan p 

^p -paa pp»o pa nmt\ pncv nip^i niTEsn ba 4 K 
pi ^b xipj np»a |"x ••a ^anann p arn pan pi tariff ppran 



15. Seme fruits which only contain juice stored up in their 
stones (or pips) which are not fit to be eaten, but after the juice has 
been extracted they are thrown away, over the juice the benediction 
t: nr should be said, and although one ate the fruit with their skins 
and seeds, still the only benediction to be said is tantf. 

16. We say neither the benediction p*nfc) nor the benediction K'nca 
unless one can slightly recognize the fruit, but if they be crushed until 
they are unrecognizable, as with jam which has been boiled or small 
fruit which lias been entirely crushed, the benediction to be said 
thereon is tanv. Yet if he had inadvertently said the benediction 
originally appropriate thereto his duty is done, however if the fruit 
be generally eaten in a crushed form, the benediction originally 
appropriate thereto is the one that is now applicable. 

17. Over rice and grit that were cooked in such a manner that 
they were not dissolved, we say the benediction n^-;«n >*£ irtia, but if 
they were dissolved, or if one had made a paste of them like bread, 
there is a difference between rice and grit (in this respect). Because 
according to the strict law the benediction CC2 should be said over 
rice, whereas banr should be said over grit and as we are not sure 
whether |1W be really rice or whether pn be grit or vice-versa there, 
fore a religiously minded person should only partake of these kinds 
when disssoved in the course of a meal. However in an emergency, if 
one have no bread (and thus he cannot make a meal wherein he might, 
include them) he should say the benediction banr before partaking of 
them and after eating the same he should say the concluding Grace mia Before partaking of bread m>ide of pul*e. even where such 
bread is the staple food, one should say the benediction ban*. 

18. We say hzrry over sugar and likewise if one suck sugar-canes 
or cinnamon or liquorice which is chewed and enly the taste thereof is 
enjoyed whilst the chief part is ejected, then the benediction is bxw. 

Laws Concerning the Benedictions to be Said Over Soup $ 
also Over Fruit and Vegetable Extracts. 

1. Oyer liquors extracted from fruits and vegetables we say the 
benediction 'rant?, this also applies to the honey extracted from da<es, 
as the liquor is termed "fruit," except wine and olive-oil which are also 


ptl ffpw nwa to npffoi nan *n m 

1^ -pi* nvj# paya ijdd nana dn pwn a": nvw nv p»i ,pn 

.p'naa rtjr paiae rty 

-paD ,otea dk ,cm D^A *Ak VwsA D3TI p» nvro # 2 
arfc nwa» om oteaSi waA Daw nm ban ,tew aam bp 
jw mw 1 ? oai wtM toaiA na Dbtfa dk f wi anm* v6 wi 
pi nmn p ^aia mi A*m ,y"na mia aam ty tod pnwi 
•paa ,aam nintr 1 ? nai oSa* 1 ? D^pa 1 ? Da*ro Dipaa mpfi waep 
•pc dk f?ax ,SanDn p tone wi l^exi ^'na mia aam by 
irnw p bsm lanwa n« nip-wi i« nmn ^a»a pi taan navo 
i»a oy cfcana dni ^arw -paa na*? aam n« nxw *6k ropivn 
aam by -paa cbyb ,aann bwa aa bron navo dx i^sn pira 

••p^n Kin i»an % a ,ban» 

banp ,¥& Tiao ,aavm bwa pn otona w jkw» wtb *3 
•wir pa ,*ia»n ^ pi # tew yno byi yaap by paw pfo 


oavw B"y« iWDrviv o^aa jmK jn*aia» niYa ik mpY /i 
to*D (a^np oypmia ^jfpmx jya^n praam D^piai* ppiia paa) pa 
tt'D aam nam pnti ayap a'yKi tew N»a assvin by panaa p« 
Vat?a j6k o^aa oya larw ^a»a rwnaan ipy pm bwn 
dk a"ai ,tew pi panaa pb ,nt^aan *p upw oavya nan oat? 
'ten aann aa mntpb nm a'riKi X'^aa "poi pw nx rbrm bin 
by dj «Maa nanaa nv^ kd» ^a ,aam by y\ib inv dk pao 

•p n»r k 1 ? ]aS ,aann 

'^b wm np^aa D^»a» ^nanai nvaap mpi^i nn^a pi 4 n 
*aam by j^aiaa ; a7na i« apnaaa ik faina pja ,iniDvj;a oya 



highly esteemed, and if he enjoy the same in such a maimer that he is 
obliged to say a benediction, he says pwi »U ihia. 

2. If one cooked fruits which it is not customary to cook, 6inc© 
they are usually eaten raw, he should say the benediction hsnv before 
partaking of their liquor, however if it be a kind of fruit which it is 
customary to dry and to cook and which are easily procurable and are 
also grown for that purpose, if one cooked them in order to partake of 
the fruit and its liquor, he should say y?n ne m\a over the liquor, even 
if he should not eat the fruit therewith. Likewise if one cooked pulse 
or vegetables, according to the general method of preparing gruel food 
for consumption, he should say the benediction rwixn na «in over 
their liquor even if he did not partake of the (rest of the) dish, how" 
ever if the one who cooked them did so only for the sake of the fruit 
or vegetable, if he does not desire to eat them but only to drink the 
liquor he should previously say the benediction bznv and if he cooked 
them with meat, although the cooking was done also for the sake of 
the liquor, in any case ^3JW is the benediction to be said over the 
liquor, as the meat is the principal part of the dish. 

3. Some fruits are soaked only for the sake of their liquor, the 
latter is subject to the benediction tanv, hence over tea, coffee or beer, 
whether made from dates or from barley, the benediction to be said is 

4. If vegetables or fruits, such as cucumbers, beetroot, leeks, etc., 
preserved in water became sour, although that usually happens, never- 
theless over their liquor one says only the benediction tan*. Although 
the liquor has the taste of the vegetable or fruit, nevertheless since 
they were preserved, not on account of flavouring the liquor, but so ■ 
that they might be prepared as preserves, therefore the benediction 
bznti only is to be said. But if he first ate the vegetable and said the 
benediction s"n£2 and then he wished also to drink some of the liquor, 
it is a doubtful point whether he must say a benediction over the same, 
for perhaps his obligation in this matter has been fulfilled by the 
recital of the benediction «"n£3. It is better not to act in the afore- 'V 
mentioned manner. 

5. The same is the case with fruits, vegetables or pulse and the 
like, which one had cooked in a liquor having a taste peculiar to itself, 
as for instance, in vinegar or in beetroot soup or in milk, the benediction 
tanv should be pronounced over their liquor. 


|H1 tan ip7 w m 

xv onw pain vn o«t^ d"3 nmta 2 ? am an* ppia* # 1 
ntow iiv 1 ? n^i mrw fmrt onw onw m»i d^hd dn ,0031 dhd 
npvnn n« dhd rro o'o 1 'J iroAi Doini onr 'j 110 dn ,ppietn 
nna w^ *J ff nsa v«ta p"fio ^w P * n P^ D ** i™ ^ 
iw nwiS pyiti /o ]wsv p did p*w D'aai ,0ta> pyo 
•vrw ids ppiotn rw pijwoi ,Dnaw w pfoo w ppiatn 
*wo dn tea |iTn» *y nrjfJM Hpm /ttwvw oup omnta 

•toran +y p nt^yj wit ,bw ppiotn 

■nwn itaN ip^y innm nron taw in ,Dn:n w taN dn 4 K 
"A nm «*? dni ,ip*yri towa h^h itaN 1 ? ww pw A ^cta oti 
^ ptnS nn oS tftat? p:o ,taDn an Ste taw rm nS ip«jtfi 
ns ays dj taw D^in onn on^ <&& n^n pas w /iAd Ji taw 
naai nm«n p"" nin«A nwno dn pi ,msnnn pnth inn in w 
# 1pW ta pi liaa ,ns mw w ,ns apn innn taw roannn pnth 
byv rcnaa idsj 9,mnaA nSi rori n 1 ? -pa^ fit law taan tai 

.fit im **w dji ipnm 

•njwai ,taan dn a'nni ntan ip^n rw taw dn Hpm ♦! 

,133 iVl H1TW W ,taD,1 DN DJ ^13kS injn HM iptyl ta T«W 

ok ^piBN 1 ? /idjjd urnta taan dn tawi ,fA mjn ronn Ana wi 
♦taan ta w fiaS f i* ww ,nm nri> wire ita 

*ntii»p» # ipw fl* 3"rwi taan dn ntanD taw dn pi # J 
-row ntan taw H3p"n hsAh nvit^ 1 ? h^» nqi w^ w p mrwS 
♦taan dn lias 1 ? vta ffi ¥ i ^W p ntp ntan nnw^ ,pp iai 



6. Raisin! having so much juice that the latter will exude 
when they are pressed, if they have been beaten and then soaked in 
water for the purpose of making a beverage therefrom and not for the 
purpose of eating the raisins as food, if they were soaking thus for 
three days, and then began to ferment, and after three days he poured 
its liquor into another vessel that liquor is proper wine over which the 
benediction \t:n ne Rita and thereafter vbv pwa should be said, and on 
all occasions where a glass of wine is required one may fulfil his duty 
by using that as wine. It is necessary, however, to see that the 
raisins form more than a sixth part of the water, one should estimate 
the raisins just as though they were in a fresh state before they were 
dried ; all the above-mentioned applies only to wine that was made by 
the soaking of raisins, but if he boiled the raisins in water, the boiling 
thereof does not cause it to become wine. 

Laws Concerning that which is Important and that which 
is Accessory thereto. 

1. If one partake of two articles of food, or if he eat and drink, 
and one of these articles is important for him whilst the other is 
merely an accessory thereto, for his intention was not to eat the latter 
apart from the former and if he did not have that which was important 
he would not eat its accessory ; e.g., if one felt faint and with 
a view of reviving himself, he partook of salt herring or 
radishes, but since they are pungent he also ate therewith a small 
piece of bread or something else to mitigate the pungency, likewise if 
he desire t"> drink some brandy and having done so, he partakes of a 
little bread to mitigate the pungency, or instead thereof he eats some 
fruit he is obliged to say a benediction only over that which is impor- 
tant and not over that which is accessory thereto — the latter requires 
neither a preceding nor a concluding benediction — because it is 
exempt by reason of the benediction over the important article of food, 
it does not require even the washing of the hands. 

2. This applies only if he first ate the article which is important 
for him and then that which is accessory thereto, and also when he 
said the benediction over this article, he mentally included its accessory, 
or if he be accustomed to partake of them in such a manner, which is 
as though he had mentally included the latter (in his benediction over 
the former), furthermore if he partook of the accessory in the same 
place and did not go into another room before doing so, as otherwise 
he is obliged to say a separate benediction over the accessory. 

3. Likewise the eating of the accessory before the important 
article raises a question as to its benediction ; e.g., if one desire to 
drink wine or brandy and in order not to drink upon an empty stom- 
ach, he first eits a small piece of some food, then he should rather 
drink first of all a little of the wine or brandy and then its benediction 
wdl exempt the accessory from any further benediction. 

1 18 

,wd oj ^oimi &** nnw kw pjia orravS wtcj dm # l 
,Dnw fy TDf? "p* nanai ,nnpiD ik (pra^p rum) pjvsni pare 
^ -pan a"nMi ,Miwi djw pnpTDn ty ik pjo*3n bjf rfcnn tw 

•paS -pisp ,ysMp a'J nnwi pjD*a ns ^aiM dm a^aoi ,p"m 
injua m# ysMpn ty a"nMi a'an by rhnn irvn orwr *w 

-pas ,id^ biaia pD fe dm ,im inanity d^d w 4 H 
nx ^panfui wDna dm ban /6 wkih naia y"sa pa ^a ty 
,idsj wm vby paiaai pp*p in? ann kw nfii Man ma p^m 
»1p^n Min bvwi kw fc'yK .pi wb np&na mm mM dm -jm 

ipty dm /nr*a D^aM*? pin ix a^n ism 1 ? pw baMD # *| 
vwta omi ,d^bd pian im a^nm /rty pi "paa nn ^a«&n vmo 
*?y wro DMi ,Sbb Kin ^a«Dm ,artp -paa flbm\ plan by pi 
,dj;d udd ^>aiMi ^a«an ty n^nn -paa (miff jrmoia pMi) oror 
,ann tik nta pafryi p«i ,a*?nn by ik pian ty tarw -paa a'nMi 
,n» pw 1 ? yv awu \tm pi pa Kin f?a«»n dm 'wi 
paiaai ip^n on owan ppi* or pw* Dainty owa T* 
X'naa ■una'* to ,y"nsa BMpana hjm to ^n 1 ? rmmn naia orrijr 

♦N"nsa (iya:PM) ^ajw to pi 
amp ^sa *?to v»to -paa \pk ,hvw laa m pp nmtrn 4 n 
,ipnm to pi Tttoi teen Min ^lai imp dj; iai^ dni ; i 1 ? pno 
*bv naai nMisi 5 ? p^n hm t»iv mih» ^mna pu^m -6 an dm *jm 
b*)tm p»n Sj; miiia ip^» m«D ,iai iMts^a •oiyo mvi iS pn^ 
DMi ,inM lain dm idisi ynsa m\t» maia rty -pan di;id,i mvi» 
pt» ia jma Min ajiMt^ m'tm imdv 1 ? nint^ 1 ? in:na ip^i mdv mm 
iiin npron nm 1 ? jnii dm pin pi ,np»an by pi y^n .nMisib 
jiaiian ina p^mi ,i?m*m im tnw im DMpt^iD 



4. If one's mind l>e equally intent upon two articles of food, e.g., 
if one desire to drink brandy, and also to eat honey-cake, 
preserves or the like, he should say a separate benediction over each, 
giving precedence to the benediction over the cake and preserves 
because they count more, thereafter he should say thn benediction over 
the brandy. Much more is this the case if he ate dessert (cakes) and > 
also drank coffee, that he must say separate benedictions over both, 
first over the dessert (cakes) and then over the collee, for his intention 
referred to both. 

5. If one desire to partake of a dish composed of two differ- 
ent kinds of food which were cooked together, if each kind be separ- 
ated, he should say over each kind the benediction appropriate to each, 
but if they be dissolved and cling together he should say the benedic- 
tion over that kind which predominates, for that is the more important 
element, and it exempts its accessories (from a separate benediction), 
however, if one kind be of the five species (even if it be the least in 
quantity), the benediction should be said over it, as it is reckoned as the 
more important element. 

6. A dish to which one had added milk or soup which he inten- 
ded to consume together(is subject to the following conditions), if it were 
his primary object to eat the dish, he should say a benediction over 
that only, for then the milk or soup is but an accessory to that dish, 
but, if the soup or milk be what he desired principally to partake of, 
he should say a benediction over that, and the dish is accessory 
thereto ; if his mind were equally set upon partaking of both, but each 
is subject to a different benediction, he should first say the benediction 
over the dish and eat a little thereof, and then he should say the 
benediction hvw over the soup or milk, the question of a greater quan- 
tity is of no consideration in the foregoing, and even if the food be of 
a species of grain, it is not (in this connection) reckoned as an essential 

7. Before partaking of ground spices mixed with sugar a bene- 
diction should be said only over the spices which are considered to be 
the essential elements. Over a nutmeg one should say the benediction 
p»i ne irna, over cinnamon nmxn nfc mia, and over ginger >u Kin 

8. If one desire to drink olive-oil in its natural state, inas- 
much as it is injurious to his health, he should not say any benediction, 
if, however, he mixed it with other ingredients it becomes a mere 
accessory, and he should say the benediction upon that which is para- j 
mount, however if he have some ailment and he must drink the oil 
medicinally, and he mixes it with other ingredients in order to avoid 
its injurious effect, inasmuch as the oil is the primary object for him, . 
even if it be the least of the ingredients he should say the benediction ^ 
yvn ^i mia thereon and exempt the other ingredients. However, if 
one be thirsty and if he partake of a beverage to quench his thirst, 
and incidentally he also mixes therewith some olive-oil for a medical 
purpose, he should say a benediction only over the beverage. This 
law applies also when one puts muscatels or cinnamon or ginger in 

a beverage, in all such cases we always consider what his primary 
object was. 

♦i 1 ? iTimvi inana nsn 

♦ mron nonp p 

dmi ,mvp ia fsm A a^an mra re ty -pa^ ,nw pvnana dm 
nnanaw njra» paa Diwa bp dm w ,iwana A d^w 
p iK»m na •wi mSn wnv b"j;m #m ^ "pa* ^man pa pa 
tA» ,Dte wm 'hi nbv nnx dm ,nya» pas ompa pit dki ,mrt0 
inana into y"nsa vona nnMff i&k ^tiw pviwa dk pi fl*v 
by n^nn ■pa* 1 vty a^an in«n dm ,dhw by "pa 1 ? -pvp M'nea 
i^fiM nyat* pdd kvw m by nbnn -pa 1 ' *b dw mw Dm ,a*ann 
d s d^ onw dxi ,«py d^ ,nya» pDD orwa ^m dmi ,^n nm 

M'n&zb y'naa onp* ,o^on onw tm 

nx onpnb -p* ,n\a*ana ib D'nn nya» poo p jVo dm # i 
,TiDn nM p^Dsn ^losa nDMjp Mvn pin ,piDBn lDnprw m nM 
piA w on onow *s>b ,D^awb dtp onan *a rn ••sb mvdj 
mnv ]va p baM ,d*m* nprn ,M&p pMb nehbw Min d^jn ,Mnna 
Jtwi bab omp mm /myb nana ib iyapi awn nan 

*ib baM nen ntwatfa Mpn ,nyap pab nbyD ph Mn J| 
dm |at /m Mbn nnaa mp nan^D mSt pbya tS pa noa hW 
♦nnnp nb pM nan oron pa vntan "pre Mbtf Asm 

nan dji ,M"nBa im j;*nea inaiaof "tin web ^ dm # T 
M'nea nanai y'nsa nana ,on^3»a ^aM 1 ? mrifi ,Santtf inana^ 
T»d m?m n^naiB pnw # nw witod pw ^b^ .niawn p» .niDn^p 



9. In all kinds of preserves, the honey and the sugar are mere 
accessories, and the benediction should be said only over the fruit, 
which is the essential element. 

Laws Concerning the Order of Precedence 
Relating to Benedictions. 

1. If one have before him many varieties of fruit and if he 
desire to partake of all of them he should be guided by the following 

conditions : if they be all subject to the same benediction, he should 
say it over the kind which he likes best ; if he be equally fond of all and 
if there be amongst them one of the seven species with which the 
land of Israel was praised, he should say the benediction over this 
even if there be only a half of that fruit, whilst the others are whole ; 
but if there be none of the seven species amongst them, if some fruit 
be whole, and others be not whole the benediction should preferably be 
said over the whole fruit, likewise when the benediction over each kind 
is the same. The same conditions apply to one who desires to partake 
of two kinds of fruit that are each subject to a different benediction, 
e.g., one kind is subject to the benediction fyn ^£ n-*2 and the other 
to the benediction r;n-!»sn ne ima, thus requiring the recital of both. 
If he be fonder of one of the two kinds, he should give the precedence 
in saying the benediction to that of which he is fonder, and if he be 
equally fond of both, one of the seven species should have the prece- 
dence, even if it be not whole, but if there be none of the seven species 
amongst them, precedence should be given to the whole fruit, but if 
they be both the same, either whole or not, the benediction should be 
norma nc s-.z. 

2. It all the fruit be of the seven species, and he is equally 
fond of them, he should give the precedence in pronouncing the bene- 
diction to that kind which is mentioned first in the Torah (Deut. xiii. 8). 
The second pK (a land) in the verse enumerating the seven species 
subdivides the narrative, therefore, dates take precedence over grapes, 
because dates are the second that are mentioned after the second pM 
whilst grapes are mentioned third after the first p.s in that verse, tfaat 
is only as far as grapes are concerned, but wine, being an important 
beverage, has its special benediction and therefore it takes precedence 
over all kinds of fruit. 

3. The precedence given to ono of the seven species is obligatory 
only if the fruit be ripe, but if the fruit be unripe it has no claim to 
precedence because the text is not concerned with anything which is 
not complete and proper. Likewise if he ate thereof in a manner so 
that he cannot enjoy it, e.g , the chewing of wheat, the law of prece- 
dence does not apply thereto. 

4. If one had before him a kind of food over which the bene- 
diction p\n ^s mia or ntyiMn *!8 n**2 is to be said, and another kind 
over which the benediction 'rrnr should be recited, even if he prefer to 
eat both kinds he should, nevertheless, give precedence by saying tno 


m tarw vanar m dk 'wi ,nOTi nWna naia n\n tenen in* 
•it'taa in y # nsa onpn$ "p* d»d ,w V? a^an 

«f*aoi ,pn naia^ dj niotp ^wd ^a mia nana 4 pj 
na^a pto ,nuim \pd ktd nana 1 ? a; natip hti nw ,N«rai 
ripat* n*wa pi # nsn n« mort "pit pn fy &npapa a*vn 
•»Yt^n njwa on^oa 1 ? "p* ,nuira *ra a"n« bpwi 

•rnreo njno p 

lovian po^a ns ty in ,a"aa piaj onV f?y "pai npa ,tf 
nya ,Kr *6 ^nnon jn wao *6 s bn *?wan ^ -pa dn ^a« ,ar 
ty -jYai rowm nanaa nya dk pi ,ar y'nsa D^aw *?y -|Tai 

♦an jbjh ns a^aajwi dj w ,kip pn 

nyai wsb p*m vn«f in N"nsa pyn ns ty lYai nya £ 
flt*,?yn ns na dj ma tojd*> pan:i mrotn ns ^ -pa 1 ? anpni 
ynsa nai«n *ib Sjr -pa on Sax ,na*mn ja pav pyn dj nrw 
*ib in j>yn ^ib «in dn ns nroa psiaa inn dn pfn ,nv kS 
.N'nsa vhy -pa s ,\&\n awa -na? A h^hi ,na-u<n 

•nan *ia Tin too ,td ia?3 on ,y"nea pi ty ^ai nya ,j 

Wna «r» /pa law n 1 ? am ^nea 

,Sarw yvx\ nya dk pn tyi nsn by i^bk nan Sa by 4 T 

/paa inntf na by \dy\ pipnf? -p* Annate B"y c|m 4 fi 
Dia iva npbt* jna ,njiaa nya dm lapia a"a 
nau ; ff nBa na«p trnpn 4* amp njn by Tvai ,j m « i n t^ n i a d p 
dwdt ^na 1 ? 1 ! iirn 1 ? v"k ^ana nvu ^anr d^di f iar i« ,ana mnr 



benediction pvn »•« n^^ or rui-.xn ,N t NV2 for they are imporlant since 
they do not refer to more than one kind apiece whereas Sanw is a 
comprehensive benediction. This applies even in the case where he 
prefers to partake of something over which he must say hzrrr. 

5. The benediction nwMD VB K113 takes precedence over all 
oth ers even over the benediction over wine, except the benediction iwn&n 
which takes precedence over the benediction ntiltfi »J»B wva. Therefore 
on Sabbaths and on Holydays when saying the sanctification (vn*p) over 
wine, the bread should be covered, also on a Sabbath morning when he 
intends to partake of farinaceous food after tsnvp he should have that 
food covered when pronouncing the m*p over wine. 

Laws Concerning Benedictions Pronounced Erroneously. 

1. One who by error said the benediction rmitc wn nyd over 
proper bread or the benediction wxien over cake has fulfilled his 
obligation, if, however, he had said thebenediction wsi&n overfood even 
if prepared from the five species of grain ; his obligation is not dis- 
charged. If by error he had said the benediction jtan »*tt mia over 
grapes his obligation is discharged, likewise, if he had erred in saying 
the concluding grace ]£:n hv, his obligation is fulfilled, as grapes are 
also fruit of the vine. 

2. If by error one said the benediction na-xn ns *nia over a 
fruit of the tree, or if both kinds w r ere before him, and by error he 
had given precedence in saying the benediction over the fiuit of the 
ground with the intention of including the fruit of the tree, his obli- 
gation is fulfilled, as the fruit of the tree also gets i^s sustenance from 
the ground, but if he said the benediction p?n nfi mia over a fruit of 
the ground his obligation is not fulfilled. Consequently if one be in 
doubt as to which species a fruit belongs, whether to the tree or to the 
ground and it is impossible for him to ascertain the fact, he should 
say the benediction n&*mn ns KTO. 

3. If by error he had said over wine the benediction p»n »>6 km: 
if he at once became aware of it, he should immediately add the words 
\tin »*ifi «Ti3, but if he did not become aware of it immediately, and it 
happened unintentionally, his obligation is fulfilled. 

4. If by error he had said the benediction bznv over any 
article, even over bread or wine, his obligation is fulfilled. 

5. At the outset one should know the purpose of the benediction 
he is about to say, nevertheless if he erred having unintentionally 
said the wrong benediction, e.g., he thought he was about to drink 
wine, and he began the benediction with the intention of concluding it 
M*ith )tzn »ifi nv,2 but before thus concluding it he had discovered that 
it was water or beer and concluded the benediction with the 
formula of '131 bzrw it is unnecessary to repeat the benediction, since 


pit TV w w\nn 3"n*n npD w teas ty -jra *n HI 

nvw tod rrrw ,-pBTD n^ta dx wai /pafc twA s"k mraa mya 
aw T3tf ^an» tdki* mnpi ,^n^ noib njn ty TTOi ^a i« -w 
.tern* rrn won *ea o^oa rrai dk ^sk nw ,arp a ff n&» d^di p 

jpvn t*3 Tin tdup «*?« jjrpaa rowi Ss d^d dk ifrs* 4 l 

J'Msa TTO1 p KYW TODp T3P IN D^D &0 Ttfhv J"U3 /IDTD** 

j*n§a vitbk nmi pi a ff :3n» e*bi tdp i« D^a nto tb -cm 

rn dn ,tew nsT* tnna td*? "pit ,i"5r\ tdm xh dot J 
nnttw p np p dj nvwb vijro rrn dni ,ni did nvnrt jwt 
]D nbnn Dya •Awi ,to*d pwi tA» f?a nw nro v"ni aya 
pom nn iA a"a ,td» tk d^b mnv A, rro inrwa ^jn ,anarl 


nptws ■?? ik b2Ka ?y -jTa p 
•TV ft wan yn«i 

/6 pro* nan w ^snS irons ;rn *6i onto by tto *tf 
tei6 mini ai«n p A nw tsdi jMpota in dtA * rupp pa 
,nbnna A prw naa Tip wh w 'w w A flupb n^tcn ttiv 
,tSb: nm dwd /A wwr na by iwan nw -jiaS pv b*b 
*b r\wv tod nw ravin lavyb Tnm vttsa on 1 ? ib ro id baa 
,]w«in ja iv * l 1|W B '^ K »TV * Tnm wb mnna amm p 
.•p mn "prn *a nba: ^pa «S mi ,fiw -\*\*b -pi ^ s « 

dm ,/nro tv 3"n« ib nrwi tew wrw niT^sn bj; tto 4 2 
* Y* ax 'w tk ,* inw na to ^ vijn nnfl n^ian ny»a 
v # k ,mw Dnvroraw h^« pvKTn raa dw ">sni Dwrm tv 



it is not obligatory to a benediction owing to an error in one's 
intentiou. Much more so is this the case if the above-mentioned 
example were reversed, and if he had mistaken wine for beer or water 
and said the benediction with the intention of concluding it with tarnp, 
but before sayiDg bznv he had become aware of his error and 
discovered that it was wine and he said jean »1i K*na his duty is ful- 
filled, for if he had said bxiv he would also have fulfilled his 

6. Moreover even if he had concluded the benediction 
erroneously but instantly became aware of his error and rectified 
it, e.g., if he took a glass of water or beer, thinking that it was wine 
and said a'nn and then he found out immediately that it was water or 
beer and he concluded by reciting z":rr±' saying thus 3'jnr — z"ntz 
his obligation is fulfilled. 

7. If he did not instantly become aware, he must say again the 
benediction bznv if he desire to drink this glass, and if he also 
intend to partake of wine, he should take wine and drink a little and 
it is not necessary to say a second benediction provided he had not 
interrupted by speaking, even though he first tasted the contents of 
the glass and discovered that it contained water or beer, nevertheless 
this is not considered an interruption if he acted in this manner. 

Law as to the Benediction Over an Article of Food, 
Where More Was Taken Than was Originally Intended. 

1. If one had said a benediction over bread, having no intention 
of partaking of more than what he had prepared, e.g., he had pur- 
chased a loaf or a roll and he thought that this would suffice and 
then he desired to eat more of the same, and he sent and had some 
more bought and even if he had more of the same kind which he had 
originally prepared before him, he is nevertheless obliged to repeat the 
benediction N'Sl&n over that which was brought to him, as he had 
changed his mind, however if one have bread in the house and he cut off 
a portion thinking it would be sufficient, and then he desired to partake 
of more of it and he cut off some more, although he had no 
more of the first piece, still he need not repeat the benediction, as that 
is not considered as though he had changed his mind, for this is the 
usual custom. 

2. If one had said a benediction over fruit and he partook 
thereof, when more of it was brought to him, if at the time he said the 
benediction it was his purpose to include thereby all that would be 
brought to him, he is exempt from repeating the benediction over that 
which is subsequently brought to him, even if he have no more of the 
first fruit, and even if they be not of the same kind as the first fruit but 
are subject to the same benediction, if, however, he changed his mind 


rni nip wan a'ron nppo ty in toKD ty •pa ot rff 

rAnnw wn ,»oo itai mn dmi .A want* Am ta rvw iiah 

>« ,W toA 1^ a"nM1 f wrt DH» A« pi toA Wl .1\1 mS 

-pt d"d piwiraD w W ™*A «n dh jwmn poo di 'ifiM 

# A imanv Am ta n\w iiaS 

,pA*n r* w /p Mn is m 1 ? ono injn nriTi ntana dm J 
lia 1 ? 71* ,D"w*nnD Tiy A rm m^ own A wan* njwa omp 
twm iia*? ti* dm psD «n pwinne iiy tm A rr»n dm taM ,mw 
by w Mnn lias mrwav mtA aita pfc r "p* ^ w DWn ^ 

K3WI ]V3 ,MDnDD M^M *p V)JH WW! M 1 ? DM1 ,A 1KW HD ta 
♦DtaMta 1W DM ?UD^ A W ,.13133 KpifiD 

im D^wmn p inv vta a*am awn mrw *ifi A wan 4 T 
n? ta iia 1 ? yyt mwvrm tip vjb 1 ? »«• A^bm ,nyap paa mn* 
mu in awnn fiM y^sb to wk awn \mw na "o ,A imarw 

.iias 1 ? partwa Mpn Mta 

/1313a A imaw no ta iiart parin latwi ta 1T3 # n 
vun nwi dm taM ,oum ta iia 1 ? in* jr* ,D\n A warn ,tan» 
in* a"a vjb 1 ? ia» n\i piy doti dm want* nypa dm A^sm dhd 
a"a o^um Ami DYiisn Amp A<sm ; niTBb w *Ai ,dwj ta liaS 
n? ^ptaia dwd w *naA nan wri isp taM ,mn taw pa tan 
,n3ia nj/pa imbS vn 3"m Mta i"mt anais d^mi ,np»a nn ,taiK 

.anAp inj;n nnw im 

taiM mn dm taM f Aw tawn DiMa m^m ^d mS n«r ta 4 T 
pa ">bm A waw na ta iBiB inM jna ta frcw p^a jVran taM 
im pdd itai dm im ,a ff nj?an nna •'An tarn ,D^w«lna nv A 
wpa^ pi inv man^ a ff n^a nria ,im m 1 ? dmi ,nw iiab t»iv 


in regard to what was brought later, that is to say, if it were his 
original intention to eat only what was before him, but he subsequently 
changed his mind and decided to eat more than that, even if that 
which was brought later be of the same kind as the first, and he also had 
borne left of the first fruit, he is nevertheless obliged to repeat the 
benediction over that which was subsequently brought to him. 

3. However if one had no thought, one way or the other, con- 
cerning anything that might be brought later, then the following dis- 
tinction should ne observed :- if none of that kind (first partaken of) 
were left at the time when more of it was brought to him, he must repeat 
the b3nediction, but if he had more left, there is a diversity of opinion 
whether there is any obligation to repeat the benediction over that 
which was brought later, one should therefore take the precaution, 
when saying the original benediction, to resolve to exempt thereby all 
things requiring the same benediction that might be brought later. If 
when saying the benediction he had no thought concerning what might 
be brought subsequently, he should abstain from eating thereof, owing 
to the doubt as to the necessity of repeating the benediction. 

4. If fruit were brought to him and this happened to be of a 
superior kind and of which he was fonder than of the first (kind of 
which he had previously partaken) or if something of the seven species 
were brought to him, he is required to repeat the benediction, even if 
he had then more of the first left, for the benediction said over an 
inferior article cannot exempt a superior article, unless he clearly 
intended to exempt the same when he said the original benediction. 

5. Having said the benediction bttV over beer, with the inten- 
tion of exempting all articles subject to the same benediction, if they 
brought fish to table, he is not required to repeat the benediction, 
if, however, he had no thought when saying the benediction concerning 
what might be brought subsequently, he is required to repeat bznv 
over the fish that is brought, regardless of the fact that he still had 
seme of the beer left at that time, as the law concerning the exemption 
of two kinds of fruits is not applicable in this case, e.g., if the first 
kind were apples and the other nuts, nevertheless they are both 
one class of food; but beer and fish are entirely different kinds, one is 
an eatable and the other is a beverage, and the one kind cannot 
exempt the other, unless they be both before him at the time of saying 
the benediction, or if he intended to exempt the one by the other. 

6. The above rules apply onlv to one who eats of his own pro- 
vision, but one who eats at his neighbour's house exempts, by the bene- 
diction said over one kind, all that might be brought subsequently, even 
if there be no more of the first kind (on the table) as it all depends on 
the host's will. Yet if he had dismissed all thoughts concerning 
the article that was subsequently brought to him, he is obliged to 
repeat the benediction over the same. If the host had no intention of 
serving his guests with more of the same food, but served them solely 


•aa*«r ba on*? in 1 * xfcfiDD a*nyan» onjna 

*jna aw a'nm /rty -p^ai do * unn mvri Ma* ^ ,f 
■pi inn afca to w nroi mdddd ,p Kin iiaon dm ,niaia * 

•TV T^ 

jrnn nana p 

,"paw DTp HpttfD 1M ^2MDD Mltfrt DIM*? TOK0 Dffa ,X 

■pi ira mn*6 tox ,Y>to "paw BTp nna nun**? iS tidm -p 
Sam iDa mi ,VMn may naa iaaina nnn p^sa^ai dwd,t^ 

,W bzynm 

udd kxw nr k dm pian rmn to too mra 4 2 
pa pyn •ns kyiv pa rA^a»S *im kvw na mn nm 
^y m*?m n^aM*? *>i*n w«» B"rM ,naiMn •ns Mint* 
,n^aiA iip"yp ]va a"a ,jmn*tt jiwi bkp#ib tum pjia rraryn 
dm SaM ,ia nn-A pia/wa Kpm ,niYsa aia mi pj ipk "paa 
to -pa 1 ? -p* ron m^&d i 1 ? Ma mini nf^aab mSm mmb piaru mS 
a*a mi ]n: ipk -paa aiD mi ib tw ^p ysapa mian ,mm 


"vy miu "paa ,py pa im py «m mm uaa niw n? cm j 
,ana Mwai nrobn by\ jymi piipp m toi D-inn to pSi D^awa 
vn m 1 ? mm 1 ? Mto n^a*6 wr np«»yi pw ^bbo ••ly nua paiaa 
•ana mr6 pni paiaa pa (*yaim) tamci toi ptoto to ,*is 

pmna pyn) a^a^a ••apy Miia paiaa fry>\ atry to 4 1 
py Min na yvb '"©m (rwi anrtpa ^ n'^an an h*ib*i n^am 



at their own request, then the latter are not obliged to repeat the 
benediction inasmuch as they rely upon their host to supply them with 
as much as they need. 

7. One who came to a feast and had said a benediction over a 
glass (of wine) that was given to him, need not repeat the benediction 
over the glasses that will be given to him thereafter if it be usual to 
give more than one glass, as it is assumed when saying the bene- 
diction over the first glass that he intended to exempt all the others. 

Laws Concerning the Benediction to be said When Smelling 
Fragrant Spices. 

1. Just as one is forbidden to enjoy any article of food or 
drink before its benediction has been said, likewise is one for- 
bidden to enjoy any fragrant odour before, saying a benediction, how- 
ever after having enjoyed the same, one is not required to say a con- 
cluding Grace, for as soon as he has ceased to inhale the fragrance 
his pleasure has ceased, therefore as regards the Grace it is to be 
compared with food which is digested (which requires no further 

2. Under what circumstances do we say the benediction over 
a pleasant fragrance ? If it arise from fruit which is fit for food, whether 
it be fruit of the tree or of the ground, even if it be only made fit by 
being mixed together with other ingredients, such as the nutmeg, the 
lemon or the " Ethrog " inasmuch as they are principally used as food, 
he should say the benediction nnsa aits nn jnttft, provided he had 
intentionally inhaled their fragrance ; if, however, when partaking 
thereof the fragrance had reached him unintentionally he is not 
obliged to say a benediction over the same. If one inhale the 
scent of roasted coffee which is pleasant, he should say the benediction 
nnca 211a nn pron. 

3. Before inhaling the fragrance of plants, which are unfit for 
food, but are chiefly esteemed for their fragrance, such as the myrtle 
or the rose, or frankincense and the like, one should say the benedic- 
tion D*Bra ^xtf KI12. One should not smell pepper or ginger, as a 
benediction is not said over the same. 

4. Before inhaling the fragrance of herbs and vegetables, one 
should say the benediction tffcra ma*? KTO, A vegetable is dis- 
tinguished from a tree in the following manner : if it possess a stem as 


pll w*)n rw »ri m 

fu»D o^pnai jws St? ^rarj rwp am biyarw to ,p^ urn noi 
•onwa "»atw *in -p d^ iwaaw pmn ,py mi yby m^idi ncwrt 

! -|-OD (OMPS) pDIDH 1D3 attty p M^l flf p M 1 ? U* DM # ?1 

.ana mo dm aia nn dt6 »n* dw Ttejnw to pi a"Dia rto 

•d^jm »» ieto to^ «n 

pMa to:w vronwA tonr» pna hn jiddism p» to J 

.a^ p» Kitt vto piam jr - ^ nana i*? iyap fcr*n 

dm toM ♦My m^> nwA pi ,anspa ovy py ^ to *p*a 4 f 
Pbidb Mint? w toa la 1 ?"! ,kip ww to to owa oia *p*a 
*» to l^a DMi ,D^»a b*q rty inata f *ronrA A m"mi /maiaa 
lmnyBna ns^p to pi -ptooH toi #Mr janom **y Miia pm 

♦Dwa ^ mia -paS »* ,]iumib^ 

**y -pas ,onwa *vya dm ,D*apaa iDpat* d*d im pt* ,n 
nnry ia vn dmi ,Dtwa *awy mia -pas fiawa wya dmi ^Dwa 
o^dd aYiya m thv Dipo toa pi D^a ,D"ia -paa ^3^ 
t^ dhmi pi ptwi p Erevan iM^m dm ,D^va oia Tiao tm» 
mrA i^m a"y ,ipW o» ikvj Mto ]va Dirto Dwas dm pso 


^ova tdi D^ava *avjn onsva "w rrnon vis wrt wi 4 a 
a"rmi «un to rfcnn -pa 1 ? onpoi ,i<? mum naia 'm to to -paa 
.rava vd to 3"nMi ,mva *avy to a'riMi ^yn to 

• aia nn ntow D^na to o^va pdwdp i:^m tiDJUB ♦*» 
^fansi nana toa iaa ; nnn * pw omp j»^n nto^o vto pnao 
■©wan dm f mi)rA tidd naia p^an pvjm nbv» dtp -pa* m^ toM 
D^Dt^a *a«t^ ,zvy bv dmi onsva ■•xjr -paa fy p m\t 



hard as the italic of flax - , and be perennial, and produce leaves, it is a 
tree, but if its stalk be always soft it is an odorous herb. 

5. If it be neitheT a tree nor a herb, such as musk and the like, 
on inhaling its fragrance one should say the benediction B<&va *J*fi nvo, 
the same rule applies on smelling dried fungi when they have a pleas- 
ant odour. 

6. Over balsam-oil which grows in the soil of the land of Israel, 
the special benediction any ]atr KTO has been instituted, on account 
of its special worth as being associated with the land of Israel. 

7. If on smelling fragrant woods one had in error said the bene- 
diction vzvz wp mis or vice-versa, he has not fulfilled his obligation, 
if, however, he had said the benediction e^etra VB wvo over any of the 
odorous species, his obligation is fulfilled, thus, if he be in doubt as to 
the benediction and he cannot distinguish the species he should say 
the benediction D'&Btt »J*fi «*i^. If he said the benediction >x» «ma 
D'&ra over fruit of a tree, he has done his duty. Over cloves and over 
the rind of bitter oranges and lemons he should say the benediction 

DHMtt »Jtt> K*n3. 

8. Oil or water that was scented with spices, or with fragrant 
wood, is subject to the benediction D^esrs W Wta, but if scented with 
fragrant plants, to the benediction b'CVa Wjj Kltt, and if prepared 
with divers kinds of perfume due to bark and plants, it is subject to 
the benediction D^cra wb m*N3. Likewise in all cases where the 
fragrance is due to several articles being employed for this purpose. 
If the perfume were abstracted from the oil or water leaving none of 
that element therein except its perfume, it is a question whether 
a benediction is required on smelling it, one should therefore not 
smell this perfume. 

9. If a fragrant fruit, odorous bark and plants and aromatic 
spices were set before a person, he should say the benediction appro- 
priate to each, in the following order : first over the fruit, then over 
the bark, then over the plants, and then over the spices. 

10. One who inhales incense, due to spices being burnt upon coals, 
should say a benediction as soon as the fumes ascend and before he 
inhales its fragrance, as obtains in all cases of saying the benediction 
over articles for human enjoyment. The benediction should not be said 
before the fumes ascend, since the benediction must precede the enjoy - 
ment without delay : if he burn fragrant bark he should say 
&*Bra »*» irna, if he burn plants b^era W* K*na and if he burn other 


pi stsam x\rzrr\ wnnw nrb w m 

no ^k /m-A ^a»a iojobo upm ,a ff oia ,d\td ikp ^ dn 
p ,ovion ?yn owa D^nw -pia pinion ^aa 1 ? ^apa ptpyo* 

Aw lAy JVT3D 

Tina D^mien owa pa /inrA i&ty wnp lai Sa pi 4 fr0 
loxpa nnrA niw nbv oAan rm 1a pojot* iojio pi ,nimD^ 
♦nnrA pano «in» *fi ty «]n dhAp piao ]•«« ,oAaa mi jnA pi 

,nnrA parui pyneNSN in owa to m:n -jvA paam 4 i^ 
byzb nA icmrj nnrA poiy nunap tPDvan *a a^oia -pao 
inn rwi ox ,Nrn oaaa ,nyvi dj3J /&p*i din ■oa mnw nunn 
in ,nano pr nrwi nw in rnjn mon dni -paS *px wit /Anno 

•oyfl ^aa -pa 1 ? -p* mnN rwA Dja:# 

owa ww in onojio onp onja pa v? A i"w nn ,}•» 
niTB iNt^a in D^innNa rowan pi /in tApi Aaa btob 
,iAp pnan pe ruaa in ira immi owion 

•nnaam mom irrine? re-n p 

,wn dn n«ir pxa din ••so yaw maio mjno» ^ ,{< 
naS A pi naia nti dn xm n« ran iosjd mn dn r*aoi 
'n nnN -pa "pao jDnnab d;i A naiD urn dni ,wmrw "pao 
,warA auao dji ,A aio loAa a^oom aian obiyn "Ad otA* 
nana -pa 1 ? ^ wn njnarn n« ynw in n«n tnnv ;wa dn 
♦noNn pi naiaa pi ,a"nN -pa 1 ? ^la* icipo nana in wj 

A iNa dn jmm pi n"aN "to "pao wn OT» ^ <2 
din a^m ,nnN naiaa A n /nri fa #nwa p ^"aa ni^ia^ noa 



kinds of spices D*Dra »J*fi KTO. A benediction should be said as above 
only if he burn the spices specially to inhale their perfume, but if he 
burn them for the purpose of fumigating the room, as in the case of 
disinfectants used with a corpse, a benediction should not be 6aid. 

11. Likewise wherever the spices are not placed for the special 
purpose of smelling them, such as spices that are placed in a room as 
merchandise and also perfume used to scent utensils, which is not made 
for purposes of inhaling but only to scent the utensils, these spices and 
perfumes need no benediction, even when one smells them intentionally. 

12. If, however, one entered a store where various spices are 
sold, or a chemist's shop, and intended to smell them, he should pre- 
viously say the benediction D'Dttt »J*B mia as the spices are there for 
this purpose, for the shopkeeper is glad if people smell them 
and purchase thereof. If one had entered and left the place 
several times in succession, if when first saying the benediction 
he had in mind to exempt subsequent visits, he need not repeat the 
benediction, but if his attention were diverted therefrom or if he had 
remained a long time outside the shop, he is required to say the 
benediction whenever he returns there. 

13. Scent without any substance, e.g. garments which have 
been perfumed, or spices which had been placed in a vessel and their 
scent had evaporated, likewise one who handled Ethrogim (citrons) or 
other fruit with a fragrant odour which remains on his fingers or 
garments, in all these cases no benediction is required. 

Laws Concerning the Benedictions wimv and yeani nan. 

1. On hearing good tidings from a reliable party, who was an 
eye-witness, one should say the benediction ttftiW This applies if he 
had been an eye-witness to the matter in question and in which he 
alone is interested, but if it be good for him and others as well, he 
should say the benediction ans&ni ZVaft . . "pia implying that it is 
good for himself and that God dispenses good to his fellowmen. If 
at the time he beheld that which was good for himself or heard the 
good tidings he could not say the benediction on account of his physical 
condition or owi»g to the locality where he happened to be, he can say 
the benediction later. This applies also to the benediction nc«n p. 

2. On hearing bad tidings one says the benediction p . . "pa 
n&M»1 and if many reports reached him at one time, whether good or 
evil, one benediction is sufficient and one is bound to bless God also 


Laws 2 — 3 

*>y "paD nw iaa ,n*an vuai nDbt* njna rtrti bv dj -p* 


■cnarw t*y* ftsm p» yD^t^ in ,naiD v?k pan ♦! 
wn yD0> dni hn^d nvdp po f npi * mun it nana* pre 
tn ,npi iftM nya dn i^i j^man -paa d"d ,ft wh to np^ -\bnb 
po nsva ft naiu i? njn& pno oniinw b'itm /ipi.npn* yDt* 
ft iro naia «poti tdjw^ inNian pwi vn» *?y «|a» ft Nap 
/wrft Tnyn Sy piao pw jfttun pi tod d"d ,mw rw nptww 

♦han pi*r no ty *6h 

,T3^ its 1 ? Mjani T»ajn no te id* ^»Jh din Km oSijft /l 

•p -pan newi on jD'man tod ia? vwm rrft* ♦H 

«6k Wlp WM ft^SN tN TOpp 1NPD ink IK TOM HD ♦*) 

•fta otAm *«a iiaa /ifty ijjdsd nvw ,n*n tt^aai /wa din mvw 
1«i -pia idin a"a utdsd imv din in» by\ ,nDan pi d^ijm 

♦nirftDi dp N*?a ,nDM 

tn '••sn D'own owiaSD in ofta mp in n^a nap in rua 4 T 
cna not? Nini d^d ft» vn n^ ft«» n^n /ftnn *nd nxto * 
aft pip* B"yN ,pan idji in ]^pn njwa "pa 1 ? «n ,u*nn0 "pao 
•ppapa nDP mvw aSi nnDtp *?y n"?n naian pt "a ,ona vanvi 

^va iaa# b)ni ,D^Diiy Brcfta tw voton wftvai ,n 
ids: mn» i»a^ dn ^n /waftpa iiaoi inn ,owtp B^ato n^int* 
jw*n nN ia nvyv hinS w nisa bm nfta ft nap *nM? na-iaa 
*p<a» inN 1 ? jwNin «]iD^a "pa* 1 in ^to n 1 ? dni /u*nn» iia^ 

♦n^vva e|D^nn^ 

a^DDni aian iiao ,wa uai nih nna mm afta mp 4 a 



for the misfortune with perfect confidence and a willing spirit just as 
he blesses God for the good. 

3. One to whom a benefit had occurred or who had heard good 
tidings, although the good is of such a nature that evil will 
apparently ensue therefrom, e g., if one found an object and the king 
will confiscate all his possessions if the matter be found out. he should, 
nevertheless, Bay the benediction yonm aian. Likewise if evil befell 
him, or if he hear evil reports, although these misfortunes will appar- 
ently have a good result, e.g , if a flood swept his field and injured its 
produce and thereafter it became beneficial because it watered his field, 
nevertheless one should say the benediction nc«n pi since we bless 
only over the occurrences of the present, and not over the events of 
the future. 

4. A man should be wont to say always v yp zvh wem TO&l no Va 
(" Whatever the All-merciful does is for the best.") 

5. If one's wife give birth to a son, both husband and wife 
should say the benediction i^^ni ymn. 

6. If one's father or relative died, or even a non-relative but a 
pious man, and much more so in the case of a scholar, whose death 
grieves him sorely, he should say the benediction *]hn l^n^x 'n nn« *]m 
nenn ]H thxsn. On the demise of one whose death does not cause him 
so much grief, one should say the benediction nc«n pi *jna omitting 
the Divine Name and Kingship. 

7. If one had built or bought a house, or if he had purchased 
vessels or valuable garments, although he had previously acquired 
similar possessions, so long as he had never owned these previously 
and he rejoices in their acquisition, he should say the benediction 
ti'nnv. The benediction should be said at the time the purchase is 
made or upon the completion of the building, although he had not yet 
made use of the same, as the benediction is on account of his joy 
of acquisition. 

8. If one wear (for the first time) a new garment he should say 
the benediction W\B vatay even if he had already said that benedic- 
tion in the morning prayers he should repeat the same when putting 
on the new attire, if, however, he had dressed himself therein in the 
morning, the benediction of the morning prayer will exempt him from 
saying a separate benediction over the same. If he purchased a n^ta 
he should say the benediction wnnv after he has inserted the r***, but 
if he did not say the benediction at that time, he should say it when 
first enwranping himself therein after having said the benediction 

9. On purchasing articles for household use, one should say the 
benediction ^ee.ti aitsn. 


yy\ swam xmm wnnw nm *n m 

yrorA mi /& naia Hint* D^rwan "pao ,nanDa A una dk ♦*» 
•^am tdi* jrtwft naia *on *m w mn f?apan m dm •o ,naia 
*nanD mdd tape nw jnwi nap ^ *nn tapsn Din »npn^ jrrt 

JTOfDI bt»D WW "paD W« jTOpW DHTtfl D^BD ty ♦fcO 

♦una nwrt tiA 

^mitaan # o^jf3D i« ,p«6n pa a"a awn uw nan by ^ 
•o^a n:p& hrtt w ,ona nap ^p kvi dk "6wi ,70^ )•»« 
^SKMwn nvx nvyb kvw k 1 ?** ,0m mD&6 wab "•■ant* onenn 

."pa* *6 a^ ,ona nap iaw a"a 

o^d to ,ennm ntoi ,«nn i:o pa 1 ?*? nA idi*? pwu 4 jp 

.t^nnni n*?an n"x i^an nnn pi nnisn on ww 

to« ainp 'an oysa njtrt roffta pnnnD nvw *i& /p 
Jiana nbnn tw> rc>* cm i**n aw a*nw ,uto Tia* nwa 
n^a«a "jra k 1 ? dm ,posn wi 1A1 "omiv a"na dj -paS bw ,nsn 
Tiaiaa n ,Dwin dwd naa vos 1 ? ^ dm ,-pao wh aw mvm 
prrp iaa mp Dnan on» B"yK dwd 'a ^a 1 ? nn« ww 
tWHfn o^a 1 ? o^nn ioa ,Dyaa a 1 ?** jyidbd fpibn pa Awi t bop^y\ 
-paa 'an p a'na b pn?:«o 'k pa ^ u«ww ■p'o dk onvw 

,p mnDP vw *a ,w» vty aj 

vnnr iiy "P* 1 ? ^"«^ *"* |Q^W ^ wnrw ^a dk # ia 
oxt^ aio a"jn ,dwd nw* nno» ia »n dwd »nnn j^n ^ w 
hy wnrw rbnr\ yw t^nn p nnw^a vk o^a^ ^ u^nnef iYa 
f f»n ^ ii^nn» rhnn -\n dn ^>ax ,pn dk dj iv^b 1 ? t^in jns nvx 
pi n« nnw Mintya Kpn nr to ,D^a^ ^ y\p ^aD mc r^a 1 ? 
«in^ iy wiw ir« dk ^at< pin \* nvw lao nvw ,m^n Km»a 



10. If one were presented therewith he should say the benedic- 
tion yiDOftl ailDII as the recipient derives benefit from the gift and like- 
wise this applies to the donor. Tf the recipient be a poor man then 
the donor is found worthy by God, who has enabled him to perform 
the precept concerning charity, and if the recipient be a rich man, the 
donor is gratified by the former's acceptance of the gift. 

11. On purchasing new sacred books one should not say the 
benediction wnnv as the things wherewith the precepts are performed 
are not for sensual enjoyment. 

12. On purchasing an article that is of slight value, such as a 
shirt, shoes or socks, one should not say a benediction, even if he be 
poor and its acquisition give him joy. If a rich man purchased new 
utensils whose acquisition would fill one of the middle class with joy, 
but which the rich man in comparison to his wealth esteems but 
lightly not finding joy therein, he should not say a oenediction. 

t 13. It is customary to say to one who puts on new apparel : 
" Mayest thou wear out this garment and acquire a new one." One 
8hou d not say this to one who wears shoes or a new garment made of 
leather from an unclean animal, even if the leather be sewn beneath 

14. If one partake for the first time of a fruit, which is repro- 
duced each year, he should say the benediction irnn:r, and then the 
benediction appropriate to the fruit ; if, however, he forgot and first 
said the benediction over the fruit, he can say the benediction irnn:? 
thereafter, without it being considered an interruption. ■ One who 
omitted the benediction U'nnv when first partaking of a new fruit, 
should not say it on subsequently partaking of the same. One who 
has before him several kinds of new fruit, should say the benediction 
irnrw over one kind and include all the rest. Two species of fruit, 
although they slightly resemble each other, such as a cherry and a 
damson, even if they bear a name in common and differ in taste, such 
as green figs and dried tigs — if one had said the benediction irnnt? over 
one of them, he is required to repeat it when subsequently partaking 
of the other, as the eating of each of these fruits constitutes a separate 

15. If one said the benediction tt'nnv over grapes, some authori- 
ties say that it is not necessary to say the benediction irnnsr when 
partaking of new wine, because there is an additional pleasure in the 
latter. Therefore it is proper that if he had said the benediction 
Wnnv over grapes, then if he should partake of new wine he should 
first say the benediction umnv over some special kind of food and 
thereby exempt the wine from this benediction. If one had said 
the benediction ti'nnv over the new wine he is no longer required to 
repeat it over grapes, this applies only if it were new wine (trnvi) which 
can be recognized as such, but if he did not partake thereof until it was 


dwd tfw vty TOtD wk D^jf ^ u^nnp i^a n 1 ? /s s« p 

•]»^ «nn pa *m w 

rrfrotwen Avanva n*?n wan ^ wymp -paa p* # fla 

/na:i tik ns *?a pi ,etcj# 

^bd nm^S ^ai mpT ^y \i*rcw panaa pat* pjnu f p 
,pixa on a:n ^lnai ypipa jain praaat* *"jr a*i jar nia^pna jto 

♦a"a nna» ana pa dji 

rfim ty otto panaa p« 4 rP 

/wa v 1 ?? a^an mm av nwbv inN 1 ? wan an nam 4 J^ 
■paa ,in*ma na^i /an in ,v»a« pja ,uaa -ton mrw din &*aai 
,n*a< in*6 vinii dni ,anaa uaa ^ap pm -pnatp s"y *]n ,u«nnp 
f?ap dn ^aN fibn p natwt* ^sa r aviBn mna n'aa **a pao 
mna -paa wn ^ai^a pin fina yaw in ,ja?n "pna anaa uaa 
mn» «n«n 'nun .mapj 1 ? a^iai pa pbn pm ,otto n^n ^nan 
m ram kto newn pi ,via in /inriN in /ia« in ,vwh an hnvi 

♦p paiaa ,nja in f mnK in /nan in 4 n^a 

mo innp a^anaa *jn* n^n ,aViya im« nan «f?» nan 4 3 
n^ p*ari ,w*n ty -paa ttk -p inN mmi dn ,oo.tin win nA 
♦nn^Nia nat? a"a rfrrui nanan p« ,d^d *?n d^s a^iya imnn 

•mm mm p 

1&0 n ff aN *na -paa ,nns pmtro SaNa ^n nam # N 
ana nun^ maia nu^Ni niaia nvna 1a Niai ,a^a laViya wn 
ny -pate tpn am fw ^aa nnN ays n*?n -paa w ,anN ua. 

ms? Tia> n^j yifurw i^n^ 


(fermented) wino (pi), even if he did not say the benediction rnntf 
over grapea, he should not say over it this benediction lrnnt? because 
one canuot distinguish between new and old (wine). 

16. We do not say the benediction tt'nnv over half-ripe grapea 
unless the cluster of grapes had become ripe, likewise 'with all fruit 
unless they are fully grown. 

17. The benediction ti'lffiV should not be said over vegetables 
or turnips for the reason that they remain well preserved for a long 
time by being kept in the earth or in sand, and being very plentiful 
one does not take joy therein. 

18. One should not say the benediction nwnv over a fragrant 

19. One who sees his fellow-man after an interval of thirty days 
from the time when he last saw him, if he be greatly attached to him, 
he should say the benediction tt'fcnr. Especially when he is his 
superior, as for instance, his father or teacher, and he rejoices in seeing 
him, he should say the benediction ti'nnv, even if he had received a 
letter from him in the interval. On beholding him for the first time 
in twelve months, he should say the benediction t^ncn rrns 'n'c'N'^N'n 
but if he had received a letter from him at that time, or had heard of 
his welfare, he should not say b'nDn rpnc but he should say ti'linv. 
The law is applicable to both male and female, for even if a man see 
his wife or mother or sister or daughter, or if a woman see her hus- 
band or brother or son the benediction irnnc is likewise to be said. 

20. One who sees a friend whom he had never met before, 
but with whom he became friends as a result of having corresponded 
with one another, need not say a benediction when seeing him, for 
since they have never seen each other before, the love they mutually 
bear cannot be so great that he should be overjoyed at seeing him. 

Benedictions Concerning Seeing. 

1. On seeing fruit trees in blossom one should say the benedic- 
tion nvnb rvmta nis^m mma nvia is *nn dv?5 izhm inn xbv 'n'e'N'^'w'a 
fc"m »aa cna, (" Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast made Thy world lacking in nought, but hast produced 
therein goodly creatures and goodly trees wherewith to give delight 
unto the children of men.") This benediction should be said only once 
a year. If he delayed the recital of this benediction until the fruit 
grew he must not say it subsequently. 


pT) nwn nma w tx\ 

oipaf? aipaa own -piNa pa nwi aa« mm < d^' ^ £ 
dtp ^jn ,nii« ^ aa«n a» i 1 ? »n* aapa by\ pivz rm iimmi 
■pao /6kd nn« ta fy itrpnan by\ ,*)yra aw» mmn ^jn ,piei 
'k ays «"d o^pin by -paa win) r wwna n&wa rmy n*ON *Ka 
jva ,aa ^ tw aaian fyi ,p *in« 330 mp ntnt? D*Jfic ,nWa 
f?jn (dt» 'S inaS iy mm 160a nSk my 113a 13^k. y6? "pat* 
vman rat? n"aN **«a -paa ,pian nam* inxS wa» dk ,oynn 
pn -paa ,-wra apn n« ya^i pnan nx n*n dm ,d^ *6a 
nawa ntpiy pnan by "pa dk pi ,*rwma n»ya n&ny,, nn« nana 
vty -pa*? -p* uv ,apn yotw pnanS m ^o final nwana 
a 1 ™ apn ^ i« pnan to pnaa pt /plan to^ nanaa nasj d 
.■pa' 16 aw /ww ptjsn a« to* ,n*aji 

n?Drw ,nna nanaa ntos^ a^ap n»wu a 1 ?*? jar to j 
nwA "p* apS on pi pna 1 ? pna p laanu oram ,dw 
a^pnaa era ,ainn nana »to ap «to tfmw a^pnam fliafn 

,omto pnaa pn ,&oo 

pan man nan n'oic nrue *pa "paa ,ntrp nmnn 4 T 

/naaaa o^pi innaa 

nana abiya a^Dmsan Domain amn toi own by # n 

♦n"aya ran? -paa ,anai 

m ]D*»a nspnp njp n*a^ n"aa mm nnsipna nan nmnn 4 1 
nny n'eit i"«a f nrrw mnra npiaa 'n ova pnaa /n W n^nna 
p 'n riH iWn mWn iiman id* eh na^an onpi ,nwQ n^a 
i«npn nvm 13; 'nai \nn in a"nxi naian onaw a*nm tai tnavn 
♦t^npi n^^ 1 ? w^ a^nNi # nai f?K nia^ nnsca o^a»n tioia 

pnn mm nann pia to npiaa ii*b w nbnna^ t | 


2. On seeing shooting stars which dart across the sky from place 
to place with a transient light, or a comet or a meteor, or on wit- 
nessing an earthquake or a hurricane or lightning, one should say the 
benediction n*rma ntfVt WJJ 'H'D'H^Wa (" . . who hast made the crea- 
tion"). This benediction should be said over a shooting-star but once 
during the night even if he saw another that night. Over a comet 
one should say a benediction but once in thirty days. On hearing 
thunder after the lightning has passed, one should say the benediction 
tSiv Kbn WTOJI WW ("whose strength and might fill the world"). If one 
saw lightning and heard thunder simultaneously he should say only 
one benediction n^Kis nrryc nrj ("who hast made the creation"). If one 
said the benediction rpewn ntrs?D nrj? over the lightning and without 
any interval the thunder was heard immediately thereafter, it is not 
necessary to say a benediction on account thereof, for it is exempt by 
the benediction said over the lightning. The benedictions over light, 
ning and thunder should be said directly they happen, and if an 
interruption occurred he should not say the benediction. 

3. With the benediction which he says once over the lightning or 
thunder, he exempts the repetition of the same that he may see or hear 
subsequently so long as the clouds have not passed by, but if 
the clouds had disappeared and the sky had cleared up in the interval 
between one flash of lightning and the other, or between one peal of 
thunder and another he must repeat the benediction. A simple flash 
of lightning due to the heat and unaccompanied by thunder is not of 
the same nature as (storm) lightning and does not require the recital 
of a benediction. 

4. On seeing the rainbow one should say the benediction 'K'^'H'a 
Vidkds D*plin*iaa jaKJlii^ian 1211 'n'c ("who rememberest the covenant, 
art faithful to Thy covenant, and keepest Thy promise"). 

5. At the sight ctf seas, or mountains famous for their great 
height one should say the benediction n'Wia mm nw. 

6. On the appearance of the sun at the end of its cycle, i.e., after 
a period of twenty-eight years, when the vernal equinox of 
]D*i begins at the approach of night-fall on the eve of the fourth day 
one should say on the morning of the fourth day when the sun ia 
shining rPVira nrryc ntry . . . ^Via. Before pronouncing the benediction 
one should say Psalm cxlviii. after which he should say the benediction, 
then he should say pi* bn until npn nvm, then Psalm xix. and there- 
after r\2vb wbv and finally the irnp should be recited. 

7. This benediction should, if possible, be said in the morning 
immediately at the rising of the sun, for the zealous hasten to obey 
the commandments and it is proper to say the benediction in an 
assembly of the people, for " In the multitude of the people is the 
King's honour " (Prov. xiv. 28) ( it is therefore proper to make a pub- 


p^ nnn\ mans w m 

ay ami dwb ,ay woita -pa 1 ? iwsk dm stn ,rmrrt panpo 
x'x dm ,(epxnr6 nvn^ paS vaste ova mart t^i) -|ba nnn 
Ta "pa* inx *?a *6a /* ^^m i-inx^ to ppiaa *pvi BjDHnrt 
■wm pv ana vay vn panpo pmi py '•a ,v&vn nnn? rarwa 
ny pmn nj/^ai ,ovn by nw 'J iy -paS toy ,ipiaa -pia 16 on 
anp "W rna , » ,nniN waon Map «h ipiaa ox pto ,di\i ran 
dp *6a -pa* rtana rt dni /rotoi D^a -pa^i rtann *to« ,nwrt 


Dipan na rorrwa ,yaan ftia rtt* oa n'apn A row* na 4 n 
aai ,mn oipaa oa ^ nt^yiy rr'aa *«a -paa ,oan dp iS rnwv 
,pnaa ]a oa oan ntpyat* amp vrtoap oniK '*bk laa pi laa 
c^an on dni ,mn aipaa ^a«S oa ntw -paa iaa ,piaa wa 
lawo* 1 ? onaia dw on bki viiaxS iai« /iaa p /la^aa 1 ? d^di* 
i 1 ? npyat* niaipan *?aa inx 1 ? puna fwn c^a iS rwjw nai 
*iam ,nn« naiaa otoa toSa*i niaipan inp ^a Yairt "pi* ,oa 
*ikp *?a poia vaa pi /aito aipaai run aipaa oa ^ rww 


n"a« *n Tna -pao ,tonro mina tona oan nainn 4 a 
■paa T'laa atoyn naana tona nan mtnrn # i*rrt inaana ptot* 

jm nt^aS ,maana jnaaf n*a« ^»a 

maaa pa» n"D« ••"aa Tiao ,jf*ni« u^aa -f?a rmrvi ;* 
TTOaa n«n mrw «^« #aa l^an n« rum ia\s wski ,oni nt^a 1 ? 
N^a "pa^ «aioi ,i? nana iia 1 ? ^ia*» ,dp mn ^an» *nTaa j;ii^ 
mi* nm d«i ,o^d maaa mm 1 ? fnntart mxai ^niaSai d» 
inv ^na a"n« «a dk rtn ihiniS ma^a nnv ^aa 1 * ^k ; n d^b 

nnv ^vu iiaaai 



lie announcement of the occasion on the day preceding it, in order that 
they may assemble). If it be impossible for them all to assemble in 
the morning they should not, for that reason, delay, but each one 
should say the benediction immediately he sees the sun shine. The 
rule concerning the -'zealous who hasten to obey the commandments" 
takes precedence of the rule " In the multitude of the people is the 
King's honour." If it happened that one did not say the benediction 
in the morning, he may say it at any time till about 9 a.m., and if in 
the stress of circumstances (he delayed it still later) it may still be e 
until noon, consequently if the morning were cloudy so that the sun 
■was obscured he should wait until it is near noon, as perhaps the sun 
will make its appearance, so that he may be able to say the benedic 
tion mentioning God as King of the Universe (m:^i Dr), but if it did 
not make its appearance, he should say the benediction and omit the 
Divine name and title of King. 

8. If the Holy One, blessed be He, had wrought a miracle on 
behalf of someone, having helped him in a supernatural manner, on 
seeing the place where tho miracle occurred, he should say the bene- 
diction mn blp&a D3 >b nvvv . . *pa ("Blessed . . who hast wrought a 
miracle for me in this place"). His son, his grandson, and even those who 
were born before the miracle happened, should also say the benediction. 
How should they say it ? His son should say nra cipsa '-x 1 ? M nvw, 
(" who hast wrought a miracle for my father in this place,") and if there 
be many sons they should say v^zab ("for our father.") His grandson 
should say »ma*6 (" for my ancestors") and if there should be many 
grandsons they should saywniSN^ (" for our ancestors"). One for whom 
many miracles were wrought, on arriving at one of the places where 
one of the miracles happened, should refer to all the other places and 
include them all in one benediction as follows : nin Dlptt) c: *b ntrytr 
i^e DlpM (•' who hast wrought a miracle for me in this place and in 
that place") mentioning the name of the other place. His sons and 
also his grandsons should also mention all the other places. 

9. On seeing a Jewish scholar distinguished for his knowledge of 
the Torah, one should say the benediction vnvb inasno pbnv . . . "jna 
(" who hast given of His wisdom to those who fear Him.") On seeing 
a sage of other nations, distinguished for secular knowledge, one should 
say the benediction mi im 1 ? incunc pbrw . . . *p"D ("who hast given of 
His wisdom to Hesh and blood.") 

10. On beholding a king or the ruler of a nation, one should 
say the benediction ,D-n ivzb rnaac irttV . , . *pa ("who hast given of His 
glory to flesh and blood"). Even if the king be invisible, but all the 
pomp of the royal state indicate his presence the benediction should be 
said. One who is blind should say the benediction but omit the Divine 
name and title of King. It is a duty for one to make an effort to 
behold the glory of kings. Having seen him once, one need not inter- 
rupt his study of the Torah in order to see him again, unless he appear 
this time with greater array and with more glory than previously. 


ptl nvaifi msia mp ■njn ton nana vi m 

Dana w WH n ff D« ^"«a -paa fiHrw* nap nimn # K* 

♦ "i3i pa 

nnann ijitk ruoi ntn dk jimaun nunn mana *?a £!* 
bix t w* 'b rmh man pa rrci a"K kSm -paai inn w Dovya 
anna anapi ,-ina ^d ]ua ;x root* ma nn« nan nan dm 

♦dy> *> -pna cj "paa^ inn ; nsn^ 

wvn iprfcm ,nann arm aw wn ivra nra nmvi Jp 
ti^m n:ipnni aum ,pn thk nviw twi nspm nann pS nto 
riNi ,i?a i? rnpian wi^» ^rty pjon "insi nba 11 aba joni? ^ 
i6k "paa uw jmsn rwo n ff a« ^a -paa wpn n«i ,^sn 

n«a ^vu vty ^atrnt^ nwion aysa 

nxi ,vv wapjp wn yapn n«i nrnn n« rotm /"p 
an dk ,rn:aS nrrpaa imd» ns mm ,ppmai prw naun ,K&iDn 
,nvnan rwa arm n«in n*™ rutvion aysa -paa ,aax 700 
,f)D«n pi -paa arrty nyva hwi a"nx urwj am 

nana i^em wun pa ni«j wen maia mAw nam ,10 
ays n^n anAy -paa pn ,iaV»ya A naa» a"na ^na -paa 
♦ana aw wi a"K a*?* prm by vb\ urrbp *b pnv xb) nawm 

♦nutans niro rap mjn bman nam 

.Dvsn nna 1 ? ■orwa a\n w ^rrrt avw n#rue tf, 
ijrwa ,todd ia #w prmat* -pi *uwa i« nmaia *a*m pi 
jua ,mavi to mnit ruaoa row « a; ro Waai .ovsn nno 5 ? 
,,-A^ mw i*na d^d 1 ? vbv wa» ik ,*n» mja in /?ma rty tew 
r^an mrw nsi ,waD ia rwi n^in n\n^ tn ,nDnai one bwn 



11. On seeing the graves of Israelites, one says the benediction 
'131 pa can* W WM . . "ptS ( w who hast formed you in judgment," etc.) 

12. The benedictions which one had said on the occasions afore- 
mentioned should not be repeated on seeing the same within thirty 
days. On seeing different personages, however, i.e., another sage 
or king, or other graves or the like, one should repeat the benedictio 
even within thirty days. 

13. On seeing an Ethiopian or a red Indian or an Albino or a. 
living freak, e.g., a giant or a dwarf, or one who is wholly ulcerous, 
or one whose entire hair is matted or an elephant or an ape, one 
should say rWUUi nana . . . *p2 (" who varies the forms of His creatures"). 
This benediction is to be said only on the first occasion of seeing these 
freaks, for the first impression is very striking. 

14. On seeing for the first time a cripple or one without hands 

or a blind person or one who is afflicted with leprosy or white leprosy 

(which appears in white scabs), if they be thus afflicted from birth one 
should say the formula pure on the first occasion, but if 
they were thus afflicted after birth and it grieves one to behold them, 
he should say the benediction nDttn p (" Blessed be the true judge "). 

15. On seeing goodly trees, or beautiful creatures, human or 
animal, XobvD \h naaa> . . . *pa (" who hast such as this in His world") 
should be said but once on seeing them for the first time, and should . 
not be repeated on seeing again the same or others of that kind, 
unless the latter be more beautiful than the former. 

Laws Concerning the Benediction tetan also other 

Benedictions on Divers Occasions 

1. Four classes of people must thank God for special mercy, such 
as a person who has crossed the ocean and has reached the desired haven, 
or on arriving safely at one's destination after having passed through 
a desert or a dangerous road, or one who was in any peril whatsoever 
and was saved therefrom, e.g., if a wall fell upon him, or an ox 
(attempted to) gore him, or robbers attacked him on a journey or 
bandits by night and he was saved from them, or similar instances or 
on recovering from a serious illness, or one who was imprisoned and 
set free, even if his imprisonment were due to money matters, all of the 
foregoing shoul say trie benediction *i^Dav male ra«iA taun . . . "jna 
mo ?2 " who bestows benefits upon the undeserving and who has 
bestowed upon m- all kinds of favours " to which the listeners should 
respond : .n^D aw "Ja "fins'* mn auo hi >]bnzv <a " May He who has 
bestowed upon thee ail favours continue thus to do." 


*\^nV« ^«a "paa ,*wi pan ^poy w pn \^sk amcxn rroa 
-wdik own ,aia to ^to» rrcna ro^rA teun oiijm Y?a 

.n*?D aia to "jte:p Kin pm ite» ^a 

w one D^«n /odd pn mtpy uea nw nana "paS "pn* 4 i 
fnui aaya wk ,n"n A dw«m d^k can ,mAna cpow n"n 
nnna 1 ? )^« rfcnnato ,ruvinK nana -pat* nna 1 ? minS rAwa T^ 
fno* *6i n"D N^n ra -]na , » 'a ova Srj dk p^i ,tw ntrttpa nnv 
w nnvc dk narnai ,nnffy ^sa naiya "pa^ -jx .'n dv ny 

♦a"nN 0:1 -pa 1 ? bw w 'Jia 

"YP /uiwi *ea paa npnv 1 ? «nnw& i*? w d: A nvyjv na ^ 

kiw -fn* .npnb wa jnu wi nam /ron naM ptoro 

,T]tt a^an *anx nra jpn 1 ? i 1 ? *imi aiai ,riTn vianpn i^a a^na 

♦D^n an nso^i p"/v 'r6 nvwA wan* n»n ova na» fern 

amp Wen* naifi-i 1 ? nan np« n»jp i« on r^r6 wan ^ 

turn ^ row^ ro pop ^ nvw « ff i« 'n a*%T na*w ,mvp nbsn 

pro nrorA nnw in tone mnv m nan otn ; nnx d^Sti 

Tod on pprw nnj6 /pa^ a'ruorw n^en n^nn noa 11 /rty -pa 1 ? 

♦"o^in H&n n'aa ^aa* 

f a\nn Tfna * now irm ihtidk inan * now npnpn ,n 
♦nbnn nw hw nan *?y Wsnam /n wp -jnyit^ idin a^un 

~*&m # wa nrrw ^p raw jtaa 13^ hd ^-^snan 4 1 
iTWi 7\vw no ^ kw n^sn r*n ,^n?a iina nr hyp «n> «*?» *ffl 

tAn 'n a"nn^ ia«^i Wsn^ ,12 n^vdt inj n« niaS oaaan 4 T 
• ^-ua nana n^n -pa idw piob ^nnn ,nrn n^n nDia n^n«f 
w kw nben ij nn ^snn D ff n«i ma (rvo^ai dv N^a idiki) wn 
.pyn p o^:n nana k^k mm naian ]^«ttf 


2. The benediction ^DWD should be said in the presence of tea 
(male adults) besides the one saying the benediction. Two of the ten. 
should be scholars who are occupied with the Jewish Law, but the 
absence of the scholars does not disqualify the procedure. It is custom- 
ary to say the benediction taun on being called to the Torah after 
having said the second benediction (mvmM nana). One should not 
deliberately delay saying the benediction toun longer than three 
days, consequently, one who was preserved from danger on a Monday 
(after the Torah had been read) should immediately say the benedic- 
tion toun without the Scroll of the Torah and he should not postpone- 
the recital to the following Thursday. He must, however, say it stand- 
ing before ten (male adults). Nevertheless, one who had inadvertently 
delayed the recital longer than three days may say it also after that, 

3. One to whom a miracle happened is in duty bound to set 
aside a certain sum of money for charity, as much as his means will 
allow, which he should divide amongst those who are occupied in the, 
study of the Torah, and say " Behold, I give this money to charity, and 
may it be the Divine will to consider this as if I had brought a Thank 
Offering." It is also fitting that he should institute some public im- 
provement in the city (where he resides) and every year on the anni- 
versary he should set that day apart to thank God and to recall the 

4. One who is about to undergo any operation or to try some- 
thing as a remedy should first offer a brief prayer as follows, p»1 W 
.nnN D^in kmi *s ,row^ m pes? >b n\TP vtqn *tAm ^nhn 'fi *p)fcfa and if 
the food or beverage, which he is about to partake of medicinally, 
require the recital of a benediction, he should first offer this prayer 
and then say the benediction. After the operation (e.g.) bleeding, he 
should say whvn Ht^/n'z'x ^'n's (" who healest the sick "). 

5. KntDM (" To your good health "), should be said to one who is 
sneezing, whereupon the latter should respond rpnn *pia "Mayestthou 
be blessed." Thereafter he should say, 'n wtp ^nsntr^ "For Thy help 
I hope, Lord " (Gen. xlix. 18) ; for the one, who prays on behalf of 
his fellow man, has his prayer answered. 

6. One who prays concerning what has already happened, e.g., if 
one hear a cry in the town and he says : " May it be Th* will that this 
cry should not be in my house," is offering a vain prayer, for what has 
happened is a fact. 

7. One who is about to measure his crops or the like, should say 
the following prayer: run nan naia n^rnr \T?n 'n D'*w (*' to send a . 
blessing on this my heap "), having begun the measurement he should 
say mn *iaa nana W>wn "pa "who art sending a blessing on this my 
heap," omitting the Divine name and title. After he has measured, 
should he then offrr prayer this is a vain petition, because God's 
blessing is to be sought only in such cases where the result is unknown 
or invisible. 


7m v™ <^ D *" n m 

■ruwmn Dysa .nnin 1 ? nfrv w^tod na ua n»jfi» <L^ n n ^ a 

WDK ^a, TD1H1 5NH 1"DD n*DH ^ .WW* f!MS -p^w, ^ a 

-wjw ova miyo nwyb dikh *?y mvoi ,nt to* itwiyD tfnaa iff* 
iirrap m ,«nn nj«n otn ^ nwb D3M» ova wn ,rrorD na us 

•DV VlllO rWK I^BK iTrttD 

mnn ddv^ "ovwraa i^bk raw rms? rrn ox ,b 
~w ,-ijwa oVvn rww iv a'a to» jmt dm p'a pvyj pnn 
p mjnaya* d^w pan to wi ^ w DK DtWI WM 
.wT»to Tin 1 ? panx ,nr mp^ nr paton itson 

'Wito 'n i 1 ? wuk d'hid noi* ,m» 1 1 ? pit dk /pao no # *» 

idd) 'iDi 00. ?rw j6d WB ^ki u*? nrnnv nstai hbo *?:> ^ 

an 5w *»K3 uate "pp n« >a^D*t w*np*i ny (napj naiaa mrw 

*pao ^na tonan oy nianwa m» 1 1 ? «n dhi ,mnaiwvi mnra 

,o^ai nm * n* a*?* ^mpa ^m»* «|nw * pa dki ,0'mwi 

"\^n» b"j/ «|K -pan /u«nrw nanai D*rr»n naia /a*nrw inao 

■chid nana tea f Dnww D*nw vow kvw «^« ,DWin n« nun 

•erowMn mc mm im* na iAn ,*mt wh wm 

♦]noi kb» nam 

■■jwkd -diimw pa /man nie nwA *A# tnd thA -p* *tf 

•into naiy *ctoi n« mttc npAnv pa npAn rm 

9 mrara mum m «n -p ,D*u:a ruone wk »n* dbo # 2 

.yaaD ^viai # nutepai 

*pa n? f sn nv»a nxjix 1 ? vm\ wot ruiDica tniii h»ot t a 


8. One whose eon became R1X& M (i.e. he is thirteen years and 
ont day old) should say the benediction ni hv traiyfi *:necr . . . •pia (". . . 
who has released me from the responsibility for this child") when his 
son has been called to the Torah for the first time and after he had 
concluded the ruVOTM n3*o over the reading in the Scroll of the Law. It -* 
is a religious duty for one to prepare a feast on the day on which his 
son became mxo "12, that is, on the day when he has entered into his 
fourteenth year. If the lad deliver a Talmudical discourse on that j 
occasion, it becomes a religious feast even if celebrated on another day. 

9. If after a drought which caused general distress — although in 
our land the rain falls in its regular season and droughts are rare — 
there should be a rain-fall that descends with such force that it runs 
off in bubbling streams, it is necessary to say certain benedictions. 

10. What is to be said ? One who is not the owner of a field 
should say t*bn ire \bm ,vb rrmrw nun nse bs by \X*rfm 'n ^ UTOK d*iw 
'121 ,n*3 mn* (" We thank Thee, O Lord our God, for every drop (of 
rain) which Thou hast brought down for us and if our mouths were 
full of songs as the sea," etc.) as far as 'n'N'a ,uata *] c:r nj < la^&M wnpM 
mnaerrt nwnnn an h* (" and hallow and assign kingship to Thy name, O 
our King. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, God of many thanksgivings and 
praises.") One who owns a field in partnership with another Israelite 
should say the benediction aw&m awn, but if he have no Jewish 
partner, although he have a wife and children, he should say the 
benediction wnntr. One may say the benedictions aw&m zieh and uvm* 
even if he should not see the rain but hears that it is raining, the 
benediction chid should be said, however, only by the one who sees 
the rain descending. 

Laws of Buying and Selling. 

1. It is necessary to be most careful not to deceive one's neigh- 
bour, either in buying or selling, or with reference to hiring, 
contracts or exchange. In Jany such case a negative precept would 
be transgressed (see Lev. xxv. 14.) 

2. Just as there is the prohibition of wrong doing (i.e. deception) 
with reference to buying and selling so also with regard to money 

3. If a buyer or seller be honest in his dealings, and does nob 
apprehend any deception, thus he says, " This article I bought at this 
price, and this is the amount of profit I wish to make out of it,* 
although he had been cheated when buying that article, and since any- 
one who has been deceived is not permitted to deceive others on 


^■n t^ «^d w m 

ima nr b"d ,nr Vasra onrm nwA *tetn wk ru«nan ban bjm 

niaib na vwb A toh tdd^ iai rma A ww na 4 T 

na rrnvijw papin pnww paio ns nana nspvrh pa /a 
tai ,tf«nna imnw na dw D^a inavb in ,n3fi0 runna 


•na d^ niTs naina dti fws taya aiyb iidn pi 4 H 
*ia^ iDya rm dni ,tim nyi npm aiyb in t nw nprna DiD&b 

•»w rjn&n *a ,aij^ nma 

•upw dtonnfr na fiipwnb onuKi nvbp pbnb wrf? iroa 4 1 
^a pn /odd upn? na -ijnwiD *iw Vita *TODb bia 1 * pn .-odd 

•rtjr aayb pVta* pwn 

:uAa lav yO'iayb iVsn ik •n'on 1 ? ion bpw in TPDn ,T 

'n:p men by eyn^ nvw ,ns< j^a bppbi nviDb -p* 4 n 

•I 1 ? rpm pw note rwic 

unjp oipo ,bba mr kVi nran ruDa TnDb T*tt # Q 
mat* DipD"\ ,dwd "6 nma» npibn ]ima iVsn piriD^ Nb pvub 
nvspn minn •o ,dw ib *pow naton pna itsn m* Nb ,pinDb 
na*ro "p prov nam hnw ,t*v nbpn N*n p nnon rmp by 
27utin hm a ff j jw ttow nrmb p ?nD*i Tpn mo nvj ia» ib 

,nvonn by D*wno ww dwdd TDynb bnpn n**n d^ti # n 
o^pVpo dwnd in ion bpt^D in mon mD in« nxdj^ *d ba^ 

.on^^a rwma ioap 



that account, he is yet permitted to dispose of it, as (by his declaration) 
he makes it clear that the purchaser should not rely on (the price he 
asks to determine) the value of the article, (as he sells it) according 
to the price he paid for it. 

4. If one have something to sell, he is forbidden to make it look M 
better than what it really is in order to deceive thereby, e.g. to give an 
animal bran-water which helps to distend its bulk and makes its hair 
stand erect so that it seems to be fat and healthy. It is also forbidden 
to paint over old utensils so that they appear to be new, and all such 
devices are prohibited. 

5. Likewise it is forbidden to mix a little bad fruit with plenty 
of good fruit to sell the same as though they were good, or to mix in- 
ferior liquor with superior liquor, but if the taste of the former pre- 
dominate, the mixing is permitted for the purchaser will notice this. 

6. A shopkeeper is permitted to give parched grain and nuts to 
children in order to accustom them to buy of him. He may also sell 
cheaper than the market price for the same reason, and the other 
tradesmen cannot prevent this. 

7. He who gives short measure or weight to his companion or 
even to an idolater transgresses a negative precept of the Divine Law. 

8. It is necessary to measure and to weigh with a generous eye, 
this means that he should give more than the exact quantity demanded, 
as it is said : " A perfect and just measure shalt thou have " (Deut. 
xxv. 15). 

9. It is necessary to measure according to the laws of the 
country and no deviation therefrom is permitted. "Where it is the 
custom to give " heaped " measure, one must not give " level ■ 
(or exact) measure even with the consent of the purchaser who pays 
him less money. Where it is the custom to give u level " measure, 
one must not give " heaped" measure even if the seller consent, as the 
buyer would pay more money, for the Torah has laid down strict rules 
prohibiting incorrect measures lest a stumbling-block for others arise 
therefrom, for an onlooker may notice that the measure is in this wise 
and he will think that this is the rule of the city, and in like manner 
will he give measure to another person, who is also ign rant of the law 
of the place, and thereby he deceives him. 

10. It is obligatory upon the communal leaders to appoint 
supervisors whose duty it is to inspect the shops and all found to have 
deficient measures or weights or irregular scales should be punished as 
seems proper in their judgment. 


d"j;n viwia w waa man ma nint^ dim 1 ? iidk 4 fcO 
a^ay men n« nwS lfcwn ,116a law jiinw ptn ,na ma trior 
n^a area «h dni ,na ma^ jn* wnp *a ny nbp ,iidn trtn ^ 
ima ,nDwi wn m jmvi awia hwhn maa iAh pma p*t* 


^aVaa pa ,vpy pa /napf? ik irnapS lai inN i?narr 4 y 
ppn n« iidjp DUpi omi ty twnn iaai f Srn*nD pa jD'iaya pa 
ami ty iwin n 1 ? pny dn ^aN ,yn Nip: /nat* in /Njpi ina «a 
iidni ,vrop^ iniA ima mnsa mm roipm iaa mm laianp n^n 

jnanai a^na niiwa injn *?ia:i mi 1 ? 

rrtiwi i^m p^aa in ppip A nup^ wanf? mya jnwi Jp 
V» myaa ucp dni /Nan t"n /my ^a#a wiyaa psnn dn mpi 
&rvh iwp» B w yK /6 ittrt a*ina /Am 

*?y dpi# in ,npan ty d^bi nspa pi i^sn p^ ^a # T 
mnp B"yN ,fipa dwi laian iS ibnp in paian \isa p'fc npan 
ntrj; n 1 ? iaian pa npiSn pa /a innn *?a a"a /na rap 160 p#a 
anawi pi rvaa piiitw i:*m jrM v b^h a«m ^nib* fwjjb 
nnam dud torbi nA«i iyi hmkbi Viaan tn nwaa met* '•a 
.wona iaw ipiw *aa ins , » nih ,D\a waat? anxaai 

pny pu n*? '^snp /liana i 1 ? Tiay 1 ? din 1 ? iS inti # 1B 
pN it,b.i *?y imi dn ^jpn ibju n^i ,iain an Ben *6i rn^a 
noinaa ? w n paian j^ai npiSn pa ,1*1110 nyi ^m^ ana ipn nwb 

.i3a\i nrw a^aan mi pw ,niBK 

iao m» ,raap rana wk \h jn^ ivan 1 ? ibin^ ns pi 4 TID 
^on ,n:aN ^iD^naa r*n ,* jrw n^i irn dn r *6 jn< ^Niia^ m^i 
# n» ^ wi nao n 1 ? nr w /Hjbn pion na pN ,naiia rune 



11. It is forbidden to keep in one's house or shop short measures 
although he does not use the same, even to keep them is to transgress a 
negative precept. It is forbidden to use such an article even as a 
necessary bed-room utensil, lest someone might use it in ignorance to 
measure therewith. If, however, it be the rule of the place that 
only marked measures (which are well-known) are used, and if this 
one be not marked, then it may be kept. 

12. One who seeks to buy or rent certain property, be it a piece 
of ground or chattels of a heathen or of an Israelite, if the bar- 
gain were struck although the sale was not yet completed, and some one 
else forestalled him and bought or rented it, the latter is called a 
wicked person. But if they had not yet agreed upon the price, for the 
seller asks so much and the buyer offers less, then some one else may 
bin 7 it. One is forbidden to "remove his neighbour's landmark," i.e. 
to encroach upon his rights in the matter of hiring houses and the like. 

13. If one give money to his neighbour to purchase for him 
ground or chattels and the latter purchased the desired object for him- 
self with his own money he is an imposter, but if he made the pur- 
chase with his neighbour's money, even if he intended it for himself, 
it is his duty to give it to his neighbour. 

14. If one had made a deposit on a purchase or had marked the 
article for identification in the seller's presence, or if the seller said to 
him : — " Mark your purchase," even though he did not thereby acquire 
proprietary rights in that article, nevertheless, be he the buyer or 
seller, he does not act as becomes an Israelite, and he incurs Divine pun- 
ishment, i.e., he is accursed of the Beth Din who say : — "He who dealt 
out retribution to the men of the generation of the flood, and to the 
men of the generation of the dispersion, and to the men of Sodom and 
Gomorrah, and to the Egyptians who sank in the sea, may He deal 
out retribution to the one who does not keep his word." 

15. It is proper to keep one's word even though he neither 
paid anything on account nor did he put a mark upon the article, 
nor was the purchase completed but they merely agreed upon a price, 
neither of them may retract his agreement, and he who retracts, be he 
the buyer or the seller, is considered to be one of "little faith" (i.e. 
unreliable) and the spirit of our Sages finds no pleasure in him. 

16. Likewise if one promised a small gift to his neighbour, who 
depended upon it, being sure that he would give it to him, if he 
retract his promise and fail to give it, he is of those who are of " little 
faith"; if, however, he promised a large gift (and retracted) he 
is not of those who are of "little faith," as his neighbour did not depend 
upon it ; nevertheless at the time when he said he would give it to 


I^l tvran njn sum mana nwfc iidk w m 

mjn3 urn m*?i # ni^DJ njn3 b"? /6 jn^ tdw Mint? njW3 n"m 
p nayiD njfio p t vyb \wb naiMn *?3m /■w&jA nat ^31 ,msirt 
*6wi ,ym ids ntwtp "usa ,pn p 13 urn 1 ? ^0* wm ,n3iiD runD 
♦inst^nD o^A "pv l n,,l? ^ P* 1 ^ nI?k I*** ^ 
np« *jm idim m*3i ,dw 1x31 ,n^3 im jfpip ybsb nrnn »p 

IT? >3PVD DHD in« iTH DM /WDJ1 *W3 DHD TIM ]W /6m DW3 
DHD inMl /IT? "»aWD O.TJ0 171 ,D11p ITJf p ^"tflM T?D '3fl 

id? ^n itm 1:2^1 iay Soti ■nan Min wn dmi ,Diip U3P /usp 

^>3M ,D"I1p Y13H /OYlp DHD T1M1 Vfcn DHD 'M ITO ,D1ip 113n ,^3 

U3»S i^bmi ,tnipp Dm TD^no pin ,Diij> wip ,d*im *?3 *imb^ 
,0^3*? Dmp Min jntsn by* dhd nnM nvi dm ^3m /6*m Swi iwn 
npibnf? own nM \n^ ixan Sy3 ^id*» ,nnM*? visdp nnMb i^sm 
n w y Min pxam ^id 1 ? 3iipi pen n"n Min npibn '^smi ,miM pbnbi 
♦npiSn nM pboai ,DTip ptm ^3ian p pmm 

,D*wa ."im:im nniDM id ,n3DDi np&3 niiDM nMjixp dps 4 tf 
rfrvw ^w hmjim 1? ,-pbMD nMTi inw nM t^x uin mVi 'm^ 
n? r p3««if? v™ 16 nn ,]wnf? pro nw ,]idd hmjimd d^-dt nM:ix 
wb -pm ,td rojtt d*di nMJiM by pyym ,isi:d nn ,i:idd3 

i D ,, 1313 n^y^ 1 ? M*?t8> in»M nMJIMD Wi'O 

nvin nnM nD33 von 1 ? idm^ m 1 ? ,0^31 nMJiM Min W3 4 a 
m 1 ? nMi3n nop 1 ? rp3D inM n\n ^nup 1 ? mm ij^m Mini m psn \rth 
by* m3n n\n dm .niDD 1 ? iS ] % Mt^ jnv 1 Mini ^As ^vm -j 1 ? 1 1 ? idm^ 
i-on br D , »iiD , » im3 dm jDVwmn l^yD 113? I 1 ? 10M^ M 1 ? ^T3Wn 
f Tf6D3 inMn^ M^n 3VM 1 ? 3vm n3n inDM» im3 \b *idm> m^> ^ 


him it should have been his genuine intention to do so, and it should 
not have been his wi«h to alter his intention, all this refers to a pro- 
mise made to a rich man, but if he made the promise to a poor man, 
be the promise of a small gift or a large gift, he is not at liberty to 
retract his promise for it is as though he made a vow, thus even if he 
did not utter the promise but he only determined in his heart that 
he would give, he must fulfil his intention. 

17. If one desire to sell some ground or a house and two men 
come to buy, each one saying, "I am willing to pay the price demanded," 
it devolves upon the seller to know the law of precedence, the follow- 
ing rules appertain thereto : If neither be the immediate neighbour (of 
the seller) and if the one be a fellow townsman and the other man 
come from another place, the fellow townsman has the preference. If 
they were both fellow townsmen, the one being his neighbour, then he 
has the preference If the other person were his friend who visited 
him whereas the neighbour did not, then the friend has the preference. 
If one were a friend and the other a relative, then the friend has the 
preference, but this does not apply with reference to all other people 
except to a scholar who enjoys a preference, even with regard to 
ones neighbour or a friend who is on visiting terms. If one of the two 
in question happened to be the immediate neighbour (occupying the 
adjacent property), he takes precedence before all others and even 
after he had already sold it to another, the immediate neighbour can 
refund the money to the buyer and make him relinquish that property, 
even if this buyer were a learned man or a neighbour or a relation of 
the seller, whereas the immediate neighbour might be an illiterate 
person and not related to the seller, nevertheless he enjoys the pre- 
ference and can make the purchaser relinquish the property. 

Laws Prohibiting Verbal Oppression and Deception of 
One's Fellow Creatures. 

1. Just as oppression is forbidden with reference to buying and 
selling, likewise is it forbidden with regard to words, as it is said : " Ye 
shall not wrong one another ; but thou shalt fear thy God " (Lev. 
xxv. 17) this refers to the " oppression through words." More serious 
is this than the sin of pecuniary imposition, for the latter can be settled 
by calculation, not so the former. Again the latter refers to one's 
money but the former to one's person and he who cries to God on 
account of oppression through words, is answered forthwith. One 
must be most careful not to wound his wife's feelings through words. 

2. What is the meaning of " oppression through words " 1 Thus 
a man should not say to his neighbour : " At what price will you sell 
this article f" when he has no intention of buying it. If he sought to 
buy produce, one should not direct him to go to a certain person, when 
ha knows he has not got it to sell him. If his neighbour were a peni- 
tent he should not sa)' to him: " Remember thy former deeds !" If 
afflictions befell his neighbour, he should not speak to him like the 


injn3 KiT iAi ,nno:i njra y* /ft jrrt idik amp ny#3 o"oi 

p noyio n:no pa wb \wb noian ^k ,m&jA m? bni ,m:trt 

'ifpSKi ,*tu 103 mw» \jbd ,pn jo 13 urn 1 ? ^o* wn ,n3iio n:no 

.vuwid o«pf? "p* ]n^ i3*?3 pi itM *Ak ,idk xb 

flpN *JH 101K K"31 JDM9 1K31 ,HO IK Ppip 1130 1 ? nmn >p 

it? \spvd ono inx nvi dk ,ivon by* ono ma jw ^k dw3 
ono nn«i ,vw ^»vo omjtf iti ,onip H»y p ,nin« y?b 'an 
loy ^n wh U3t*i ioy S\nn nan «in wn dni ,D"iip 1330 ,U3P 
^>3n ,onp nan /oiip ono nriHi nan ono 'k hti ,Diip ran /?*?3 
uatrt i^ski ,BnpB orn to^tio pn ,onp iaiip ,o™ ^3 ^«^ 
^13*? mip am ,i*on tya ono nn« nvi dn ^3« /6*k bwi 113m 
HpiSnS own an in* 11 ? nxon tya ^la* ,m*6 naot* iniA i^sk 
n w y Kin pvom /iaitA aiipi pan n"n win npAn ;,, sxi ,miK pte*?i 
♦npiSn n« p^ooi ,dtp pvon paion jo pinii 

♦rvman run aiaw onana main? itdn *an 

,o*iana nwi« mica 13 ,13001 npoa hudk rntiutv o^a 4 tf 

n^vni ,d^3t nana u .ynbxn n«Ti uroy an t^a oti n^i '*w 
nr ,iiapn*> jn^ *A nn ,]ia#nf? jito nw ,1100 mowo onan niuiK 
mrt "pyi ,to nw o^ai rmm by pjnxm ,151:13 nn ,1:1003 

,D , »i3i3 niyx 1 ? K^r in»« dioiko mva 

nxii nn« no33 von 1 ? io«> «f? pn3i dnjik «m nv^3 4 a 
k 1 ? n«i3n nvpb »p30 in« n\i pni^p 1 ? mtn ir« Kim nr psjn jrrt 

^3 113n nM DK .1130 1 ? I 1 ? fH» JHY 1 «UTI *?6s ^VN I 1 ? I 1 ? lOK 1 * 

ii3n ^ Dmoi i«3 dm # D\rwwnn i^yo 113? A io«^ k 1 ? ,n3^n 

# TfftD3 1flK1 , » M&n 3VK 1 ? 3V« ^Wl 110«» -J113 lb 10«> hS # ^1 


him it should have been his genuine intention to do so, and it should 
not have been his \\ i h to alter his intention, all this refers to a pro- 
mise made to a rich man, but if he made the promise to a poor man, 
be the promise of a small gift or a large gift, he is not at liberty to 
retract his promise for it is as though he made a vow, thus even if he 
did not utter the promise but he only determined in his heart that 
he would give, he must fulfil his intention. 

17. If one desire to sell some ground or a house and two men 
come to buy, each one saying, "I am willing to pay the price demanded," 
it devolves upon the seller to know the law of precedence, the follow- 
ing rules appertain thereto : If neither be the immediate neighbour (of 
the seller) and if the one be a fellow townsman and the other man 
come from another place, the fellow townsman has the preference. If 
they were both fellow townsmen, the one being his neighbour, then he 
has the preference If the other person were his friend who visited 
him whereas the neighbour did not, then the friend has the preference. 
If one were a friend and the other a relative, then the friend has the 
preference, but this does not apply with reference to all other people 
except to a scholar who enjoys a preference, even "with regard to 
ones neighbour or a friend who is on visiting terms. If one of the two 
in question happened to be the immediate neighbour (occupying the 
adjacent property), he takes precedence before all others and even 
after he had already sold it to another, the immediate neighbour can 
refund the money to the buyer and make him relinquish that property, 
even if this buyer were a learned man or a neighbour or a relation of 
the seller, whereas the immediate neighbour might be an illiterate 
person and not related to the seller, nevertheless he enjoys the pre- 
ference and can make the purchaser relinquish the property. 

Laws Prohibiting Verbal Oppression and Deception of 
One's Fellow Creatures. 

1. Just as oppression is forbidden with reference to buying and 
selling, likewise is it forbidden with regard to words, as it is said : " Ye 
shall not wrong one another ; but thou shalt fear thy God " (Lev. 
xxv. 17) this refers to the M oppression through words." More serious 
is this than the sin of pecuniary imposition, for the latter can be settled 
by calculation, not so the former. Again the latter refers to one's 
money but the former to one's person and he who cries to God on 
account of oppression through words, is answered forthwith. One 
must be most careful not to wound his wife's feelings through words. 

2. What is the meaning of " oppression through words " ? Thus 
a man should not say to his neighbour : " At what price will you sell 
this article ? " when he has no intention of buying it. If he sought to 
buy produce, one should not direct him to go to a certain person, when 
ha knows he has not got it to sell him. If his neighbour were a peni- 
tent he should not say to him: " Remember thy former deeds !" If 
afflictions befell his neighbour, he should not speak to him like the 


I^ 1 ) wan wa rmro rwj£ i6» w m 

law 16 ,na3n iai nr« maa A«& dn ,1dm "pa Kin ^ *o iai 
k^io *?3 pi ,n?n 1313 an*n nn« nD nam nniK jnv i:"w ns^ 

♦aSn ijw ant* 17K onaia 

*wa iitho fMi iriw B"yK ^ wa dp A »n» *d 4 a 

Diva m waa iniip*? iidk w*a^ vwna nr dk ,1a t^ana uw 

.D*iai dmim 

yxv z a yx ^laia mai 1 ? '^) nvian nyi aurt iidk 4 1 
rf?aa i#a i 1 ? iiaa 1 ? udm pb ,D"i3y njn i^bk (paa pian ia 
nw iainp b'pk .did ia w ian row 131a dm ,na™ npma 
Ka^ .unaa ,aian n« npiSi*? y*vmb yntt a*a fi iiaia kw iaa 

,nyi nau dwd 

*6 ,fcw *6p jw ninths *b?H teiw iTana ppa^ a 1 ? 4 pj 
'«i nsa 'k myw a'va ba pi ,to(P «f?» jnv Kin^a n:na ib jjv 
Tan urn aba ,hdk na?p vuro pn iiaaa hvw nan 1 ? naian aba 
•nine a^i paa mil na« nsva jiwi !*tw» iaSi va 

tTtmn tna rmno nwtf? k%? w 

ima kvw b*V e)k ,ntoit3 mwi p hdkp iai ^a 4 tf 

tnftnb i« nuna ia nwyb mon friHxh mvan iai Kin on jmcn 

TBI? UW 131 *?3K /TIDK D*13y ^IB 1 ? 1^38.1*? WUpS '^SKI 9 Hhp 

ima a*J abm /mno ana nwpS inia ^nam d^did pja ,rttaiA 

.nsNba bab nt^r 13 idw *vw ,niinoa 

rhy\ ffri tw pa /tdm iai *np*a dinS pnn ck ,2 
iniD ,1:1^33 hbidi n^3: i 1 ? mai?j» ^a pi ,«dd n vmma 
unw ■» pna^ ufy\ ,td naof? i^ix # "p*? ywu xbv jva ,Di3Db 



comforters of Job who said, "Is not thy fear (of God) thy confidence t 
. . . Remember, I pray thee, who ever perished, being innocent V* 
(Job IV. 6, 7). If they asked him regarding some learned discussion, 
he should not say to one who is ignorant thereof : u What is your 
opinion ? " Likewise in all such similar forms of speech, which might 
hurt the person addressed. 

3. If one have an opprobrious nickname, although he be accus- 
tomed thereto and is not put to shame thereby, if another person 
intend to insult him thereby it is forbidden to call him by the nick- 
name on account of " oppression through words." 

4. It is forbidden to deceive 1 any human being, even an idolater, 
therefore it is forbidden to sell meat of an animal which is not ritually 
slaughtered as though it had been lawfully killed. If one sell an 
article possessing some imperfection, although it be worth the purchase 
price, it is nevertheless obligatory upon him to notify the purchaser of 
its imperfection. In the case of a gift no question of deception can 

5. One should not ask his neighbour to dine with him knowing 
that he will not do so, nor should he make a present knowing that ho 
will not accept it. And in all such similar cases where one says some- 
thing with the tongue and means something else in the heart, e.g., if 
one seem to be paying honour to his neighbour, which is far from his 
real intention, this conduct is forbidden. One should always let the 
mouth and heart correspond, cultivating truth, uprightness and purity 
of the heart. 

Laws dealing with the Prohibition of Trading in 
Forbidden Things. 

1. Any article the eating whereof the Torah has forbidden while 
one is permitted to enjoy its use, if it be an article used solely for food 
it is forbidden to deal therein or to lend thereon or even to buy 
thereof in order to feed heathen labourers therewith. If it be some- 
thing not designed for food, such as horses and asses, it is permitted 
to deal in the same. To deal in the fat (of the beast not ritually 
slaughtered) is allowed, as it is said concerning the same : " it may be 
used for any other service " (Lev. vii. 24). 

2. If one happened to acquire a forbidden article (of food) e.g., if, 
when fishing, he caught a ritually unclean fish in his net, or if he had 
found in his house a beast that died of itself or which was torn of 
beasts, c he is permitted to sell them, since it was not his intention to 
have it thus, but he should sell them immediately, and he should not 
wait till they become more valuable for selling, he may also sell them 

l Lit. : " to steal the mind." *Cf. Lev. vii 24. 


^aa /O nw rrtiww B'ya /1A0 *y dj paaS iw /ton mat? 
jmno *6*n rwi a"*n ,\vbrh rrtiwi mpw 16 

toot ra DiaD*i dwdb tmai Wia maA ima pi 4 3 
tdb^ j^ff na jnvwrA nniD ^aa ,om nawrfc na jrrcwnS 

•ppn p 

WID *13J b» Ainu JUD paTID K^M VWK pttf W ,1 

nwni ,\A3 Ttwa /ibkw ^S mwa w rroia mtan 4 N 
]3i onym ision ,piA ntt^wa law rrftn ,sw n*? rrni ,npS 
np*?n Strap '•a ,in« laba tin *?a trnaw orwa nw iidddh 
j^n rw6n nyeo rrann n« icy pDB k 1 ? •frsK mrrt a^na wsn 
]D? ny nepna mina nrn i 1 ? naap i« /»jito pr ny wna A mbrw 
jwen ,rron* pjr hpkb nw *6 oba^ ^na pya A a»rw ik /j^s 
nm dj jam na i 1 ? awn* ^a»a w np« A pois pmsn pi 

.man Kin 

160 pyiBn njwa vijna w i 1 ? jnu rvbn nx i^bk 4 3 

♦ton &* ,rrcn Swa i 1 ? urw naiN uw ,iay runn 

"A wro kvt» n^i nrru ;wa rr6n A -ibin y, <BN ,} 
rotem nw uaa npS laa dn SaN ,i:aa AapS ton a w j runaa 
♦ima A *?ma aim rrfcrA ttotA nrm nawn rrany 

jaw rwi w ,vm tin 1 ? w rpann n« D^iprA itdk 4 T 
^^a»a n 1 ? »vsi n^na A n^wi mpai nij^a jiya^a niiS 1 ? rwji 
«^n» i? en 1 © "6*0 m Kanoan naiia mno nvi» ik ,vt6v 
wn vmya i 1 ? T»nm uaa nA ,naipia nw im /nA^ ^a»a 
♦mmNa n^ai tu ,Aw nAaa ww vni^a ^a»a n:na A rtw 


through an agent although the latter will profit thereby, but the 
agent may Dot buy them on his own behalf as this would be traffic 
for his own benefit. 

3. It is also permitted to levy on unclean things for one's claim, 
but he should sell them at once and not wait to derive profit therefrom, 
he is, however, permitted to keep them sufficiently long in order to pro- 
tect himself against loss on his capital. 

4. It is permitted to traffic with an article (the consumption of) 
which is forbidden by the Oral Law only, e.g., the cheese of gentiles. 

The Laws Concerning Interest. 

1. He who lends on interest transgresses six negative precepts, 
as it is said : "He hath given forth upon usury, and hath taken 
interest : shall he then live 1 he shall not live" (Ezek. xviii. 13). 1 The 
borrower transgresses three negative precepts; the scribe, the witnesses, 
and the broker who negotiated the loan, all these transgress one 
negative precept. He who has transgressed and has taken interest is 
bound to return it, even though at the time of lending the money he 
did not fix the rate of interest, (as) he lent the money free of charge 
until a fixed point of time. Likewise if he sold to another person 
certain wares on credit for a certain time, or if he, in some other way, 
make another person responsible for the payment of the debt, be it what 
it may, and when the fixed period for payment arrives the debtor 
stipulates to give to the borrower something for forbearance, this is also 

2. Even if the borrower, of his own free will, give to the lender 
extra payment when the loan becomes due, which had not been 
arranged and without saying that he gives it as interest, this is also 

3. Even if the borrower, when paying the interest, declare it to 
be a gift, it is still forbidden to accept the same. But if he had accep- 
ted from him the interest and if the lender repented and wished to 
make restitution but the borrower refused it, the former is per- 
mitted to retain it. 

4. It is forbidden to give interest either in advance or at the 
expiration of the loan, as for instance, if Reuben desire to borrow 
money from Simeon. Previous to negotiating the loan he sent to 
Simeon a present with the explanation that he does this in order that 
he should make him a loan, or if he made him a handsome present 
without explanation, it is quite evident that he did so in order that he 
should make him a loan, this is " interest in advance," (or) if he bor- 
rowed from him and repaid the loan and made him a present, as com- 
pensation for the time during which the money was in his possession, 
and therefore useless (to the lender), this is " postponed interest." 

!See T. B. Bab» Mezi'a 61b. 


nr ww na pa pt to n-on 1 ? wwa mte inK dk ,fi 
to ,nw Tvm id? 1 ? no id ik /wa p6 inv id irw oys *t6*i 
nra prS ma id ihk oys ib nf h* a"y *b mte dki ,*wm man 
tws imia «6 mba kw *6k ,p wi kS dk -|n ,nwir6 an 
v ma /mtoi iaa a*:i rw nana xb* p raenp iron* fe"im tin 

?"a injn& «te m*?n p rran^ «S» mrt mten *p« # i 

]vat* f mikn k 1 ? dk «i« i 1 ? n&ny nw iaia ifcwt rws wrpw 
l ?inD , > vrar w Swar I'to i&w rwtj ,vr«na k*w nanjp 
•6 dm B|« "6 nny nvw iaia uyid mina una rrau dk toK ,iS 

.kwib to> IDT am atof iatoi /mAn 

*jhr oysa d*w mtorA wipnb tori rrftn m\ nb dk 4 f 

"VW DipDa IK J*3rD2l TVfia HPKa noA HDK1 A DHp.17 11DK 

Natoa onai nW ikp pi ,irw Dys3 dj p tojn n\i k*? dk 
Vm »W to* dk pa D^iai nvi to inm mten pi ,t,dk 

*&toa n^DKi K^K WTBD WKP &"yK vfrfi DTpDD vftfi Ka* DK 

mix 1 ? iflKibn to IDid nnjn p 1 ? Dip roa iay bw\ m *b dk 

,rrai \"n /b y:a: Kint? «osd vto 

p rtwrb nborb iidk paa iiw mun naia itoeK 4 n 
ian p* ran rrfcrn natAe toa Kin mton dnp jua ,rr6n 
<b nrb ram imfeiv nana nny pi inK oysa naKba i 1 ? p^ 

♦11DK .inDK^D 

hkd D"nK A iirn^ nKian hkd 'k 1 ? mftnb iidk 4 a 

KXDii roronn owa ip^nn KDty ^ nansa pa i^sk nman 

ip^nn dkp .d^di wjn ^ f rn^v noo vw iima nr 

;^dd d^d pi i^sk rn% ts>^ dm ,own pi i 1 ? jm k^ nmann 



5. If one lend his neighbour a certain amount for a certain time, 
in order that the latter should afterwards reciprocate by lending him 
for the same period a larger amount or the same amount for a longer 
time, this is unqualified interest. If one lend his neighbour a cer- 
tain amount for a time to cause him to reciprocate that favour, this is to 
be avoided. But if no agreement had been made to that effect and the 
former borrower of his own free-will lends the former lender, which 
is, however, on account of the previous loan, this may be permitted. 

6. The lender should be careful not to derive any benefit through 
the borrower without his knowledge during the entire time of the loan, 
even if it be something that the borrower would have him enjoy even 
though no loan had been made. If he derived some benefit without 
the sanction of the borrower, it appears as though he relies on the fact 
that the borrower has his money and therefore he will not mind. 
However, with the borrower's knowledge, the lender may enjoy that 
which the borrower would have him enjoy had the loan not been made, 
provided it be not of a public nature. 

7. If the borrower had not been accustomed to greet the lender 
in the past, he must not do so now. He must not show him any special 
honour in the synagogue or elsewhere if he had not been accustomed 
to do so, likewise all kinds of attention, even by word of mouth on 
account of a loan, are forbidden. Likewise the lender must avoid gain- 
ing any benefit even through mere words, e.g., if he say to the bor- 
rower : "Let me know if so and so should come from such and such a 
place." Even though he does not trouble him more than to speak a 
few words, if he had not been accustomed to request such a favour 
previously and now he bids him do this or do that on account of the 
loan and the obligation he is under, such conduct is in the nature of 
interest and is forbidden. 

8. The lender is forbidden to derive any advantage, even though 
it be not of a pecuniary nature, from the borrower, e.g., if the lender 
be a workman and the borrower is not accustomed to give him work, 
only now because of the loan he desires to do so, this is forbidden. 

9. It is forbidden to lend another a measure of grain on the con- 
dition of having the loan repaid thereafter with a measure of grain, 
even if both be of the same kind, for perchance, in the meantime, the 
price may have advanced and he consequently gives him more than he 
borrowed. A money valuation should therefore be placed upon it, 
so that even if there be an advance in the price of the grain, he must 
repay him only that amount of money at which it was originally 


niw pa mix 1 ? A i^ dn pi ,p\a naa i^fiH m% wia m 

p3 f*3i T'DH HID D1*?3 nM PK0 B ff JW nM TOD ,pW3 yi3p 

iidk ,jnn nana ptavi hnd mfrrA jua ,ws iwi»a po ^« ,w&a 
inn pat* pp TOiai ,]nn ^ t^i '« ijwa jn» s"yK py tea 
n33 nv6nb n»H htod pSi ,p# ^33 tod .itfnn tnpva vfiprfc 

•nnwfc nnb 
,nDJ3n n*aa DipD ik mp ik n*a patPD by wd nton / 
naan* wi wt*m3 nw6 -p* ,p3t*DnD nvron n« np* mtow 
.mten jnw nnwn nvp vro ,nw fcA aivp toi aim p "6 
-ito «f? *?3n tod onwa i3?pt* hdd to* nip rtrarn •fr'sin 

•id*? frtwA iT3&"i rrbm 
^bd irtBfn p mva 1130S moit snm im* * &w -on ^ 
rm dmp s"y ,*]« fit W * pni* w k* ,nwi an "6 pnttw 
rw pnoo Mvitef ^a»ai mnaa -6 wro n\n npi nx nny i 1 ? pra 
to:p iy na-in m^y nSp 13^31 ,tod tou nvp i 1 ? tod ironan 
*6k nam vAyo *6 dm dji ,1-ftyb inn mjran nanan ^araa ^ 
nspna dm ,*a -j*? nn niyan na to ^ ]nn dni toni pisd mnv 
msaS na ipvo winon dn nnp mipn dm pi /ton ^^ ^ jnn 
,iid« 3 ,7 j pr nr»a ira myan nvw ^apa tdbmVi to 
mnsa nna 1 ? raA tod nan ty 3in ia» 1S tw *d ^*» 
n? nDty 1? ^Ditt -j« npiSn 1 ? i3ian awn l prjw pr omp ^wn 
nmn« pn ,npibn ^ ni^nnn i*n« iTtqw ^31 w« -]b ^pi 
laiDn ^ nvnS *r& nanai j?ns nevnv jiia todh nana «3» 
m« ii3D^ bw p 1D3 ninsa inx 1 ? "Mm roe itaoS Sia'w owai 

.itW3 mirt dj 
jp^a niynS -pvp pnm ]^3 f SwA j^?to n? isix3i ji 
^ibS 3^n mnv idv^ ^ am ib» i 1 ? jn^ jvd»i ,jw» ^cm -j^n 



If the borrower possess only a small amount of a particular kind he is 
permitted to borrow many bushels of the same kind, also if a certain 
kind have a fixed market-price one ii permitted to borrow even if ho 
have none of it ; all this relates to a thing of the same kind, but it is 
forbidden under any circumstance to lend a measure of wheat and to 
receive in return a measure of millet, although they both cost the same 
price and the lender has some millet. It is, however, under all circum- 
stances permissible to lend a small article, the price of which, whether 
advancing or decreasing, people do not usually consider ; a woman is 
therefore allowed to lend a loaf of bread to her neighbour. 

10. If one lend money on the mortgage of a house or a field or 
a seat in a Synagogue, and if the lender have also the usufruct of that 
mortgage, this income should effect the liquidation of that debt, that 
means a fixed amount should be deducted yearly from his debt which 
should count as the rent paid by the lender, and they are permitted to 
stipulate the payment of a smaller amount than the actual rental value. 
The lender, however, should not reverse the arrangement and rent it to 
the borrower. 

11. One must not sell an article which has a fixed price above 
its value because it is sold on credit ; but if it have no standard price, 
although if bought for cash he would sell it cheaper, or if he sold it on 
credit it would cost a little more, this is allowed provided he does not 
advance the price to sueh an extent that it is evident to everybody 
that this increase is on account of being sold on credit. Nevertheless 
if he should not advance the price very much, but he distinctly says, 
" If you pay me ready cash it costs ten coins, but if on credit it costs 
eleven," this is forbidden. Likewise it is forbidden for the purchaser 
to buy the merchandise above the market price in order to sell it 
immediately at a loss so as to have ready cash for some time (at his 

12. One is permitted to sell to another person a note which he 
holds against his neighbour at less than its value even before the date 
of payment, and the seller should write to the buyer : " I hereby sell 
and transfer to you this note and all that it implies," the note is accep- 
ted at the risk of the buyer, with the exception of such risk for which 
the seller is responsible, e.g., if the note were cancelled or the like, 
whereupon the seller is responsible. Just as one can sell such a note 
at less than its value to another, likewise can he sell it to the actual 1 

13. In this way one can avoid the peril of taking interest, e.g., 
Reuben, who requires a loan in Nisan, goes to Simeon w*ho gives him 
a bond whereby (Simeon) undertakes to pay Reuben 100 gold coins 
in the month of Tishri, (and in consideration thereof Reuben gave 
Simon a note to the effect that he holds himself bound to repay 100 


Din lotBf pirn dj jrru m "tfSai) *wn mna om meo pun& 
pyap •na nwia own roca iV jnisV a«n mnv jiyairt ma 
nnp *6^ pyatp Vy iV »*» Din natwi n« natai pirn -^im (maa 
rmm Vy n"cDt^ pya^V w nnv p'aai) awt? own nya pus 
ny n&pna punV mart Via* mr» ,p? im6 *on pman p? i»k 
nrn n'otrn na pirn toa* aw ,nm ty Bflwr iV in 1 * pwii r pm 
lwa»V naaV iavy Vy n"ap ama* pun dm b*x (Vain* naa nya 

•TttDM mV» *T Vy iy>BK 

mya nanpna ian *ww im nman nupV tid« # "p 
ip«nn D«nra xzv ]wm ,pi tikV mtiann na iV jnn*i 
Van npiVn asa: mronn n« iV jirtf p?a a"n« nuiann 
dn Vaa jftipDn na onpn» V'otpa vntya wnwa w 
npiVnV raw kVb> a*yx # naia mw rraiann Va nny dj lansrt p 1 
nam Vnra frm iiaaV Via* cnanV »v no ^ /vna ,pt in^V ny 
iv nanst? kV« *una naA pnj? iaa «V nmann iV^dw /uima 
ok Va»s pniai /mw im iVaa at?n: ,maNVa vw in nna naaVa 

*»sa mya nanpna niapV Via* ,mronV wwi papin oki ^q 
pa mronn a"m« ipwi ^sk nn» ,oiVa naianV p«» B"y« ,wi 
n«ian m niapV Via* nw p*a ,myan n« cnpn» naa n*na npiVn 
a*n« nipvw s"y «\« "wna pos» inKai jn iy»a vnijroa 
n^y pos» nKiann n« ib nn*? nri ww yunwi nj;^a mnann 
.nnj; to* nwa ni^a A jn^ w p 1 ? pn» ninn nuno ^ nav^S Via* 

# ipva in« oipaai bira jiea n-iao:» nnmo iV w '•a f tB 
nty imaDKi "pun oipaV naa^Vnn n«r niino *b n^n iTan ^ki 
dp m» nvw na ^sa i 1 ? rajram wVa p? ny myaa ^aiv n»y«i 
Vy iTn na^na wwi n« .n-nnon ^ nbyv n«y«ti p*aa in«S 


gold coins in Tishri so as to cover Simeon against loss). Reuben may 
now sell to Levi the note given by Simeon for 90 gold coins. Much 
more so may this course be pursued if Simeon have a bond, whereby 
Ju'lah is responsible to repay him at a fixed period at some future 
date, which he can sell to Reuben on credit till that period and Reuben 
can give a bib to this effect. Then Reuben can sell the afore- 
mentioned bond for as much as he can get. Reuben is not allowed to 
write a dt-td, where).)- he becomes responsible, in order to sell it to 
Simeon even through an agent. 

14. It is forbidden to buy produce or any other object by paying 
the money in advance and agreeing for the produce to be delivered at 
some date thereafter, as we are afraid that in the meanwhile the price 
of the produce may advance and when later he has to deliver the pro- 
duce the purchaser will receive more than the value of his money 
owing to his having paid in advance. If, however, the seller should all the produce which he is selling (at the time of the sale) 
although he will not deliver same to the buyer until some time has 
elapsed, this is permitted ; for what a man has in his possession he can 
sell even at a very cheap price as it pleases him, and even if the 
produce were not quite in perfect condition as it ought to be, but it 
titUl requires one or two processes of labour, nevertheless it is held to 
he in perfect condition and this sale is permitted, but if it still 
require three processes of labour it is forbidden (to sell it in that 

15. If the market-price of produce were fixed, one may buy 
according to this rate by paying in advance, although the seller has 
none in stock, for even if the produce became dearer thereafter the 
buyer does not derive any profit by having paid in advance, since he 
could buy the produce then with his money at this price. And since 
he had fixed the bargain under conditions fixed by the law, although 
thereafter the produce became dearer when it had to be delivered and 
the seller does not wish to give it to him at the fixed price, he can 
take instead some other merchandise which the seller may offer him 
or the seller can give him the money value at the present price of the 
prod uce. 

16. If one have merchandise which can be sold at a cheap price 
at one place and at a dearer price at another place, and his companion 
says to him : " Give it to me and I will take it to that place (to obtain 
the better price) and I will sell it there and I will use the money for 
my own purpose until such a date when I will refund the same to 
thee according to its (former) value after we have allowed for the 
expenses incurred in connection with the goods," and if the risk in 
transit were undertaken by the companion, the transaction is prohibited, 


tip* rpbrh inn* inm /itvid laian bv wiraen dm ,tdk /ip6n 

pwn ty rwiD ona rwpn* pan 'p rvarh rwbrb wid ,p 
niton hspw natoi .mya pin a"p mto *6 ]n* on^S osv;n 
ids mn ,mton *?y inn mnn« nw tn^f? rua^w nmn n« 
.nmnie v 1 ?? topai fcmn mrai mna pto V? «rw 

pyDt* ^>i3 , » ,to» niino maipr wpth -firm pm JT 
annr natoi /pi p rtm ■tf> jnn wi dvd nmno ^ ion b nrt 
.pyw 1 ? mora lew ny pun ty ,nTnon mmm 

win na i 1 ? Taw /una ,ypipn ^ flmrA inio ^ 
•j 1 ? «vi nn td wTavn n« ^ jnn dk na pww nnip *6 iDm 
*"> »m to nya •ft jnn «nn toa ft oton d«i nj&ft jawii ^a 
nto nnto^D ru^ie niTa» pn tcdi dwd ,nra Djnam /mra dw 
]^« ^amt a"* 1 ^*vn tmn toa aim ubb np-ft n^aa -pto ^loa 1 ? 
nat ,onpi»a *ft nbwh a*ra un* m» ,my&n nanon na» nw 
w i 1 ? toio n\T m .-wya "^ kvj nn td ft jnn ok "ft ienp 
.ima n«n ,yy*\$n p? n-np oto 1 ? "6 onpb» ••a 1 ? o'oini 

ypipnt* msd nt paya nwrA irna jfpip niTa#a Kpvn 4 3 
wm ,n? pya tdh toia niTara nia-in 1 ? tox ,td "ft mjpa 
inae? "ft onpei ,pt t»6 vDKto *ft rwyn* dinh nx law dkp 
ninsa nrxten nx i 1 ? rwjp nt ^at^ai ^^x^d 1 ? DJa:t^ onip dim 
*ioa Vm .nd^hd wniPD irx ^ism |va-i ,td» rm /win p 
fix toj^ uhv s''r« iTtD ^nrN^D 5 ? Diaj by\$n dk ^n ,nieAn 
nii^^ ^atra ns» 'ft onpnS inio nain CD' 1 ta in« J ? ny nanten 
♦rtN'fen nSi r WTaw ^^ nsx^Da i^d ^nn^ jwi ^va 


but it is permitted if the (owner and) seller take this risk and he can 
then give the companion some reward for his trouble. 

17. One is permitted to lend his fellow 100 Dinars (or coins) to 
buy goods therewith in the market, and after they have been taken 
home the lender may give him 120 Dinars for the same, provided the 
lender received the goods and took them to his home and the risk in 
transit be undertaken by the lender; for it is as though he had a share 
in the profit of the transaction and consequently he takes the risk. 

18. Simeon can say to Reuben who is going to a place where 
they sell goods cheaply, "Bring me goods from that place and I will 
give thee so much profit " ; this is permitted provided the risk in 
connection with the goods be undertaken by Reuben until he has 
delivered the same to Simeon. 

19. It is permitted to increase the rent of ground. How? If 
one let a court on hire to another saying to him before he took 
possession : u If thou wilt pay me the rent immediately it will be ten 
gold coins per annum and if monthly thou wilt pay me one gold coin," 
this is allowed. The reason is as follows : Because according to strict 
law rent is only due at the conclusion of the period of tenancy and 
since he is receiving a gold coin every month, he will receive 12 coins, 
this is not an extra consideration on account of waiting for the money 
for the tenant is not obliged to pay in advance, and as regards the 
proposal : " If thou wilt pay me the rent immediately it will be ten 
gold coins," he gives him the benefit of two gold coins because he pays 
in advance before payment falls due, this is allowed. 

20. Only in hiring ground is it permitted to increase (and vary) 
the rent in this manner, because the ground is transferred to the 
buyer forthwith, but to increase the wages of a workman in this man- 
ner is forbidden, i.e., if one engage a workman to do some work for 
him after a certain time and if he gave him his wages in advance the 
day before he begins his work, and on this account he is willing to do 
the work at a cheaper rate than is right and proper, this is forbidden 
since the workman is not employed then and it is as though his labour 
then is in the nature of a loan, nevertheless if the workman had to 
begin his work immediately there and then, although he will not com- 
plete the work until many days have elapsed, it is permitted to pay 
his wages in advance in order that he may work at a cheaper rate, as 
it is wages proper since he has commenced his work immediately and 
it is not in the nature of a loan. 


pTI nan vi nn 

/na 1 ? ioth post* paa ^nn mivwa tromb imo # jo 

/iat? i3i "p iS in* 1 wmtfi nn i^yk maw ruv ^a» unn oy njnro 
I 1 ? jnu -JK ,*b idik i*?K3i ^aru ^ *poioa kSk nr pK» ^mo 
tpDio "»3« wba p6 i 1 ? ]n« k 1 ? t»n ,^s id: 1 ? -pi -p rono 
^31 ,ownn navia nytea to p win#a «pvn pmon iai p ■$ 
ok SaK ,nnK aim Kin San a"K avn dip v6y mn kS nny nm 
own rami njwai mvu id onoa a^nm ownn navia ny^a 
♦tidk ,p?n namn ^atea no nan A nn 1 ? nwenn 1 ? 

o» ,any mm inn ^w^i mans d"^ rv6» Sk^ 4 S3 
*6»a -jki ,rr6n dk k*?k nSnn pianS bw o*iayn p«t^ p:j?: Kin 
ok *?3K ,nnio ,anyn p iron*? Si^ m rriwi p niaji 1 ? ipsn n\T 
anyn i^kd in a"K anyn nx n^nn yianS ^ia* o'laynt* p#a Kin 
bxwn ni^tf D"iay pi pidki ^xnt*^ ni^m D"iayn p mS 
man 1 ? ^y n^on pat* pwa Kin dk ,any Kin inn bxim ,mana 
mSn o ff iayn ^yk kvd , » k 1 ? nt^Kai rr6n o*iayn n« k'jk n^nn 
oj n^nn man 1 ? birw pwa Kin dk tea nnio ,anyn p najp ?k 
nya pi any ^kwm dki ,tidki fvh ioa Kin anyn 3"K ,anyn nK 

.nmo ,mann nya k*?i ppn 

Vwna mana myo ^at** mS Wli noK^ d"id^ 4 vO 
loiD ni^om ,n"DP kSk pa^'a iS jnu wk i^sk ik ,m \om by 
oitf p« mton tyi ,o"iayn bw notwi ty ik patron ^ pn k"k 
nibon 1 ? dot nK k^d m^twi 'tk^m dk i^ski ,inio ,fmnK 
patron nnnK ^2^ inna ri«r hoj , > rtbarm na^ai ^ap 1 ? nnio 
mm kS n^t^n f?^ .innnK ^ ^n nirna pa «n«ana pa niyoni 

•nmnK oi» 

m^» nan bwwb am ^ot^ ik paro \rm b#w pi 4 n3 



21. It is permitted to increase the dowry of the bridegroom, 
thus if one fixed a certain sum for his daughter's dowry and made an 
arrangement with his son in law that he would give him so much 
income yearly as long as he had possession of the dowry, this is per- 
mitted, for this is merely like an addition to the dowry, kind if he say 
to him : " I will give thee a present of so and so much at such and such 
a time, and if 1 fail to do so I will add to the dowry so and so much," 
this is permitted. All this is valid provided they agreed thereto at 
the time of writing the marriage settlement, for until that time there 
was no obligation to pay anything and therefore it is all accounted as 
one liability. But if at the time of writing the marriage setlement he 
became liable for a certain sum as dowry and later at the wedding 
ceremony they agree to come to a different settlement, namely, to give 
the son in law something in consideration of forbearance (in paying the 
dowry) this is prohibited. 

22. If an Israelite borrow from a heathen on interest and 
another Israelite became surety, if it be of such a nature and circum- 
stance that the heathen can only claim the debt in the first instance 
from the borrower and if it be impossible to obtain the money from 
him. then he will be able to claim it from the surety, this case is per- 
mitted. But if the circumstances be such that the heathen could 
claim it in the first instance from the surety so that it wouid appear 
as thongn the surety had been the borrower and then he had lent it 
to the other Israelite, this case is forbidden. Likewise if a heathen 
borrow from one Israelite on interest and another Israelite is surety, if 
the circumstances be such that the lender can only claim the debt in 
the first instance from the heathen who is the borrower and then if the 
money cannot be obtained from him it can be taken from the surety, 
such a case is permitted. But if the circumstances be such that the 
lender could also in the Hist instance claim the debt from the surety 
so that the latter is as though he had been the borrower, this case is 
forbidden. If the Israelite be surety only as regards the capital and 
not for the interest, in this case it is permitted. 

23. If a heathen say to an Israelite: " Borrow money on my behalf 
on interest from an Israelite on this security," or even if he should not 
give him any security except a bond (acknowledging the debt) and the 
lender is satisfied with the security or the bond of the heathen and 
no risk is attached to the intermediary, such a transaction is allowed. 
Even if the Israelite who was the intermediary should transmit the 
interest to the lender, the latter is permitted to accept it; provided the 
lender had definitely understood that all the risk connected with the 
security and the money, whether in transmission to the borrower or 
vice- versa, is his own, and the intermediary incurs no risks of any 
kind in the transaction. 

24. Likewise an Israelite who has given security or a bond to his 
companion, who is an Israelite, that he should borrow on this for his 


pi *pay m m 

to pn "jdid wh D"iayn d« p'^aya rrana mya m to ibwa 
to«n»*n dn pi ,vna nvin« dm p« nAtwi to"» ,nawn by i« patwan 
rnya rr\b mbanb naa a^nm para to nan tow^ nbnn mbn 
D'uyn dx wanm ppn ob^ 1 ? *toi n? pa»n to nttna D"iaya 

.nma nab patran to y"« laio 

a"nm ,tnnb a*ia rpana paw to a'layb mbnp tonan 4 fD 
to^ ntoi m pa#a to myan nx A rrfr mn& wanb tontpvi xa 
pp*nn tonp\n d« baa ,nma pynsn ly avna wn» jrann nx 
ppa «in ban nn nmbnn ja? bab n s am oy ppn na s|p? naa 
■nm ,rrana nan banana nt pat?a to mito maw /w.ts^ to 

♦iD'da rram n« jna itoa 

bwwb am* mbm ,a*iay to anpaia to-w to vmya 4 *D 
atob mn a^nrp amn nam dk^ D'"tayn nvviNa vn dn rrana 
,*nDM a^iayn ninn«a irx am ,nnia vmyaa 

nto» w ,a ff iaya n^aia mya niito panss* psnw 4 ?3 

jwyb -p« oan 

b* ioti A rwfeA on rvana uaa nito toh naia ,|"D 


♦KpD^ own 

can ipmrnb ran nvnm ia pww mya nam? jrron 4 tf 

wi *a *:aa ,mam NpD^y anpj inr mw &nw to mm noann 
ton mm At* mnn«a mn *w topan ma nAa mn n» myao 
mnnaa mn nnp Avx pnpa mn wn vto naann d:i ,mm n« 
Sapam vto ni w.o naann a:n nr •wia nvnn nx npA mm jnian 



use money on interest from a heathen, and if the latter should 
rely only on the security or bond without making the intermediary in 
any way responsible, it is permitted. Likewise if the Israelite, who 
in the first instance lends to another Israelite, his friend, upon the 
security of a pledge should say to the lender, "Borrow money 
from a heathen on interest on this pledge and I will be responsible for 
the payment of the capital and interest," if the heathen be satisfied 
with the pledge alone as security, this is permitted. 

25. An Israelite who lent money on interest to a heathen on a 
pledge at so and so much a month, and thereafter the Israelite came to 
his friend so that he might lend him "money on this pledge and thereby 
receive the interest which will accrue from that day until repayment, 
this is permitted. But if the first (mentioned) Israelite had already 
converted the capital with the interest for the whole period of the loan, 
then the entire sum forms part of the capital of the Israelite and it is 
forbidden to borrow on this pledge from a fellow Israelite on interest, 
for it is as though he gave the interest from his own pocket. 

26. If the money of an Israelite were on deposit with a heathen 
and the latter lends the same to an Israelite on interest, if the heathen 
were responsible so that if the debt became a loss he would be 
bound to pay with his own money, this transaction is then per- 
mitted, but if he accept no responsibility it is not permitted. 

27. Partners who require to borrow money on interest from a 
heathen should consult the Ecclesiastical Authorities how to act. 

28. It is prohibited to borrow on interest from an apostate, and 
to lend him money on interest should also be avoided. 

Eules Concerning Business Partnership. 
1. If one advance money to his neighbour to do business there 
with, provided the profits be shared and also the loss be shared equally, 
this is termed Kpc^* and is forbidden ; because half the money is like 
a loan in the hand of the receiver for it is entrusted to him on his own 
responsibility and he also reoeives any profit, likewise he is (partly) 
responsible for any loss, and half (thereof) is (in the nature of) a deposit 
in his hands for the risk attached thereto is undertaken by the lender, 
who has the profit arising from this half as well as the loss therefrom, 
and the receiver who does the business with this half (i.e. the deposit) 


pi wpoy w rn 

^so pi m? inun 1 ? *pw kvw jnpcn ^m mioi porno «™ 
]nui on m 1 ? nn\i t&ni iidni n'O'n *im na^nn win n« A jaw 
«w ipSm porno kvw miasm born ^tstt -iop n?^« ^apon 1 ? jjtu 
■tt"D i^bn *n /nat* niron nrnj nr«o to b jnn* in aivp^ 


ppn jo Tosnp io"6 ]o*u ^pon k<t n^ nunr6 pSi^ 4 S 

♦nyntjo n"o pw Kit X s ? mm tyi cipo o^r s"r n"3 
nn^ hst oat? ^pon to Kin mnanp ,m:nnS \*bw J 
mm imo Sdi ito nrn Km ito mm pS-n irn -pi -p ]nu-n 
imi r^-*? nsm ab bzpnn K»noo *o poj Kin n? -p-n /fc -w 
"»ski ,m Jinn Npo^r wn inn ,on\j«o iavp^ no *so \r\ub 
Pki owa iavpt^ mm or ppn n« jnwfc )n^ bw ,TDsn on 
woon r"K tiobS i 1 ^ nrw a^n rtr tw pw ^id^k ow jko 

•ronawi jo 

mnv i3i -pa ;nun W nvnn p^n nx ^pon njpw Sax 4 T 
nvr»» -p* k*?k ^idk inr ]bik biz a"o o"nK "6 nn^ :nno 

•rwan baporfc 

|ot nn« dj mron iSvk laornn p? ty Kpcr ^ in: ,n 
Konoo *a p'Tm* pm ira dj nm iS jn^ pornon -p* ,pnan 
-iopn iinn spvi aino 1 ? inv aio o"oi pawn wn ^r yto ikbn 
♦nt vona o"j mm prn inx 1 ? ^apon bvx mron pK&» dkip Kpoy 

nao ,*rt v^app o"n •uk nmo »«po s r noi: ib» ^ 
n:» '•vn 1 ? Npcr niinn iVd^n dot hno "jo in^jino pun i 
x^n^ '•rr^ n«u «nn» nmo nnno Ssty r w « Vtt^nnro .nisoSi ovo 
jnaTp oni h":n *p nrn m:pS ^x n^no nn mnn^ nmip mvn 
mrnom 'b nvnon nw n^ino nnixo *rt 'n jn^ mnn ^oi ^mro^ 



which belongs to the lender for this (deposit) is lent on account of the 
fact that he has lent him the one half as a loan, this transaction is 
considered to be of the nature of interest and is forbidden. There is 
a method of legalizing the transaction as follows : if the lender give the 
receiver some remuneration on account of his work and trouble in 
connection with his (the lender's) half and this remuneration is stipu- 
lated or it is paid at the time when he gives him the money (or loan), 
then even a small remuneration suffices. 

2. They cau ngree that the receiver should not be entitled to be 
believed should he say that he has lost part of the capital unless there 
be trustwoithy witnesses, nor is he to be trusted as regards the profit 
except he take an oath. 

3. They can agree that it is optional for the receiver, should he 
desire it, to receive so and so much in lieu of the profit due to him 
and that any surplus should also be his (the receiver's). This 
method is proper. Indeed it is to be assumed that the receiver does 
not wish to take an oath and to give to the lender according to the 
amount stipulated by them, this is the (so called) " permit to do 
business " (KpD'P in\i) in vogue among us. Even if there be a loss, he 
can still give the lender his capital together with the profit agreed 
upon by them and no prohibition arises here, as owing to the fact that 
he is liable to take an oath, he can release himself therefrom by 
paying the money. 

4. The receiver is forbidden to purchase the share of the lender's 
profit at so and so much, so that he would be obliged to give that 
amount in due course, under all circumstances the borrower must have 
the option (referred to in the previous section). 

5. If one give money to another for business for a certain time 
and the money was returned after the time limit, then the receiver must 
give the lender a profit for the extra period. It is assumed that the 
money remained in his possession on the terms originally arranged. 
The best plan is to immediately write in the " business permit" that if 
the money remain in the hands of the receiver after the time limit, the 
condition set forth should continue to hold good thereafter. 

6. The text of the business permit is as follows : " I, the under- 
signed, admit that I have received from N.N. the amount of 100 gold 
coins to do business therewith for half a year from the date mentioned 
below and I hold myself liable to purchase for so and so much mentioned 
above all such genuine merchandise as should seem to me to be 
especially suitable for the purpose of profit. This money takes pre- 
cedence before my own money as regards all the profit which Provi- 
dence may give to me in connection with that merchandise, half 
thereof shall be mine and half shall belong to N.N. and so with the 
loss in equal shares. As soon as the half year, from the date 
below, expires I am bound to return to N.N. aforementioned the 
capital and half the piofit. I shall not be entitled to be believed if I 

1 J i 

*n fnfa mxS iw ,p^ro p*?n Kin ,wft Vn pi ,ton pirn h A 
dji ppn fix ?":n pun n 1 ? vmrft stib \jx na&^i d^d jw 
ony w s'y x?x /mDsniD^ nuoaa "6 am xSi /6p mn ^n 
ma mn nun d^iki ,nyutra pi |Dnj Nmi xS mm by\ ,onffa 
dip ^y ib px n* own '*» 1S0 mn pSn nya i 1 ? jrrt run** dx^ 
p to ,mn nam nw 110'' '•■sk -dS **b -pw mien a ruran 
Yinxx^pt to ,pyia jbt irtiA cpc tdwi ^ya? nuaxa jvwi 
.^ay isp vAapi ^n pixn Kpaw na on ^n myan nx 
,j*wjypin pyop »p*s*? x wJ nn Bat? n ff a ixvujix 

1 imp iwea 

.nyjiya^m mim 

nunrA ptoa* xp^y nap am^ on^> x*xi npun ny#n dx 4 T 

•s'ya y^n on:nn ^ 

: m pjya MpD^ wn tb» lanai *?y niya Dnpo nx 4 n 
■utturwB pKBiw*n p"!H*i w nxa vAapp &"n ^x mio 
pnno *jk» ptfxna n? niyoa poy/vn n"oyx Mini nxo id 
tiKb m niyo -pin nbT® rnnsn ^pan p^ n"n ny |Mnm nsaa 
i"n pi f>»an pixn *A nsnni •»*?# mmo rw rwtmn ba jyqj 
man 1 ? :nnD nx V'yan py n"nn ybi p^na p*?n mm nosnn 
vnosn idA pio kdm x^i /At* nin ppn nx b*m pun '•& 
K^a px: nhn x 1 ? mm to antra ony w s"y waa x^x 
;n^ b u yzn p* n"-ia mn* d«^ uva romn nxr -^x ,njra»a 
nno t^^n -jd i*?» mm p':n ijra djt ppn nya S^n pun **A 
nuBNJ mvi p to ,nw njnan dw my i 1 ? ] s x w wan^w 
Aojr ia» *rAapi iPyifl p? nnxS t)x naiwi byii 
AimnqfsAa pjmaf ^rt x'6in ntwi ** ikii^ih 

•a^fi vfen rmm ,pa«h^a *A tony uusa 



say I have had a loss unless it be corroborated by two trustworthy 
witnesses and as regards the profit I am only entitled to credence on 
oath. It is moreover on condition that if I desire to give N.N. ten 
gold coins for his share of the profit, then he can have no further claim 
against me and the balance of the profits shall belong to me only, even 
if it be evident that there is considerable profit. All the terms of the 
agreement in favour of the one on whose behalf it is drawn apply also 
after the term of the expiry mentioned therein and as long as I have 
not returned the aforementioned coins they remain in my hand for 
the purpose of the business in the manner aforementioned. I have 
received the remuneration for my trouble. 


Place and date. Signed in our presence. 

„ (Signatures of witnesses) 

7. If there be not time to write the "business permit" it is 
permitted to agree orally to all the aformentioned conditions. 

8. If one pay in advance for merchandise, the business permit is 
to be written in the following manner : t *l f the undersigned, acknow- 
ledge that I have received from N.N. of the sum of 100 gold 

coins to trade therewith with reference to the goods which I hold in 

until the 1st of Nisan next and the profit accruing to the 

account of the money after deducting all expenses shall be divided, 
half thereof for me and the other half for N.N., likewise if there be a 
loss, the same shall be shared. On the 1st of Nisan next I shall be 
bound to promptly restore to N.N. aforementioned the capital and 
interest belonging to him. I shall not be entitled to credence if I say 
I have suffered a loss until it be clearly corroborated by two trust- 
worthy witnesses and with reference to the profit I shall not be 
entitled to be believed except on oath. Further this is also herewith 
agreed between us that if I desire on the 1st of Nisan next to give to 
N.N. aforementioned in consideration of his capital and his share of 
interest five measures of spirit, then he shall have no further claim 
against me. All the terms of the agreement in favour of the one on 
whose behalf it is drawn apply also after the term of expiry mentioned 
thererein and I acknowledge having received the remuneration for 
my labour. 


Place and date. Signed in our presence. 

(Signatures of witnesses) 


pi upey w m 

pns ,paNi bwb sin *,b» A |ir bsparw ran jrwi dn # b 
nisA bpj iS mpp ,jw in yiis^a sid 11 Sspan nxv nsa ,runan 
Kin run myanp a^na dh B"ys# iAk ,nws*u? *p ^ t»w 
pw ,izb ppn by n^n wk wn r *stfi ,^na nS ,Kpw niins 
-iDsn pint dn i^sn itw sin *ws myan Ss nisA Sis' 1 ]m:w 
16 b"b ,swn din mm jnunb ;>bnb bspon dk. •frsm./noK ,Tra 
-D is iirisp Np^y "ib^ dji punf? jnu f?span dn r,, sm /ana 
vimb nsw una nS s"ji «po^ mins mn n ff a#s sns^p wan 
pm ,n*BB>s isn «pd^ *iaffn n« s"nN ta^r wrp in jrron nbb> 
amm |m;ntp in wbv ts NpD^ iwn hn w^tw n^n nrt wn 
sin ia»n ^ isnsw in /fcpan T3 n:ia ami «pD^ ia»n ^ y"N 
any nn" mnsn W in ,Npa^ ia#s nmsan jbik *a Sy Nin# 
n"a^s bbtt dn "<sn i^n embth Sssi apo^y mins mn sin natww 

•w tsp mnn ay ppn 

mra mn p mm dn n^n win^ •sna xb xpoy *w / 
m^an nx bm wa dn Ssn ,poy nPN is nwS mj/an hn bau 
p'o ,NpD^ nap •una nS *n ,nansi sin nr« jmsb n^n ,poy tttcA 
,/Tjpa 1 ? -pis mro pi*n pjs ,m ]sins nw 1 ? pfw Ssn ,y» mnp 
Sirs '•'sn pyap 1 ? rraeh bw ,*\m aipas i^sn niino m"»« iS »^i 
av iv pyaty ^rt niioa 1 ' nS dne> piNn T'S n^ianr "'Njnsi ,Svu 
jn*' ]ij;a»i Oinis nm pyatrt nvmef) isi "js pnya iS in 11 wSb 
npi^n ]ij;a^^ is^m ,npan Dip 1 ? mio j^p win wan n« pvA 
St^ niinon hn n:ip Nin nrsi is Dterr» p^i 1 ? vriaa ntp )W 
♦niipn p^a» W inmnNS n\t niinam ,any ^ss hW i^sni ,piKn 

p« p^isn ja? yonsi .mpa pyae^ s^n rm» pun pi 4X 1 
rupn p« s"j nrs ,pi np« A pna^ pjnsw nrwvn purt mva * 
]bins i 1 ? rw rmro np« \\ynvb •nisa^ pi«i» n^n ,npoy w 



9. If the lender desire that the borrower should give him a deed' 
of his indebtedness, simple and binding, according to the law of the 
land in order that if the receiver declined to pay when the term expires 
or if he should die, it would be easy for him to secure repayment of. 
Ids money (by being recorded) in the municipal offices, but they 
agree orally that this money is subject to the " business permit ;" even 
if the deed refer to the capital only, since the lender can collect all 
the money by means of the deed of indebtedness which he holds, even 
if there be a clear loss, such a transaction is forbidden. Even if the 
receiver be trustworthy to the lender, being a respectable person, 
nevertheless this is of no avail. Further, if the receiver give the 
lender also a "business permit" wherein it is written that the afore- 
mentioned bill of indebtedness is subject to the " business permit," 
this likewise is of no avail, for one can be afraid lest the lender or his 
heirs should thereafter conceal or annul the " business permit" and 
collect the money by means of the bill of indebtedness. The only 
permissible course of action is to triplicate the ''business permit" and 
t<» deposit a copy with a third party (or trustee) or for the lender 
to sign this permit and for the borrower to keep the same, and for both 
of them to write upon the bill of indebtedness that it is subject to the 
conditions set forth in the "business permit." or at least they should 
have witnesses to the effect that the bill of indebtedness is subject to 
the " business permit." In all these cases it is immaterial if the 
capital with the interest be included in the deed of indebtedness. 

10. A "business permit" is useless as a means of enabling a 
transaction to take place unless it is a fact that the borrower 
receives the money to do business therewith, but if he take the money 
merely to pay off a debt or the like than the " business permit " is 
useless since it is not genuine. The transaction can be carried through 
in this manner: thus A, who needs the money, has certain goods- 
in another locality, he can sell the same to B at a very cheap price 
on the condition that the option lies with A that if he had not 
delivered the goods to B by such and such a date, he can pay him so 
much instead thereof (so that B will have the usual profit), then B can 
give the money required to A and they should make a symbolical 
agreement so as to make the transaction binding, that is to say, B 
the buyer should offer a portion of his garment to A to rake hold of 
the same and by this symbolical act he purchases the goods of A, 
even though no witneeses be present and the goods are at the risk of 
B the buyer. 

11. Likewise A who owes money to B and when the time of re- 
payment arrives A has no money and he assumes that B will wait a 
little longer, in this case a 'business primit" is of no use, but A 
should sell to B some goods which he has in the aforementioned circum- 
stances, and B should restore to him the bill of indebtedness which* 


irr piKTi ,i^d i^y i 1 ? nvw ain iarn n« "6 tot ]iycn ,^n 
A*jn jawa in«D T]:p i»« mmon by iw *6 

jwd a'riK rpbrwi ■friA nana nw6 ]nw tora^ ♦2 , » 

jtponrs mya A |w» raa on 

♦rwfen *m 

nfrn «pa on, idkw bmttn »#b mftrA w nivD 4 tf 

«m, b"m *ap ,"dk, yuan jfy *)m .Mi "py yyn dm nay na 
^Dy dn rfibn «pa dk Knfpaoa 'no« *an pin aba mm w* *n? 
nain ,ttfirayn aajn b"n men aba urn in nati idik put* ,n»n 
■D^mp vry *w onn« n*syh orp ianp kvw *# ,mm 1A1 
/ay 1 ? ftjn* fffitDD vrp ^yb rorfjn mvo nform ,rnrw *vy "jyb 
*1<ry nym* iDMw oyb nv6if?o rcno mnv "tt ?y rrrspn rronm 
m idin avian i^y ;pm ny^a vyb mtem f tn ■jraatn ttjio 
"Vwnn^i v; rmkr6 nwo mbb -p-iv dn *wy ^sn jur 'ni Ktpn 

/6 n:;nn mry ixy^i onaia ^ 

p dn i6k ,aan rabnb *s*n any aba rmbnS tok 4 2 

•vra nawn tdm mboni ,pavDEi by vnta 

•*nayb , wi ,ynsb A ]w snm*a mfcn nu ruA tidk J| 
*ib*o »*jn ,ynBb nwn m pin inijoa Qbaa ww obd ton r rari 
Teic ia mbn nn ruA mbob tokb dbdi /'nanja ib rmn Kb, 
^g noiop /6 ewa aw -jb A tcnbi rro» rran poa ^•dd'? pt6^ 

/awi l^ it* *ie«n 

^aintr n^ -jiiv 1 ? iAw rwnnn^ mwrftn nx np^ m% td» # T 
f ^TM w* mn ntei dm # ^m ,n^^ noo mten n^d^ i6i naxnS 


he formerly held, and A should give him a deed with reference to th©- 
goods which B has bought of him in the manner aforementioned. 

12. If an Israelite give to his companion a beast to rear on the 
condition of their subsequently sharing the profit, the rule applies aa 
in the case of lending money by a " business permit." 

Laws Concerning Loans. 
1. It is an affirmative precept to lend to a poor Israelite, as it is 
said : " If thou lend money to any of my people with thee that is 
poor, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor ; neither shall ye lay upon 
him usury " (Ex. xxii. 25). Although the word " if" is written in the 
text, our sages, of blessed memory, have the tradition that "iiis " if " is 
not to be interpreted as giving one the option to obey or disobey the 
precept but as being obligatory. Thus they say in the Methilta : " 'If 
thou lend money to any of my people ■ this is a duty (to be observed). 
Dost thou say it is a duty, perhaps it is optional, therefore the verse 
teaches thee: 'Thou shalt surely lend him' (Deut. xv. 8). It is 
obligatory and not optional." A poor man who is a relative takes pre- 
cedence before other poor people and the poor in one's city take pre- 
cedence before the poor of another city. The religious act of lending 
to the poor is greater than the act of giving charity to the poor. The 
Torah stigmatizes one who refuses to lend to the poor, as it is said : 
" And thine eye be evil against thy poor brother " {ibid. 9). Concern- 
ing the one who lends to the poor in the time of his distress the 
text says : " Then shalt thou call, and the Lord shall answer " (Is. 
lviii. 9.) Even if a rich man be in need of a loan, it is a religious duty 
to lend to him and also to give him pleasure by means of kind speech 
and to advise him with advantage to his position. 

2. It is forbidden to lend money even to a scholar without 
having witnesses, unless a pledge be forthcoming. The best course is 
to have a deed drawn up referring to the loan. 

3. It is forbidden to exact payment from the borrower when it 
is known that he is unable to pay, even to confront him is prohibited 
lest he be p ut to shame since he cannot repay, and with reference to 
this it is said: "Thou shalt not be to him aa a creditor" (Ex. xxii. 
25). Just as the lender is forbidden to oppress the borrower, so is the 
latter forbidden to withhold his neighbour's money which he has in 
hand by telling him to come again when he has it, as it is said : " Say 
not to thy neighbour, Go, and come again " l (Prov. iii. 28). 

4 A borrower is forbidden to take the loan and to lay it out 
unnecessarily so that it might be lost whereby the lender may not 
have anything from which he can exact repayment, even if the lender 
be very wealthy. He who acts in this manner is called an evil-doer, as 

»The ren« continues : " And to-morrow I will give : when thou hast it by thee.' 


*m caan wi /'d 1 ?^ m*?i m^i y«n mfri '*» ,y«n H*p: p nsnym 
bjo Mint* rr6n nM too nftornrai ,"]^d fty 3on -p3n poo 
abb i 1 ? nv6r6 mSp 3EnB D^nM poo by nwnb tA» nM? ma 
.rrarua ib rain mS dipd oya b23 *najn 3 ff n« wiA tot 1 ^^ 

«rar ura ,0 wntn 160 inrt -p* #P 3tWD ^ n ^ an ♦*"! 

n311B 1*OTP 13 MVIOI DVPpi M1B Stf ^ ST^fl DM1 'fiOl 103 

..noj&inibna nit^i n^a: ^3 *im noffnb bo* aya mSm nnsj mn 
ibimp s a t^i ,"i 33 rrfrrfc nib nrro MBnoai ,oin3 nnotwi ot A 
wntwn frirwm «f?w ,ib*j6 Mb *om nwrf? bo* onnMb Kpm 

.nMibnn f?oeo pi djh3 13 

fflttfai nyao m^p rrftn p pswo nnpb rvbnn mni dm # *| 

,p no o by dm o wjn Mb ,i 3 1™ **bM 

'^33 mmp^i pi noiyn p iw nM dim pw obiyb 4 T 
,,pnanb *jWn rt?3 narrh iion by 3in ia» ib tw to .i^smi na 
'm^ # W3 lira jmfi lew mitfrf? udmi .avp ib wi Y'sb M3" 1 

."nbiy Tbrwa ptwi bM„ 

flTBBO W? "p* I 3 PP B n^V* " inp{? T1W 1B3 ^H 

vBP3i ^opb.i by 13» ibw iB3 Mini? "»:sa pnio pwan 

niban pa -p ,iiapb nnMb ppsn nM niDab wi ttk ipsjnt* 

♦D^bysn ny-ia Mbt? uspab im nnM no joffan nM Tpwib wi 

v6b ptb i3y-»B , « Mb dmp pron by non nM mban ,Q 
~iy miM men mS dm n«ibn njwa naib nnt> r ib aibn jo»an Mn* 

.v»3ya ^ '•lip m,t» *r6s jar 

"^ •'Mil 1 1 ? iaiM mom ,1-ionb 3^n» ynv kvw '•a ^ 

A Sna nnr ib oS^ba yds /b 3^n ttkcp 


it is said : "The wicked borrowetb, and payeth not again " (Pa, xxxvii. 
21). The sages have commanded (us) : " Let the money of thy fellow- 
be as precious to thee as thine o\wi " (A both ii. 17). And if the 
lender know that the borrower is a man of this type having no con- 
sideration for the money of others, it is better not to lend him money 
rather thau to do so and to be compelled thereafter to exact repayment, --v 
and consequently he will transgress on each such occasion the precept : 
"Thou shalt not be to him as a creditor" (Ex. xxii. 25). 

5. He who lends on a pledge must avoid using the same, as it 
might be considered to be interest, but if he lend to a poor man on the 
security of a ploughshare or an axe or the like which can be hired out 
at a good price and will only be slightly worn by use, he may let it out 
on hire without asking the owner's permission and he can deduct from 
the debt the proceeds, as it can be assumed that the borrower w r ould 
agree to this. Some authorities hold that this applies only with 
reference to other people hiring the article, but not to the lender of the 
money lest he be suspected of using the article free of charge merely 
because of the loan. 

6. If the lender wish to take a pledge from the borrower, not at 
the time of lending but thereafter, he must not do so except with 
the consent of the Jewish Court of Law (p n^). 

9. One should always avoid as much as possible becoming a 
surety or receiving trusts. If one have a note of indebtedness against 
his neighbour, which was becoming worn away and the script thereof 
was likely to be erased, he should go to the Jewish Court of Law to 
have it certified. One must not keep a cancelled note in one's house, 
as it is said : " And let not unrighteousness dwell in thy tents " (Job 
xi. 14). 

8. Just as it is necessary to be careful in looking after a deposit 
so also must one be very particular in taking charge of a pledge, since 
he (the lender) becomes like a paid trustee with reference to the 
pledge. Just as the one entrusted therewith is not permitted to hand 
over the deposit to another person to take charge of same, so the 
lender is permitted neither to deposit the pledge with another nor to 
pawn it without the consent of the owner. 

9. He who lends his neighbour on a pledge with the condition 
that if he should not repay the loan at a certain time, he shall forfeit 
the pledge, then the lender must take care to tell the borrower when 
the loan is made : "If you do not redeem the pledge by such and such ; 
a time, I am entitled thereto from the present time." 

10. If one be aware of his indebtedness to his neighbour, but 
the latter says to him : "I am convinced that you do not owe me any- 
thing " he is exempt thereby from repayment, for the lender forgoes 
his claim 


^7) d^m raw vi m 

ram ainna rtnrn .rrten nay myaa rp^n nat rrtwn *rt 

k^ rrb nm cwa ,niDH -p ™ *ft maw rrbm td innp 1 ? 

♦rntaf? rwrt wit «^ irtw ta wi ,njnD 

♦d^bm raw n n 

,nn pra dj ruinu d^sdd nawn vparm an naaon ^ 
*tau nai ta wym w ta n{? wu riwn ,p*6 P n:i ^ fil ° 
nvp ta praia* man ta ma? lata vna ana rapi b") ■jnto* 
njna nw 1 ? a^na wia rmroa pnp-6 .rem* * tan PT D 
>o^ k^ toama *j nain nx prA tew saisai to D^poisn an 
rutra » # iT« nwn n"tan n:t?a nnvi rrnwn na»i ,ktds "'T 1 ? 

rnta pa ,ns ta nite pa ,mte ta n« naat^a nnrap 4 2 
rmna hot iTanf? |rw to ,d^d3J mnrro ia w i^bki /iB*a 
noo»D mte nto wi .pips ram rrfob rant? ton pn» Mpoy 

.naa^a ru^a pips Kin* ranm 

ta vrfen Dm ,»nwa ir« papan ta to* 1 n * n<| tan J 

,qyn ••pi^n ma t^ ypnp papa 

rw vw anyn 1 ? mte "6 ins* cnpi mta 1 ? ins* any 4 T 

•taaro ,nBnwn 

•6 rrna rvn itat* paa ta njro* wirf? a^nrw *o 4 p| 

.njnatpn n« p DJ naa^a paan nn naaffa rwu* fwn 

,a"nnn pA nayi ,nsai paa yrsrb a"n nvw ••a f l 
•vibb*d nywn pn ,irftan n^ vwui pi pse Tfcn ttnai 


11. When a borrower repays the lender through a messenger, 
the latter acquires full title to the money on behalf of the lender 
immediately it is handed to him, and should the borrower regret 
having paid and desire again to borrow the money from the messenger 
(stipulating) to repay him after a while, he is forbidden to do thii 
transaction as it is borrowing without the owner's knowledge and the 
messenger is also forbidden to return the money to the borrower. 

Laws of Release. 

1. The majority of the authorities on Jewish Law agree that the 
cancellation of cash debts obtains in these days also, even outside 
Palestine, but the general rule has been to ignore this law and the 
great teachers in Israel have protested against this, but a few of them 
have endeavoured to find an excuse for the non-observance of the Law, 
based on the interpretation of a few authorities who are not stringent 
in this matter. If, however, anyone should wish to be particular in 
observing the precepts he is indeed obliged to follow the teaching of 
the majority of the authorities. In a particular instance one can evade 
the difficulty by means of the Prosbul 1 document and thereby he will 
escape a monetary loss. The Shemitah (7th) year was in 5635 (1875-6) 
and again in 5671 (1911-2). 

2. The seventh year causes every lender to release his debtor, 
it makes no difference whether the loan were arranged orally or by deed 
or on mortgage. If one gave to his neighbour money by means of a 
"business permit " according to which half the money is considered to 
be a loan and the other half a deposit, the former half which is a loan 
is released (by the 7th year) and the other half which is a deposit is 
not released. 

3. If one lend to his neighbour on a pledge, the loan is not 
released (by the 7 th year) and if he lent on the security of a land mort- 
gage, a diversity of opinion as to the law obtains in this case. 

4. A surety who had paid to the lender but before the borrower 
had paid the surety the year of release had intervened, then the debt 

is cancelled. 

5. One who has to take an oath concerning the money he owes 
his neighbour, if he were to admit his liability the year of release 
would cancel the debt, then it cancels also the oath. 

6. One who owes money to his neighbour and denies his liability 
and they come to law and he^ is adjudged guilty; the judges 
write their judgment and hand it to the lender, then the year of 
release does nwt cancel this debt. 

*&— Jewish Encyclopedia, x. 219L 


'*sk ^rat? wwn *w id? njfiffi wan n« mben *T 
i^b« ,nt am mn dw *bv icy nann ck baa ^nawD *an 
*itfb iD»a ana dm pi /inaDtPD rwH /iBDPn ;wa n«r nnm 

inicb pjnsn p? r*n dw nwb wan n« niban ,n 

♦DTp iyanb bia* nm vhv pS ^n^at^D nwt naam 

/»am * tti on* onb idhi p n*ab vnviBt* iDion # 

OT wibn ibaa b"in ,napna wanb w hpn laian ^ 
ny jnanb mi pm nspna onn«b naian wn baa ,bd»&i 
at£ro wrt 1 ,nib&a vby jspt Dm ,bd»d trot ,-p n?^ fapnw 
.dd^di nmbna mn w ,bbian id lopjaa anai ima ban 

•tao^a mbaa xby ispt Dm ,bdpd wk to* iat* 4 fr0 

d*dj?d napp na pbi o'laya mn m ,D'"oy naa Nan Jji 
,Dbiyb viDpa nau nm D**oyn mp bbpd wk jbmw by n"Dt* 
b*nff\n "pTBTi ,biH0m ins «bi b*n«n "iya D'"oyb a-iy# na pi 
wh ,mbn bjw "wn an tPiayn p baai ,D*opnb jmsb aim 
■pvvw ns bya wanb yainp abx /w nrn «b dm ba« .dd^d 

nias n? nn ,0*05 b nya ynsb 

n« nibon ^"sb ,nsioa «b« D"SDa nowo roirat* pt jp 
norm yppnfcai /urn ba wi nau navy na^own nwa wan 

.avtin na« nam two anya 

iam ,nD&p rtjr mwv am mbanb ynsb «ap nib # T 
mbn ib idk dm /:dd didbj naai ainn n« vn dd^d nibon ib 
nb idx 1 ' bm !>sdd ibapb mbanb viid f «D^apnn» ^« nmi a^ejTK 


7. If one lend money to his neighbour and make an agreement 
with him saying, "The year of release must not release my loan,"' even so 
the loan is released, but if he agreed with him that he would not 
release him with regard to this debt, even if it happened to be the year 
of release, it does not cause the debtor to be released. Likewise if he 
wrote in a deed the term "deposit," the year of release does not can- 
cel the transaction. 

8. If one lend money to his neighbour for a period of yean and 
if the time of repayment occur after the year of release the debt is not 
cancelled thereby, because the lender was unable to claim the same 

9. One who delivers his deeds to the Court of Law saying to the 
judges : "Collect my debt," the same are not cancelled by the year of 

10. One who sells to his neighbour on credit, is considered as 
though he had lent him money and the debt is cancelled by the year 
of release, but the shopkeeper who sells to other people on credit and 
it is not his custom to claim payment until a certain amount has accu- 
mulated, the same is not cancelled; but if he had calculated the interest 
and entered tiiis with the amounts due as a sum total, that is to say, he 
reckons all these items together and enters the sum total in his ledger, 
then he is like a lender and the debt is cancelled by the year of release. 

11. The wages of a hired man are not cancelled, but if the same 
with interest had been entered as a sum total the year of release 
cancels same. 

1 2. Whatever is derived from a heathen is treated as though it were 
identified with the heathen, therefore if one should purchase from a 
heathen a note of indebtedness due by an Israelite, the year of release 
does not cancel the note because the heathen can collect the debt of 
his note under all circumstances. Likewise if one went surety to a 
heathen on behalf of an Israelite and the latter failed to pay his debt, 
so that it becomes necessary for the other Israelite, who was surety, to 
pay the heathen from whom he takes the note referring to the bor- 
rower, then the same is not cancelled by the year of release. If there 
were no deed, but he sues his neighbour and says that the latter is 
obliged to pay the heathen on his behalf, then this neighbour need not 

13. The year of release cancels money debts only at its close, there- 
fore the one who lends his neighbour in the year of release, may col- 
lect the debt during the whole of the year, but at sunset on the eve of 
the (following) New Year the debt is cancelled. 

14. A borrower who comes to pay a debt to the lender after a 
year of release has elapsed (since it was borrowed) and the lender says 
to him : "I cancel the debt and you are already released as far as I 
am concerned. " If the borrower say to him, " Nevertheless, I wish 
you to accept the money from me " the lender may do so, but the 
borrower must not say to him : " I pay you this money on account of 


^71 rrnjn p»ji pro *n m 

# -]b wnu •on runoai on ^ iS noN 1 a 1 ™ n 1 ? ]nu ^k wa nftfl 

r> oan\3 kvw mbn now nitysnm irbnrwn iwy 1 ? n"6on ^d*i 

,on,T bx t nm bysh bw w* nft n:noa 

rote tex itei niten ^lanns vtdi ♦oobjo wm Carina ♦IB 
te» aa 1 ? ^k noio j^w orw orpte now ,pn n^a vrw nnvi *>ja 
♦rrcnNP pr te niam ]niN najKtp wte ^jn vite *?y ^ pn» yn 
WW! pKwi anna arAn anion pirtn ma ^anna A coma nam 
pB^a nooS pomn jwtei /lai *:n noio otiA low mten *xbj 
anya wn nmi *poa dj am nus^ p^a*i y o*ny pts^a in dm^i 
n« ainaS «pn pa*w p«» « ffv » nonn nrp y DT1 P n ^ n ^n 
,n»a ioipoa p« on '^ni ,d.t:b^ now n™ noa *i n^n toannwi 
,wte cpoatp n ff a^> wnotp noio •on noi 1 ? { ?ia , » 

kw *?a *>Bifi ,ypnp mte 1 ? ^ dn n*?n Sarins *no nS ,fEJ 
rv n*?n DiSa nto pa ^wn ,md aipj pvy *bx b pit ">bhi /jd 
V?nS dj dm ,ot p dj ,nr mW "6 a^n mm* ^b wm in a-.yn 1 ? 
Vtdki rrirt * ma? 1 ? to t?"a rpnp mtort t^ on ,bhz unb pa 

.tons 1 ? •onoi voea Nte *?wn nnN *n ty 

♦rrnjn ]j?aJi ]jna *n 

ntpsnn 1 ? on*? *wn ,-poaD rmn oik <oa «w pa tewa ,tf 
tea urn w Nniteo pnnnrft na inan ij^ nnK ^a nm?tyi .aioa 
ostroa Ka 5 ? ovnaiDi aioa ntrsnn 1 ? on 1 ? nt^sx w Dan wsxi no 
uyaiY 1 fib* naj in byai «s s pn dt nn^n oxi ,n*a ^s 1 ? wa^ 
bws\ jT'ao mn ^o psh nxn k 1 ? on .n^nn hmo* wni 



my debt " but he should say : " The money is mine and I give you the 
same as a gift." The lender may even make an effort to persuade the 
borrower to say that he is giving the money as a gift, and if this can 
not be done he must not accept the same. 

15. The document called Prosbul relieves one from granting a 
release (in the seventh year). A Prosbul is obtained as follows, a man 
goes to three men, learned in the Torah, who form themselves into a Jew- 
ish Court of Law. He says to them : " Ye are judges, I deliver over to 
you all claims that I have against so and so, so that I can collect them 
when I so desire," they then write for him a Prosbul as follows : "In a ses- 
sion of three judges (where) we were together, so and so the lender came 
and said in our presence, I hand over, etc." The three of them sign at 
the foot of the document in the capacity of judges or as witnesses. 
They can do this also at the close of the year, that is to say on the day 
before the (ensuing) New Year before sunset. Some authorities say 
that it is not even necessary to write the Prosbul, but it suffices 
by reason of what he has stated in their presence. If there be no 
Jewish Court ot Law in his town he can say " I hand over my deeds 
to a Beth Din which is in such and such a place." 

16. The Prosbul is of no avail unless the borrower has a piece 
of ground, be it ever so small it will suffice, even if he have only a 
flower pot which is perforated and even if the borrower have nothing 
at all except some one to be surety for him or someone who is 
indebted to him (the borrower), this is also sufficient, but if these lat- 
ter persons have nothing and the lender have a piece of ground, be it 
ever so little, he can transfer it to the borrower even through a third 
party and even in his absence and this is sufficient to make the Prosbul 

Law Concerning a Claimant and Respondent 
also Regarding Testimony. 

1. "When something has occurred between two persons to oppose 
one against the other, they should agree peacefully to compromise, 
each making the other some allowance in order to avoid as much as 
possible the humiliation of a legal process, but if it be impossible for 
them to agree to compromise, and they are forced to go to law, they 
should have recourse to a Jewish tribunal (Beth Din). In case of 
force majeure or if the respondent be hard and unyielding, the claimant 
should first summon him to appear before a Jewish tribunal and on 
his refusal to comply with the summons, the claimant should obtain 
the consent of the Beth Bin and protect himself by a civil process 
in a public Court of Law. 


pTi tfttjn lirafl ]y^ -:h rn 

ppab ib no* ,13 prniD Hint* ]idd ihik cyainp na 4 2 
by A binn^ n-ws tdj> nwb nbn rnnnnp na tsapnb onnv 
♦ibtf n« ib pvt* iy dw n' 1 nxv itk ,p n»jn lay dki ,*iKtwi 

^sa abt? pin *Jfib EOSt^DH py -i3Db p byaS TOM J 
/iTanb mip. pin ^ab toab lavy n« D*np* abi .iTOn p bya 
.Man \3sa abtp vnuyta nob ns onpo» it^nj n.t abp 

aba ^aw "warn an maib ib^BK imp npibn pint* owa 4 T 
inn «b nv \jsbn nwyn t&z w ,nni»n n« jnwi -p /wyn 


aw rawa m* dn ib^BK ,py baa ipP pytab TOM # n 
xnk *an ,ipi* pjm* Kb a /y D pa a*nn , > no«n )w wo wai 

•nex'' «btf nib (vranb robnt* 's) wana nrub pa Y'n Miwa 
vby bA^Mi njnat* ^ a'wrc n:aa ^ mw na Dvwfca u^bm 

n:D wa n»ub pa ,pmn np& lam b"n ina tripea njnai* 
*ia rab pn * miMi i ff aa maaM mbn idm* n^p dvikb wsi 
■ma b"n ihk tnpaa nyiat* ^by Mwp nbi njra* ib a"nn« Nbt? 
p bya tik ktp Kbtr -into n:a jwijp ntpbtfb pa ,pmn ipp 
.prnn -ipw nana b"n tpbrni man nwrw na any bwi 

«wa nn»a win* dimm anb annia awn *byan a*ayab ,1 
two Hin tin •jat* /m pn m iam T'aa n^p i« n ff an sprsa 
^» s n -|Via mvb Kpvn ^«na Wen am .una it^ n? wata 
fix manb «b^ pniiDW D»a» .n^sn n« rmj^ ib nb^n ban 

nfcan n« nionb Nbty jnnrio "]a ,pn 

nnt< baa «w jn^ jwi« n"a onb j^tb^bw n^n *:a # T 
t^bh pBD nww •ran 1 .n^:y .nnina noan nb« D^an n^at^ onb 
?3i jowyoa aita dv "»b^a .onb ninan nan« .nn«n nan« ,Dnb» 


2. One who is sued for money, which he has in his possession, ia 
forbidden to seek underhand means to escape from the demands of the 
claimant, thus forcing the hitter to agree to a compromise whereby a 
part of Uie claim will be remitted If he transgressed the command- 
ment and did this, he has not fulfilled his obligation before heaven, 
until he gives the claimant what is due to him. 

3. It is forbidden for one of the litigants to present his case 
before the judge in the absence of his fellow litigant, for that reason 
he should not precede his fellow-litigant in appearing before the 
judge, in order that he should not be suspected of hastening to present 
liis case in the absence of his opponent. 

4. Just as the judge who takes a bribe, even to acquit the inno- 
cent, transgresses a negative precept, likewise he who gives the bribe 
transgresses also a negative precept, for "thou shalt not put a 
stumbling block before the blind " (Lev. xix. 14). 

5. One is also forbidden (under any circumstance) to put in a 
false plea even though he knows that although he is innocent, yet if ho 
plead truthfully, judgment will be given against him, despite that, 
he must not plead falsely. Thus it is stated in the Talmud : " Our 
Rabbis have taught us : Whence do we know that he who is entitled 
to demand one Maneh 1 from his neighbour, should not say I will claim 
two so that if he admit owing the one Maneh he will be obliged to take 
an oath (with regard to the matter in dispute) and I will compel him 
to take the oath with regard to some other matter f— therefore the 
verse says: "Keep thee far from a false matter" (Ex. xxiii. 7). 
Whence do we know that he who is entitled to demand one Maneh 
from his neighbour and he demands two, then the borrower should not 
say, I will deny the entire transaction in the Court of Law, but outside 
the same I will admit to him (that I owe him one Maneh) so as to 
avoid the necessity of taking an oath and thereby he will be unable to 
make me swear with reference to some other matter ? — therefore the 
verse says : "Keep thee far from a false matter " (ibid.) Whence do 
we know that if three people be entitled to demand one Maneh from 
one person, that one of them must not be prosecutor and the other two 
as witnesses in order to obtain the Maneh and divide among them- 
selves 1 — therefore the verse says: * Keep thee far from a faLe mat- 
ter'" (ibid ) (T.B. Shebuoth 3 la.) 

6. Occasionally the litigants choose men to arbitrate between them 
jointly with the Beth Din (Court of Law) or apart from the Beth Din ; 
this is a proper course to pursue, for each one advocates the merits of 
the one who had selected him and the compromise will be properly 
effected, provided the arbitration be conducted in a just manner, but 
heaven fotbid that the compromise should be effected in a perverse 
way ? Foi just as they are warned not to wrest a judgment so are 
they wai ned not to wrest a compromise. 

7. When the men of a town appoint a Beth Din for themselves, 
they must know whether each one (composing the tribunal) possesses 


l One hundred common Shekel§. 

yyi rrnjn pan pa w fH 

JB60D3 D"»:S 1T3D »^ 'KJP ntW «te 13V ,P*1 WM» pi TBJJBn 

wan* Kin *aiip mrt iw wte ibA rwi *m tran kS isite 

1133b ik vjbS n&yb ton sm spa ^w naonw pi tei ,pa 

/'33b itw k 1 ? anr *6m *pa v6h* f?*n wn rtjn ,naa iiwa 

raw croD& ^3n mv6 D*unn Dnrsn ona pip nvw «H 
,ewk d^uci ww b"j;k ,wp dm yjm nwti njrA di3p iroanm 
*pjm \D arte trtapw* pai D'"oy to niK3ij; •osb 13^ «to "na 
,dw d«6 w nrwvn tei ,]toisb hw m* pi 

nSjnn rtort «w rwA *mii n»arft miy rrw « te ♦D 
iv 0w ] s 3 ib rynb a*n ,i*a wa *b rvw pn Kim vmjra 

iidki pvm . wa a^n mny #33 cki nab wrw pa icy in« ip 

>3W 13 jnVP D1K 1^ 1DKP fi'tyK jm" 1 TKP 1313 Tynb 01Kb 

Tjrn «bi ib tw K"y cy TDjn Kia p by3n ib ion rt| 9«i ,ip&o 
,ib rat^ Kb /b mm ony '3 ^ #n* TOD'n i3in by* maw pi 

."pnin ip» iaiD„ 'k:p 

?"K DJ WOT pDDSV 1313 npri Mint ivo inx ijn k.i ,■» 
vj a ^ yo\n,i nt^a Kb piy dk wit 1313 pi ,njna# pyb 
pai ,K''y iv Kb wan row 133 dk baa .ki^kd ismsKb 
»w»an by jn dp K^ioa KbK i:pk ,pio wk k*jti 

w?an nm iaa»a itpvn nbtsa ,mny ,ivnb ia» baun ♦fcT 

IV 3"nK iTiTO ]^^n TiM HIKlS lW ^3K ,DJH3 TJfnf? a^inDI 

k 1 ?-! i 1 ?^ Kni^sn ••a 1 ? *win ia» pi ^3k ^3^ np'b ib ima 1313'tt 13^ np^ bw i"an ^sS na^ Kni^a if? t^ dk pi ; inv 
npKi .13 ,ikii dik^ ww nny ^3 ,mv k^i it inina 13/3 ••ikih ^3 

♦iv<i7 *>ids npini iii3 i^sk ny^ iv 

flo tea n»K n^ia»a i^sk idvj; dk dik pviT D^iyf? ^y 



the following seven qualifications : — wisdom in the Torah, humility, 
reverence, Luc liate of money even of their own, the love of truth, 
their fellow-creature's love towards them, the possession of a good 
reputation because of their conduct. Whosoever appoint* a judge 
unfit for his position transgresses a negative precspt, as it is said : <k Ye 
shall not respect persons in judgment" (I)eut. i. 17), meaning " Ye 
shall not favour anyone " by saying " so and so is so wealthy, he is my 
relative, I will cause him to sit on the bench." It is forbidden to 
stand up in the presence of any judge who is appointed by means of 
silver and gold and it is likewise prohibited to show him any mark of 
respect and with reference to such a person the Kabbis apply the text : 
"Ye shall not make with me judges of silver nor judges of gold" 
(Ex. xx. 23). 

8. In towns where there are no wise men fit to be judges, they 
appoint the best and wisest of the townsmen in the opinion of the 
latter and they shall act as judges (although they are not properly 
qualified to act as judges) in order that the people should not appear 
before the tribunals of the heathens. As soon as the townsmen have 
accepted them (as judges) they cannot be removed from office and all 
their deeds should be done for the glory of heaven. 

9. One who can testify on behalf of his neighbour, if it be proper 
to testify on his behalf and his neighbour would derive some benefit 
from his testimony, if the latter summon him to testify on his behalf 
at the Beth Din he is obliged to testify for him, whether there be 
another witness besides or whether he be alone, and if he suppress his 
testimony he is guilty according to the Divine laws. One is for- 
bidden to testify concerning a matter unknown to him, although a 
reliable person should say to him that he would not lie by testifying in 
this manner, and even if the litigant said unto him, " Come and stand 
near the one witness whom I have and do not testify, only (do this in 
order) that my opponent (lit. debtor) shall be frightened, thereby 
imagining that I have two witnesses and he will admit his obligation 
to me " ; he must not hearken unto him, as it is said : — " Keep thee 
far from a false matter" (ibid, xxiii. 7). 

10. A witness cannot testify alone, except when a money tran- 
saction is involved, when his single testimony is available in a matter 
requiring the administration of an oath. He can also testify regarding 
a forbidden matter with the object of preventing the violation of that 
prohibition, if it were not already violated, but if his neighbour had 
already violated the prohibition, one witness should not testify, for 
his single evidence is not believed and it is only as though he spread 
an evil report concerning his neighbour. 

11. The testimony of one who is rewarded to testify is null and 
void, this, however, relates only to one who had already witnessed the 
facts in evidence, upon whom it, therefore, devolves to testify gra- 
tuitously. One is, however, permitted to take a compensation which 
should be no more than proportionate to the trouble involved in going 


^7) rrnjn pan ]jn& w m 

yaenb nm mnt* ia nmii nmatp A a*rtfu want* nai ,1^2x1 
lawff ,np»b jwb wy Kbi /ntfsnn *sa iay n^Biv ,i"n ipra 
.arret* by nbn ninapntp nabe pvm ^onw p rmn f n nya^ 

bx-.t^ ny p ib w D^3i3 n3iyb nny jnvn bmw ♦iP 
3*n n*™ naa w bmtPM n« 3"nb wnya aw dm DnwuoTO 
nbnna Din /tb Tpnb inia wb dki ib rpnb t»dk bmt^ ws 
at*n bibvi mm b*mn ny ib rwra bimemb &xta laiyn nm 

JPV b33 ib rr ih TT Kb DM 

«ap win iron ,abiyb rynb bi3^ ,*£•« onxntf pi b3 ,T 

WW T3U WN I^BK ,1*113 by 11311 WH fl3in TW1 ]0VU0 "pflD 

r\H naen anan pstb lepasa ian3 A mrttvav anan lino KbK 
n« nm nt^N3^ Kpni ,T?nb bia* anan ima KbK ^3tj inn iann 
*p3?an mn ib^sK rynb bis* ib vrornff yik *jr law ax pi law anan 
bw -|K ,it *<b wi waia iavya p byan ax ba« /wn wi 
•im *jr ism b*m wan mm inKb onann n« iiaab p byan 

angina inKb in own *byaa inNb anp kw iv ♦IB 
a^aysb amnitw *n by a^anp ib^sKi nib m crcrnp cpiynv in 
Tynb a^bios 3":i mbnb *bi 3iynb pi ranp ib^SNi ,Tynb a^bios 
nr a^anix anprnp ubd Kb a'anpn nny nimn nbosp nn ,mbnb 
jaman mn KbK manb pa vrab pa rynb a^biDs m# m an 
mnt* iy ba )3b ,ntb ni vyrb o^t^s wi Kb pnm nt^o ib^QKi kti 
d^k D^nm pnm:i anp wrw ik Dnarn p nnxb 3Yip nm 
H naiipa t^» dk ntmn s"y ib n^ om onb jnvA "p» D^nv 

,«b ik ibosb na 

n^na nviyb biasi jmn mm» ii ,, 3n3 jw ihk^ any ^» ja 
,,naK nnv mn» a^K ^nb ib iidk ^»na oi^aa a^^nn j^ki 


to witness a transaction regarding which he will subsequently he re- 
quired to testify. Also if it ta a trouble for him to go hefore the 
Beth Din lie can take a proper compensation for the trouble he hat, 
but no more. Any witness who derives any benefit or who has any 
interest, no matter how remotely, in the affair of his testimony is 
uafit to teetify. 

12. One should be most careful not to take an oath, even a 
true one, under any circumstance. If one's neighbour be obliged 
to testify on oath on his behalf, but he knows that he will swear 
falsely, he should come to terms in the best way possible, so as not to 
let him swear falsely, as it is said : "The oath of the Lord shall bo 
between them both" (ibid. xxii. 11), and we infer from the text that 
the oath applies to both of them. 

13. An Israelite who knows evidence concerning a heathen who 
has a law suit with another Israelite before the heathen tribunal, if the 
former by his evidence will cause his fellow Israelite to become liable 
more than would be the case according to strict Jewish law, then ho 
may not testify, but if this result will not ensue he may »ive evidence. 
If the heathen had agreed originally with the Israelite that the latter 
should testify on his behalf, and if he should not do so the name of 
God would be desecrated (by the Israelite breaking faith) in failing to 
testify, under any circumstance he must give his evidence. 

14. A person can testify as long as he remembers the facts and 
need have no fear that because it happened long ago his recollection 
thereof will not be clear, even if he cannot recollect his evidence unless 
he refers to the record (which they will hand him) and which he wrote 
in his own book to remind himself concerning the affair (which he 
might forget and which he would only recall by reference to the 
record). Likewise if he recall (the facts) by being reminded thereof 
through another person he can testify, even if the person be the 
second witness ; but if the litigant remind him and he can recollect the 
facts he must not give evidence. The litigant can lay the facts before 
another person who in turn can remind the other party (who had 
forgotten the facts) for this would be a case of being reminded by 
another person (and the evidence is allowed to be given). 

15. A witness who is related to one of the litigants or to one of 
the judges, or if the witnesses be related to one another even though 
the relationship be on the wife's side, they are on certain occasions 
unfit to testify, and even if they be related only to the surety and not 
to the borrower, they are also unfit to bear witness on behalf of the 
borrower. The fact that the Torah has decreed that the testimony of 
relations shall not be valid, is not because of the love they bear to each 
other, for whether they testify to the innocence or the guilt of their 
relative, they are still unfit, it is simply a decree of the Torah, so that 
it were not proper even for Moses and Aaron to testify one for the 
other, therefore any witness who is related to any of the other parties 
or witnesses, or even if the relationship were dissolved, the judges not 
being aware of that fact, he must inform them thereof, and they will 


^Tl n^*Mh hmj *n m 

*?3» n\i avian nvui ,DDn ly rmh pan ay it nvn b* 'km 
pan mrm /?idb orwa tin dn o^ai on V^sn nSaa nnyn 
kw *?*nt^3 d#b» -on by najw *?a rmnn p mij^ biost* 
*?3n ,nawn npy n^i proa wi n ff no new aba^ nai aim rwajr 
^ddj n 1 ? ^iD^n an jtp n^p mj/D3 in rtura nw rrfcrt r« dm 


•rmn nn^a *m 

,*iajD pa ^io&»D pa ,*tkw ba i^sn auA ik toA wh 4 tf 
b^ ]ua Wa vby T»pv *n piw id ba esjna nai mn dk 
^hjd dj jruiA niTon niDi ^mo iw 13 pvn 1 ? DD"p n^anno 
,pint* -pia i« ,mp Tin 1 ? rom» n*?n /rwrA nn by auA Aw 
pwyn Nb ibkw mnv ba A*h wan n« pwyb tidni •toh a*:; 
pw ]ijd wan pxia wb wan pan Mate; m peny vtphi ,-|in n« 
,awi -jba mrnow in A ob»b mm vm nwap in hnAh wa A 

•aw i? 

njna p«i* lan ba w wan b» iAa in wa noinn ba 4 2 
•na&p ny *iavj;a in want? in dot vbj; nam inm veab wan 
rop* "pN a^nb i3b3 nnuv niwoi /nann n?3 naij; n? m ,A 
n«^ao m«nm ,i3b3 aba NbN man pa ^ ,miinn Nb3 w m pan 
*©R3 "jaVi puA 'aa nx\y ib munnv wn an rmpm /tidti nA 

•■nwnn abi TDnn Nb* 

abi rotya n\-i ox rmty rftnjn n« wv6 ^nn bv j; /; d j 
8xv ttw ^A n"m / /l ?ri ntfit rftrn n« a^m /y ^dnj^ n^nw 
man dn baN ,oAjfan vm 133 dn ^bk d^dt nj s n:3 vdti w 


tell him according to the Torah, whether it be right for him to testify or 

16. If there be two witnesses, one of whom knows that the other 
is wicked and unfit to give evidence according to the Laws of the Torah 
and the Judges are not aware of his wickedness, he is forbidden to 
testify with him, although the testimony is true, as it is said: " Put 
not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness" (ibid. 
xxiii. 1), as it is an implication of the text that the testimony of all 
is invalid even if the witnesses be many and one among them is unfit 
to testify. Who is considered by the Torah to be an evil-doer, who is 
unfit to testify 1 Anyone who transgresses in a matter which is 
recognized in Israel as a transgression and which is a negative precept 
of the Torah, provided he transgressed intentionally and did not 
repent. If it can be assumed that he acted unintentionally and in 
ignorance, not being aware of the prohibition, he is not disqualified as 
a witness. 

Laws Concerning Theft and Kobbery. 

1. It is forbidden to rob or steal even a trifle from an Israelite 
or from a Gentile. If it be a thing of such little value that no one 
would bother about it, e.g., a chip from a bundle for a tooth-pick, it 
is permitted. It is pious conduct to avoid doing even this. It is also 
forbidden to steal from one's neighbour even with the intention of 
returning it, it being done merely to annoy him somewhat or by way 
of a joke. It is also forbidden to oppress one's neighbour in the 
slightest degree, as it is said : " Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour " 
(Lev. xix. 13). Who is an oppressor 1 One who has come into pos- 
session of his neighbour's money with the consent of the latter, e.g., he 
has in his possession a loan or rent and does not wish to refund it or 
he puts him off by saying, "Come again." 

2. If one covet his neighbour's house or utensils or any article 
which the latter has no intention of selling and he uses the influence 
of many friends or by his own insistence urges him to sell it to him, 
he transgresses the precept M Thou shalt not desire " (Deut. v. 21) from 
the very moment that his heart was enticed, and he thought by what 
means he could buy it, for " desire " is only of the heart. Desire leads 
to covetousness. The one who buys the things which he has desired 
transgresses both negative precepts, it is therefore said : " Thou shalt 
not covet" and " Thou shalt not desire." 

3. It is a positive precept for the robber to return the very thing 
that was stolen, if it be in its original state and had Dot been altered, 
as it is said, " He shall restore that which he took by robbery " (Lev. 
vi. 4). The same law applies to a thief, he does not do his duty by 
making restitution in money, even if the owner had given up hope of 
recovering his property. If the article, which had been stolen, were 
lost or altered in such a way that it cannot be restored to its original 


pTI rtrrn nMp *n m 

•6 rrcra paa nypw in in^aS inn \pk» ww fronwr in 

rra nn™ i&a dw nawa n"> nvv pan n« nino^ *ma idsh 

mjnan DK rvbvb -p* wn nn« n-.pan Nin ^raan dni ,n^nan ny#a 

/rcnrt tot f??aan dd dm /ft 0^1 «aw iyni» n^n i&ipn 1 ? 

ik nion ,-naa mDi wan n\np pa D^in nx torn /I 
vamp ^ ^pm "?npa naiao nw in ^nonai ion ^ptptaa ^pw 
■p^rt rwp mawn ca-io /van ^aa» na pi ,Dnn« ^ Taam 
^rat? jnv Ninp imx d"di ones -urn d^tjuh oat? can *an* nw 
.o^an w* nw noa n*> n^v law crft -ronrft a*™ ono 

pm ,toa aaap psnn nN ^rano in aaana mapb tidn 4 p| 
na"M -wn by rr.swa naan oa "»a naa in ^«nt^ nw p p*ft*n 
*?na pyi .DiTty wa# rrnm papa aim wan naao '•>£« rftnn 
m*ap naiy w pnnn Kin m» jton p in awn p rrop? mn 
oa tv aiaaw aaa*? omai ."ipsa Naw aw oy p^in,, i&Na n? tyi 
Tftvft "ft ipsnp s"nj;i ,aur n^ np"ft kw nS dni ,mviN maaa 
oni /p ^a "ft ^d nw p« miN p*ao jw &pnb na^aan na 
,nniD vmya V? rwwa on 1 ? TtnnS D'ftyan na-ta*? piano naipn 
^ap*? ton pi ,^n^ DDvya oftya.-ft ntrsNa nvi N^a Npm 

♦Sira in aiaa n™ nNiap nai pnpsa 

nw p? *?a rfwan p in navian p naan ow nwrt '^n 4 i 
vn n 1 ? n-'Sya w» njaj;iD naaan ^sni ^idn j^ran in aaan n^a 
/^a in aiaa ni^Da iidn pwa mjfaoD ^i^n paa n^j; on^po 
in D^t^an ^asD D^Dt^aai norm ^aso nana ^ita n^aa oaa^ ]ai 
i 1 ? ^n» ddiisd i^ia in aaa Nin» s d p^n # niDN ,n*?iu nwa mav 1 ? 
nian^ niDN ^ira in aiaa npma laiDD ^ai nNr n^n ninN nawte 
nPN "iiaa 1 ? nvin inN dn pi .npnv iaao nnpb wb iidni oatDo 



state, or if it were sunk in a building and can only be recovered by 
teai- ng down the building which would be a great loss to him, he does 
hi* dut\ by refm. diiig an amount of money equivalent to the value of 
th<- sto '-n article at the time of the robbery. If the victim of the 
robbery be in another town, he should notify him to come and he will 
pay him, but he need not send the money to him in his town, but 
if the one who had been robbed had died, he should make restitution 
to his heirs. 

4. One who robs the public, e.g., a shopkeeper who measured 
with a short measure or weighed with short weight or if a public 
functionary were lenient towards his relatives and exacting towards 
otheis, also one who took usury from the public, for any of these it is 
a difficult matter to repent effectively, therefore he should supply a 
public need in order that those whom he robbed should also enjoy 
thereof. If, however, the identity of the robbed ones be known to 
him, he is obliged to make restitution to them, as his duty is not accom- 
plished by supplying a public need. 

5. It is forbidden to buy from a thief or a robber the article 
which has been robbed, this applies to Jew and Gentile, for the latter 
is bound by the commandment prohibiting theft and robbery. This 
applies also to one's neighbour who is a Gentile, since this command- 
ment is one of the seven precepts given to the sons of Noah. It is a 
serious transgression to buy from the thief or robber for this only 
encourages the wrong-doer and with reference thereto it is said : "Whoso 
is partner with a thief hateth his own soul " (Prov. xxix. 24), causing 
the thief to steal again, for he will desist if he find no purchaser. 
Although the thief could take the stolen article to a place where he- 
would not be known, still this course is not a likely one. If the pur- 
chaser act in order to benefit those robbed by restoring their property 
to them on payment of his outlay, then the purchase may be permitted. 
This is only permitted if the people robbed could not possibly protect 
themselves. It is forbidden to accept in trust a thing which has 
apparently been stolen or robbed. 

6. It is forbidden to derive even the slightest benefit from the 
property that was stolen or robbed as long as it remains in the hands 
of the thief or robber, even if the theit be insignificant so that the 
owner would not be concerned at his loss, e.g., to change currency for 
the money that was stolen or robbed, it is forbidden to do this, it is 
also forbidden to enter a house, on account of the heat or rain or to 
pass through a field, which was acquired by robbery. The poor are 
forbidden to accept a thief's money as charity. If one offer to sell an 


Laws 2 — S 

yuv opoa JYI^B d^ibi* niTs now jua sua nto nK*w psn 
pan mprA nata* ik iiddS paima w npa itvw im *did ik 
djhd j^r rraD nvw t^in 1 ? tpn* w nn« who nupf? f *s*n nup^ t.d« 
row »w «n* swoto mnn ^n^ano nan » s «d nijpb i« ,nSya 

♦iidk vwk nyiD nSp d*did 

von^ *6 ro*in nanrnnrwDn iron i^a A iB^nnw-^D *T 
V? mnrft 71* psnn by* Kanrai ,£» win vrt ww *« D^D3 
<6 ntoam tri-b noMDn noro pi ,n3«a ito psn.-iff <b ty c|ni 
•6w B"y 8)ki rtya^vwrt -p* *6n wa% tidk ite ttkp p^n 
crtyan vpn «S» i#bk w ny mi d^ Atn toid dk -jk -dm 
n« nwon Kp^o KDnoD ^ 1^5 l ? , ? \b inio m .onto ^na owi 

♦ntn pAnn nya ro^an vbps 

tnaw s"yK /mina ate wan to w dwo rwrt tok 4 n 
•p^B 1 ? ,iidk a"& iro« Dnana yuo Aw rat^ vhyzb jrrw30 A 
nino ate nwa Dip 1 ? 1 ? A iidk vran nwb ik d^b 1 ? wan 

/IPB33 TON Ijni 13mK M ^31 DTIBH ^Jttff fi^K D%3TI 

wajw pa b"d /towbd m njnjp \b ywz ^n nots" nnw 
n?a ptoaat? o^if? w?.-A "pw /wita mrw am m nra jnv wk 
^^ novis in" 11 ? dix to irpa J3^ iniD a"ai ,njw pon nana 
,ovDn fyDu-u -pw *$b ,vwio ato a*njfa ^ "onw ^ 1^ in 
hid t^nv trtjfam ,W3 -pt* p^ D^jran mj;id n 1 ?^ *npj nr p«i 
nyiD i6» BjttD "Di o^:n ]d npiv bspb inio nr d^ejdi ^mDn 
c« diibd ]3i naa pn» crtflttn jyiw isa pmi iwi ,0^3 

<"rnn ^ nay Nint^ ]^« nnn "prtt nv^s N^iDn 4 a 
^bk w ,rriDKDJ ]n jnf?^3i ^m p bwb piw n^fi on dn 



article, and it is apparent that that article was stolen by him, it is for- 
bidden to buy of h<m. Eg., fruit watchmen who sell fmit in a seclu- 
ded spot or a seller who carries secretly the thing to be sold or he says 
to the buyer, "Hide it," in all these cases one must not buy. It is 
even forbidden to buy of a woman an article which, it may be appre- 
hended, she is selling without the knowledge of her husband. It is like- 
wise forbidden to buy of a man any of a woman's ornaments or 
apparel which, it may be apprehended, he is selling without the know- 
ledge of his wife. 

7. If one's vessels were exchanged at a feast or the like for 
those of another person, he should not make use of the property which 
is not his, and when the owner of the property applies for it he must 
restore it to him even if his own were lost. If an article that does not 
belong to him were returned to him from the laundry, he must not 
make use ot it but restore it to its owner, although his own pioperty 
were lost, if, how T ever, the article remained in his possession for a long 
time, so that it would be impossible for the owner in the meantime net 
to have inquired after his own property, then he can make use of it, 
for he may assume that the laundry proprietor had settled w r ith tho 
owner and paid him for this article. 

8. It is forbidden to derive enjoyment from anything belonging 
to one's neighbour without his knowledge, even if he be definitely 
aware of the fact that when the neighbour learns thereof, the latter 
will rejoice and be glad because of the love he bears towards him, still 
even in this case the prohibition holds good. If one enter the orchard 
or garden of a neighbour, it is forbidden to gather fruit without the 
owner's knowledge, even though the latter loved and esteemed him as 
himself, and even though he would undoubtedly rejoice and be glad 
when he learns that the former had enjoyed his fruit, nevertheless 
since at the moment he is not aware of the circumstance, the former 
would be deriving benefit in an unlawful manner. It is necessary to 
warn the people generally who err in this manner owing to the lack of 
knowledge. Nevertheless it is lawful for a member of a person's 
household to give a piece of bread to the poor or to some of the friends 
of the master of the house without his cognizance, for thus is the cus- 
tom of householders, and to do this is not considered as an action which 
is done without the cognizance of the owner, since it is a custom so to 
do, and the owners are aware thereof. For this reason it is permitted 
to accept charity from women, if it be a small amount, even without 
their husbands' knowledge, owing to the fact that it is customary for 
them (to give charity) and the husbands are aware of this custom. 
Likewise if one be accustomed to eat fruit in the garden of another 
with the owner's cognizance, it is permitted to do so on any occasion. 
This rule applies to any similar case. 

9. If one find fruit on the road which fell from a tree which pro- 
jects above the road, if they be fruits that usually fall, and become 
spoiled by falling, or even if they be not spoiled and most of those 


]vn poo po w rn 

tws p» i« / d ,, i^ nan nat* anniyn nine? k^k nnoNtu put 
■*mn own nn b» tti nnniy jm jni« ^in«S niannn yrw 
nin jn^Ban ™bkbj pw nws p bk fea r nwiai pa ipkw 
jpbw bt* jn bni ,Sr:i bwb anisic B^mtgp nan natsr annipn 
♦aife ante n^nai »i*on p* ou&pn *a ,p# fen aniDK a^op 

yea pu ^h 

HDKtBf ibd ,aStrt njn *?y '••sk wnn paa pvnb tbk 4 tf 
pn ntyyan pn wnn 1 ? pu aviA '*bw ,b^»^ n»y ^i?Ai nuA 
A naai pyat* am a'myS mine miai* pirn pjn ,iibk win 
fei ,mma vinjin *w iiok p naanp b w j/k n"n nw njw 
^ b^bp wn n*n pit* wa iibbp pwn '*sk iTnn 1 ? pu aiun 

•wnn rw b^bw 

l^jf bk vbjWD ipfe 1 ? iibk rty prn nn« «n^ na '^bk # 3 
paa pn bijq ">bn lavy n« ^r*rfr tidk *o t rrm by «n^ dto 
rty an* k^p vrniS inia iAy pun ant* amp fea /rrcm 
/imp epatrt «n» ansn naa pjn wnn ty ht nr n* tyt* b"jw 
jibbw «n ?"w ""s fe cpe n^fin *mA nrna vrwS naina xbw iy 
mwb iron* pwn mwnrA man imtrt najn:»a fea /rrnn m» 
ty •6^anSi rby& ^pbob *n w« iAy fe^a p?;nff pw iron 
ircBnK an 1 ? jrrt> a^ma w *» vyb ant* -]fe Sti pi .iTin 
%Hi«rt prn bii^ r y/ 7 v vibbS ^nn n^ 1 ? m» jn^ -inx 1 ? wh 
bm i^iaiB 1 ? wn fe« ^rwfr6 *iib« b^bb wjf ^n^ fen jm y in« 
,niBB «ipj p w^m ,BnnN bv n^n^^ r"^ 



who pass that place are heathens, or if the cattle usually eat (the fruit) 
while passing by, so that the owner has given up his rights thereto, 
then (anyone who finds them) may eat thereof. But if they be fruits 
which do not get spoiled by falling and if most of those who pass by 
are Israelites, it is forbidden to take them because of the law concer- 
ning robbery, and if the fruit, etc., be the property of little orphans it 
is forbidden to take thereof under any circumstances, for as regards 
orphans their waiving of rights is of no avail at all. 

10. The law of the land is equally binding on the Jew. 

Laws Concerning Financial Damages. 

1. It is forbidden to injure one's neighbour financially, even with 
the intention of making reparation, just as it is forbidden to steal and 
to rob even with the intention of making restitution. One is even 
forbidden, either by action or speech, to cause his neighbour to sustain 
damage. Thus if Reuben sold goods to a heathen and Simeon in- 
formed the latter that they are not worth the price paid, even if this 
be a fact, still it is forbidden for Simeon to act thus since it is allowed 
to take advantageous profit in this case. He who causes his neighbour 
to sustain damage, although according to human laws he is exempt 
from punishment, yet is he guilty according to Divine law until he 
conciliates him. 

2. One who incurred an injury may not rid himself thereof, if by 
so doing he should cause his neighbour to incur the same, for it is for- 
bidden to save oneself by causing even financial injury to his neighbour. 
But before the harm happened to him it is permitted to escape there- 
from, even though by this course harm will befall his fellowman, e.g., a 
bucket of water which is about to be thrown across his field, prior to 
the same entering his land, it is permitted to take steps to prevent this 
happening, even though this should involve the water falling on the 
field of his neighbour. As soon, however, as it had come into his 
field it is forbidden to get rid of it in such a manner as to touch his 
neighbour's field, because now that the damage has befallen him, he is 
not allowed to rid himself thereof at his neighbour's hurt. Aijain if 
the king's army should come to a town and the townsmen are obliged 
to billet the soldiers, it is forbidden for one of the townsmen to bribe 
the captain to exempt him for thereby he is causing damage to another 
Israelite townsman. So also in all cases of taxes it is forbidden to 
influence the officer so as to exempt him, if by so doing, he makes 
the burden heavier for others and one who acts in this manner is called 
1WD (traitor). 


aSi uu iA vid-kA tick nrw ^yan men ^wn ,nan dVij^ p^n 

iDto wan dk tan a^nana Tan ronrw A ito mn "•ski uiaa 

tidk ,nme vm tod* ^ *b* iaty ra Wn 1 ? i 1 ? *wsk w vm 

♦*6pSpai wj «n kvw ^sd wan to to m» "prfe aua*? 

maw kvw njwa na toiorA wan m& to tidj^ ifw 4 T 
pya wana tonarA tdkp » am jinn n?a mpv ato nwiopa 
ewn ona pat* vpyaai i*paya lfrwi .rm r?a ipn^«f pt6 an* 
^a injna *6p mmS tdx vnrtw vraa nvv dm inn py prai 
■iniwa mn fix "pri ^pw wwaa anna ijrw f>sn wk aa^ 
•■ptwsa nton * -idk*i tow /inaNSaa pmy wan» nun 

iA /vck uatrt pno «iw w *» mena nwyb i^sk ,f 
lotiai ma^an ia rw *on to wan bv toa 1 ? "paa wtna nw 
pi .a^naa 'j ptnn a"«« nanai to pa nninn na pwi ton 
n^pan tut p7i ,wan toa 1 ? -pao a^a y\wb vbv pntA th 
a^ay 7W 1 ? «to p"aai avisa 'j wan toiaa lpwA *pt an p 

.wan toa 1 ? -pooa trtai na to 

♦span p» mabn 

idiu» n f to iaiy man an ,wan nx nianS anx 1 ? ton 4 K 
rrrapn dk '\n *yDv» js *iw n 1 ? ua^ dwk 'w ■jwvi ™an p bn, 
toi .pnt naana i"p iy&n by i/tp vron^ «^» j;^in naana rvm 
-ibk^ '«3» r»n xnpj tran xSty sj^^x imanS ii^an by v anon 
pny» s ff jm nan na 1 ? n^x idw *6 n^an na 1 ? t *pn nan r&h yv*\ 
aina aima nvi wan nx nan» ^a to ,jw*i nipi inan «^ 
■6 wnrw nj^ n«mpa» ian ^a 1 ? rrwy pth mint 1A1 D^Dipn 



3. An Israelite is forbidden to slander or betray secrets and 
whoever acts *s an informer will have no portion in the world to come. 
It is even forbidden to lay information against an evildoer who trans- 
gresses the religious l&w, it matters not whether he will suffer in his 
person or in his wealth, and even if he were his enemy who constantly 
annoyed him by his words. But if one had been betrayed, and there 
is no possibility of escape unless he lay information against the 
betrayer, this course is permitted. 

4. One must not stand in a neighbour's field to look at it when 
the crops are at their best to prevent harm because of the belief in the 
"evil eye." It is forbidden to gaze at one's neighbour in such a 
manner as to lead one to suppose that he wishes him harm, even with 
regard to his business and occupation where there is no thought at all 
of the influence of the "evil eye," if he be working in his own house 
and on his own property, it is nevertheless forbidden to stare at him 
without his consent, for it may be that he does not wish other people 
to know his business. It is a sign of good manners when one sees his 
fellow man engaged at his work to bless L him by saying, M prosper 
in thy task." 

5 One is forbidden to do anything, even on his own premises, 
whereby his neighbour will sustain damage, for that reason one must 
not place in his court near his neighbour's w r all anything possessing 
warmih and emitting heat, such as manure and the like, thus damaging 
the wall, except at a distance of three hand-breadths, likewise the 
water that he pours out and also the drain-pipe that carries off the 
water from the roof must be at a distance of three hand-breadths from 
his neighbour's wall. Under no circumstance may one pour out the 
contents of a chamber in the vicinity of the wall of one's neighbour. 

The Laws Concerning Physical Injury. 

1. One is forbidden to smite his fellow man, and if he did so he 
has transgressed a negative precept, as it is said : " If the wicked man 
be worthy to be beaten . . . forty stripes he may give him, and not 
exceed," (Deut. xxv. 2, 3). Since the Torah is particular with refer- 
ence to the beating of the wicked, ordaining that he is not to be beatrn 
for his fault beyond the limit laid down, how much more does this 
apply to the beating of the righteous. The one who raises his hand 
against his neighbour to smite him, even if he did not strike him, is 
called " wrong-doer," as it is said : " And he said to the wrong doer, 
wherefore wilt thou smite thy fellow ? " (Ex. ii. 13). " Wherefore hast 
thou smitten " is not the reading in the verse, but " wherefore wilt 
thou smite," although he has not yet struck his fellow he is called 
" wrong-doer." Anyone who smites his fellow is excommunicated by 
the ban of the ancients, debarring him from participation in the public 
performance of any sacred duty until the Beth Din release him 


^jntjn*? ia iniK nan nrw Dm .djh maw*? rtjp bapwa a-inn n« n"a 
na^ s 'V n^« viao td vran n« in y"K ^6 tosn W nna 
tea ,vnar6 ton *6ipa yaw m vprti i^m »vnar6 -iniD win 
aamrb na vra -pna ^ija kw Din 1 ' in nwpn i\>a mar6 ^niD 

•Dnaia vw nnfc" "pna 

qsoa nanai nwai "6a nap T&wA «^ wf? *n* #3 
n? i 1 ? pnu rweann Sipi ^"i wain "6in uawf? vr> dm •pnnS Aaw 
,Y? pnoi yaw rraa yu& onion ^pw onan vroa "•sn wina* 

,o*ann man yaS in d-::^ "pta p#a onan nam my r> 4 J 
i»ma pw f?aoi miana iV^« nan nw niry 1 ? tidkw mn Warn 
xb ox ,n»ma o^naiynS in uaa^ ppn npN uod jnn*? ton* nan 
*?a ibno iSnd i"n& .nvinw "»a ^a p n#w Anion tawsw nana 
ua in am ntb -pewa p iwy 1 ? 'n *?a ^aiw na Yyn ^n 

v? nNn:» in ,vnnNB vty pn» pa wan nN n^aon 4 T 

.ow wna a^n ,n?a Kvvai nto*o 

a*rvw no ^awrt tia&n n« paw s"j;n /rpana ^ainn ,n 
pc b"d ,iato in mnnw b"j;n jto in au pi nbann map i^ 
f?y awn in ton in Samn dkd n^no iwpan* ny on^ nsano 
♦ontaN w k^i ibno , » oni on 1 ? .tjw nyxn 

in iD*pa mn itonS to*i V'n nn*a vran n« nNinn # "| 
dx udd >is:i n?Tn iS^nbi now^i mntt 1 ? a^n i^vrft onnx niaw^ 
dni ^w ]* ce:j **3W w bwz w Kb tfn <b Y* dni t \b w 

K*vai DD^s k^i oaa^atr hd n^on^i in^an Wja jiooa dd^s 1 ? bwv 



therefrom when he is willing to accept their decision. If someone strike 
him or another Israelite, and it is impossible for him to save himself or 
his neighbour from the hands of the striker except by striking him back, 
then it is permitted to do so. It is forbidden to strike even a 
servant who refuses to obey. It is, however, permissible for one to 
chastise his small children or an orphan whom he is bringing up in 
his house, in order to lead them in the upright way, as that is for 
their own benefit. 

2. One must take care not to throw pieces of broken glass or the 
like in any place where they can cause harm to anybody. If one's 
neighbour have, for instance, a head ache which would be aggravated 
by the noise of hammering, then it is forbidden even in one's own 
house to knock anything whereby the noise of hammering will reach 
his neighbour's house and annoy him. 

3. There are many other things relating to damages to one's 
neighbour or to the general public, but the general rule is this, it is 
forbidden to do anything, even on one's own premises and especially 
on a public thoroughfare, that may cause any damage to ones neigh- 
bour or to the wayfarer on the public highway, unless it be a thing 
that has become a general custom, and anyone is at liberty to do it, 
which is equal to anyone being excused (for so doing) by all the in- 
habitants of the city, so that each of them is priviliged to do that cer- 
tain thing whenever he or his son after him should find it necessary 
so to do. 

4. One who frightens his neighbour, e.g., by screaming at him 
when behind him, or appearing before him in the dark or the like, is 
guilty according to Divine law. 

5. The one who injures his neighbour, even though he give him 
the money due to him as compensation for the injury done, so also a 
thief or robber, even though the thing stolen had been returned or paid 
for, nevertheless those wrong-doers cannot obtain forgiveness until 
they ask pardon of the injured party or the one whose property was 
stolen on account of the pain caused. The latter should be ready to 
£ >rgive and must not be cruel in this respect. 

6. When one sees his neighbour in distress and it is in his power 
to save him or he can employ others to save him, it is his own duty 
to make strenuous efforts or to employ others in order to save him, 
and, if the latter can afford it he must refund him his money, as he can 
demand it from him, but if he cannot afford to do so, he should not 
shirk his duty on that account, but he should save him at his own ex- 
pense. If he refrain from doing so he transgresses the precept : " Thou 
shalt not stand against the blood of thy neighbour" (Lev. xix. 16). 
Likewise when one overhears the wicked hatching a plot against one's 
neighbour or setting a trap for him, and he has not revealed it to him, 
or if he could satisfy them through money for the sake of saving his 
neighbour and thereby prevent their intention being realized, and he 
failed to do so, or by any similar means in a like case, he transgresses 

1 "2 

^7) tttram rbw w m 

nn« psj o*pm to .-jm dt *?y Twn a 1 ? ty w /6k D*wa 
♦(n"jp "»d TV 'yi) i6d dSij; o^p "6*0 ^m&nj 

^th iaa w ,0*01 n?a pon* nn 1 ? 0*1 flvwa poiy» *& <T 
id^i nia^D*? vidd 1 ? iniD ,n^»D trie dhi ,nrr ato 15 pinoi 
•6to vty tfWyDt* rm pi /nab v6j) *6k to poynD inic pur 
♦nab vfcs >6n nmy wx ^k nnb nDib bw 

mtoi by pja ,niDJp w pn w ^b W pma wi # n 
iba DTjya «h o ,Ta ^a nai m»j^ nnb pm ,nmi3i mitto 
bp \t» to <mn s"y •■ikvi p w niiry t ? pin ,dw "pito nam 

♦nman Tiaa dtwot 

,tod -pna naiynr pi ba /A* rwpo kvw maiyta 4 ta 
dp pa obiyn Twb «*•» «to bar ,ra pa ooa pa iannb pima 
«l*ni i&a b"vn dib>d iannb phia nan ra bnrnb bwai ,vby psa 
vfi^ pnn par -a \ym pa wm irahva ba« .i:nnb wan m« 

♦obiy to ijttD inn psj ubd 

♦nrratsn rhxw nasi 

«b wri wk wana i*bab»B ik nana nawn ik torn ,K 
»* d^ibd "•sk .o^bya njna abr nnab crvarnb «bi dtowA 
mvD ntwr» o^byab ama onon p anaia pa jnbicpna nisa 
p«i unw nnx Ta onto nan mivi pic hep "a ,0:1003 
!Vna -pna ia mo 1 ? 1 ? Tiab rrort ibd biwnb ima 'rax # on^a 
to p*w pit dki ,wa onw abi *w pi Tab* icto nabai 
ib ^nwn^ torn nniD ,^ica n^nana wn ni 1 ? i^oicnS D^jrari 

♦1^ Tat^nS istvm 


ohe precept : M Thou shall not stand against the blood of thy neigh- 
bour" (ibid.) for he who preserves life in Israel is as though he had 
maintained the entire world. 

7. One who counterfeits, and it is feared that thereby he will 
involve many in danger, is like a persecutor, and he must be warned not 
to continue his practices. If, however, he heed not, it is permissible to 
denounce him to the government with the declaration that no one else 
is implicated in that crime. If an individual be falsely accused of 
being an accomplice, he may likewise assert his innocence by saying : 
"I did not participate in that crime, he is the sole criminal." 

8. According to the custom the seven elders of the community 
judge in the adjudication of fines, e.g., with reference to injuries, 
insults and the like, but they must not act independently of the Beth 
Din, since there are many varieties of legal points and it is not per- 
mitted to inflict a penalty more than the law requires, so that the 
honour of one's fellow creatures should not be treated as a trivial 

9. When a woman is in parturition with great travail, the doctor 
is permitted (in a critical case) prior to the birth to extract the 
embryo in a severed state, for if it had not come forth it is not 
accounted as a living soul and it is permissible to save the mother by 
sacrificing the embyro, for it is a matter of self-preservation. But if it 
protrude its head then one living soul must not be sacrificed for 
another, and this is the way of nature. 

Laws Concerning Borrowing and Hiring. 

1. One who borrows or hires from his neighbour an animal or 
moveables may neither lend nor hire out the same without the owner's 
consent. Even in the case of books where it is a religious duty to 
lend them, we do not say that we can take it for granted that the 
owner would approve of a religious duty being done at his expense, 
for may be he would not wish his property to be in the possession of a 
certain person whom he considered to be untrustworthy. It is, how- 
ever, permitted for the borrower of a b®ok to allow in his own house 
another person to study therein, on the condition that he studies alone, 
but not two people together. If it be known that it is the custom of 
the owner to trust the second party in such matters, then the bor- 
rower may lend to this party and the one who hires may hire out in 
turn to the same party. 


P7) nwan ntow? vi m 

jfbs law ,*inw dni ,i:ara Tar rj^ys nat* nnS msa # 3 
na» nn 1 ? mva p iaai , i ww v^y Kan K^n vav jnn iava« 'k:p 
■up ^p pwyn k 1 ? 'kjp iK^a w r WK dui ,i:a?a ^a ik nana 
uar ,ova naK^an nr^a ox uai mtw .nap jnn ibto 'tn ji*a«i 
k^i iiar jnn iava„ fy laiy /6 |n; kSi dim nay dki ,D?n L a 
^n^n DJa:i dim kipp nnxS naiAan nn*?a ron /warn -i^p Kan 
vat* n^iys j^n k 1 ? ^ naiy ,]ru k'ti nWn -ay .n^n *?a i:a? 
inaK^aa Kr *nat^ Tap i&nn Ta# ,yiap top pi ,npia ny y.K 
nWn *?a pt * «n ,nWa maK^aa ktp .dim ^a p? V? r» ,ova 
en ,Dva i 1 ? joam ni^apa mpnS pi*6 vrta ]n: dk pi ,inv kSi 
.na^a nWn *?a pr bz i*? ten ,nWa "ft *oan .na^a dim ^a pi \i 
]*k maK^a nn*?ai maiH* s> a yx pian T3 n^enr pi *?a f?a« 
i 1 ? toaw ijmn ">$ki d^ naa pna *?vk am '^bk naip a*nyan 

♦naiy wk a"a /fa* n» (>td*i nipt 

lyan a"KK pa&m v^y Kan *6i j'fai ^a dipd naiy itn J 
ipainp ik ,T9vn wan k 1 ? dk ^a« ^ jn^ n^a i*? tsni toot 
map 1 ? yns^i mW »ro niTon ma a'ai .naiy irx ,mya iS jw 
inns'? k 1 ?^ pTW Jfnw .wbj dk kpu Kin i^ki •up Kin ••a ,i:aia 
y^a vniap a^ia lan uaa van "»sk jiarnn in^S iy &bjmnb 
£b*H ^m ]a *Tin p Dam» yn^ ]va» naiy ir« a ff a on 1 ? 

]BiKa rcnw&s i^bk rmDfiffl a'njraS nax^a n»y» T3» 4 1 
ivnro d^bS o^an*? a r, nya ^y mvo •fDi^rna a«n Kin pn s s ^y» 
Km ^y Ta»n dki .''o^aia -jna -Sn |i;a u '«:» ,iS SinaSi ]^n 
/-iiarn D^pnv mmui, ia«w nat? i 4 ? jn^ nixa r b2»h na iS j-m 
n*Wfi d^b 1 ? ast^ai npix ni^yb f n yn iiair 1 ? d^iv nmx km in 
.iihk 1 ? K^i ^ajfn na» ^va^> k^ nnna n^an ^ya» ima 4 H 
laa ma ^aa may 1 ? a*m a*nra raiAaa J raa'' nbv *m?ia ':yn ia 


2. It is a religious duty to pay the wages of a hired workman at 
the proper time and if one delay the same he transgresses a negative 
precept, as it is said : M At his day thou shalt give him his hire, 
neither shall the sun go down upon it" (Deut. xxiv. 15). Likewise it is 
a religious duty to pay for the hire of an animal or of utensils at the 
proper time and if one delay the same he transgresses a negative pre- 
cept, as it is said : " Thou shall not oppress an hired servant that is 
poor and needy ... at his day thou shall give him his hire " (ibid. \ it) 
What is the proper time 1 If he finished the work during the day, his 
time for payment is all the day, and if the day had passed without 
paying the "wages the (master) has transgressed the law, " At his day 
thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down on it" (ibid.) 
If he finished the work after the end of the day and night had com- 
menced, his time for payment is all night, and if the night had passed 
without paying the wages the (master) has transgressed the law : 
" The wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee all night 
until the morning " (Lev. xix. 13). So also with one hired by the 
week, month or year. If one had finished his work during the day, 
the payment of his wages is valid during the whole day ; if he had 
finished his work during the night, the payment of his wages is valid 
during the whole night but not later. If one gave a garment to a 
tailor to repair for a sum agreed by contract and the latter brings 
it to him during the day, he can pay any time during that day only, 
and if he bought it at night, he can pay any time during that night 
only ; but as long as the garment is in the hands of the tailor although 
the work has been done, the owner does not transgress the law (by not 
paying), even if it be with the tailor for several days, and even if the 
latter had notified him that he should bring the money and fetch hia 

3. There is no transgression of the laws quoted (Lev. xix. 13 
and Deut. xxiv. 14-15) unless the one who was hired asked for his wages 
and he had the money to pay same. If the wages were not demanded, 
or if the one hired had asked for his wages but the master had no 
money, then there is no violation of the law. Nevertheless, it is pious 
conduct to borrow so as to pay the wages at the right time, for the 
workman is poor and sets his heart upon his pay. In such cases where 
the masters are accustomed not to pay the workmen until the complete 
account (for all work to be done) has been delivered, even if they 
asked for a small sum, which they had undoubtedly earned, neverthe- 
less (if this be refused) there is no violation of the law since the cus- 
tom is known and on this condition the workmen were engaged. 

4. A hired workman who had done some work for the master 
and had spoiled it, even by his own negligence, in such a manner that 
he is legally bound to make it good, it is a religious duty for the mas- 
ter to waive his legal right and forgive him, as it is said : " That thou 
mayest walk in the way of good men " (Prov. ii. 20). If the workman 
be poor and without food, it is a duty to give him his hire, as it is 


faisn pt -p^ /p^n dk vnay via baa *a, rfy wan apy naMt* 
<nWna »faa laa&o ova iaw towAi Tfrbz n^a nwj£ wi 
*pm ova nrawrfri rfrfa inanaa nanfa vtwyh wi wm pi 
niffyi? far »6i ma ff^na nw ^itaw ipto ay»A vean faien 

nthm p mn pi wia a'nya naafa 

•nwin »6 rrcAn 

*teMat* ,npi*? yimaNte njwa toanfa nanan na iwan fa 4 N 

■fa ,rrm nana wa t>a 'mi ,iw nnM /'i^na tw Diann mSj, 
- ^rra fa niaMfa imp Sa nnMi ,rwnn mm jtmra fa ,owaa 
,wn ,Vipa naon i^sm nnna m^>m na W naxj m^i .rpT 
vnsa '*bk «nn *?Mnr» .mpfa a^n ,fa«n iA n» >r f?jn n^fa pjrw 
^sa ^lawS nbia* nr« nanan dm ♦oionn iS onra naiy o"iay fa 
"»aaS jn Kin* naia nanp mnr nana jmipiwA *pv n«as mn» 
■mna ram mi nnkan fa mSm mm rrwopn Mfa naon 1 ? ima rpj» 

/pfaa 1 ? nawS na faa^ a^n ,^kto* atom mmn ,X 
«fa V*nf> fa* Dim* wan fa |iaa fa pi /tawi aw, 'mjp 
a^paa pn p» b^m .titoic navn *?faa Mini ^vnS a^n /la** 
ymh a^n pn ja^o fai&» na jna "•bm d^xd o^aaia naiy aru» 
jiwd crai6 nwj6 nan aia a"a naovi bnovu naa Manoan owa 
*w mn mnan Dm n? fa psiai po na jna» W mrrt ^in 
aipaai .pn irnm d^s 1 ? rwvb "pv mi w Mm rm*i faai 
•ranfe pjr faa a*n nratt vmnb Mniafan iu^i wm 


said: "And keep the path of the righteous" (Hid.) "Which is the 
'•puth of the righteous V To keep the way of the Lord, to practice 
charity and justice even more strictlj than the actual law demands. 

5. Just as the master is exhorted neither to rob the vvnges of the 
hired servant nor to delay the payment, likewise the poor (one who ia 
hired) is warned not to neglect the work of the master and he is 
bound to work with all his might, as our father Jacob (peace be unto 
him) said : "For with all my power have 1 served your father" (Gen. 
xxxi. 6). Therefore a workman is not permitted to work all night 
and to hire himself out by day (for he is unfit owing to the night 
work) ; likewise he is not allowed to work his animal by night and to 
hire it out by day. The workman is also forbidden to starve himself 
or to stint himself with regard to his food for thereby he weakens his 
strength and he will not be able to do the work for his master in 
a proper manner. This law applies also to a teacher. 

Laws Relating to the Commandment " Thou Shalt not Muzzle." 
1. Whosoever prevents a domestic animal from eating when 
working is punished, as it is said: "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox 
when he treadeth out the corn " (Deut. xxv. 4). This applies to an ox 
or to any animal or beast whether it be unclean or clean, whether 
it be engaged in treading out the corn or in any other work of the 
field, and only by way of example does the Torah say, " the ox when 
he treadeth out the corn." Included in this prohibition is even one 
who " muzzled the beast by his voice," that is to say, he shouted at it 
and it therefore did not eat, and he incurs punishment. If an Israelite 
thresh corn even with the cow of a heathen (when muzzled) he trans- 
gresses the law : "Thou shalt not muzzle." If the beast cannot eat 
through being thirsty, he must give it to drink. If the beast were at 
work on a field, the product whereof would be injurious to its system, 
it is permissible to muzzle the beast, for the Torah insists on its 
obtaining only that which it can enjoy, whereas in this case it would 
have no enjoyment. 

Laws Concerning a Lost Thing and the Finding Thereof. 

1. If one see a thing that an Israelite had lost, he is bound to 
attend thereto and to restore it to its owner, as it is said : "Thou shalt 
surely bring them again " (ibid. xxii. 1). Likewise when he can save 
his neighbour from loss of money it is his duty to do so, as this is also 
included in the law of restoring a lost thing, although legally (if it 
were found) in a place where the majority of the inhabitants are 
heathens and even if the Israelite had put a special mark thereon, 
there is no obligation to restore it, since there is the presumption that 
its owner had despaired of its recovery, it is good and right, neverthe- 
less, to do more than the law requires and to return it to the Israelite 
upon identification of the article which he had marked, and he can be 
forced to restore it in this case. If the finder of the lost article be 


fl) pip* *n m 

?DK p^D na piw pa p*o na «w pa /TTCUI mtfl ba # 2 
ok psnonb «n "tx\ Tun nsa ovnpi rrto pa ,nrun -pi hnsd 
.ona jwb i ton dp onaa w ruroa 00 aran 

Ttti '^bkp ,n?iaa -on mm pitoh kvdi naiao jpt wrw na J 
bmb a^n wm ,pa b ff vn dwd wab warfc i^a\a rm »A *» 
n:w b"jw na ^bb^i pin nwo D^sb nwyb \h w n n v\ .na 

,maa ^ 

pn ik p*D na iw p ,maN na jw wn move nsd 4 t 
can nW i-wjn ow yiWi nam 'A* n\roya «n p'rc na 

jwy* "p* 

♦pips nt&n 

KPDa wpoy bat* ron p?a nn* /man bva wd Tpfi&n *X 
■fi^r npsaw Tpaai ns-inj onai p niyab pa^s bam pen 
sffcy 3"kk .mbn lea tow ]n nm pvmh ib -mio pbi /pBrva 
IK ,,wd *wpa jntrp in ,ddjw pa 12a inn pa* injn Tpson 

•povinb w ips:n p 

i pna tPDnonb ipsanb tok # wan bva pen ih» i^mmi c i 
^kw *m d"d nr «rowna bba bpbpmo psnn pv b"jjki ,is **b n? 

- TpBon pH» nvraa jnr an jm ]Sm njno nb» bnwi ,njn a «*?&> 
p*» nana '^bk pipsi dwd ma dj piouc m f iniD vhy TBpa 

>m j*naa dj pnpsa t nbw wi dwd ,iidk TBpnb «"a *pn 

■'tiorS iyki *sa aio wn pina ppm roe nwb a*n 4 a 
-to* dwi nrora a"a pnpiD ir« Kin dk 'wi «ibap d^tbh 



poor and the owner be rich, the former need not do more than the law- 
requires, but where one is required by the law of the land to restore 
a lost thing, he is obliged under all circumstances to restore it. 

2. Any one who finds a lost thing, whether the thing be marked 
(or not) is immaterial, after it had been put there temporarily (by the 
owner), e.g., a garment or an axe by the side of the fence, and even if 
there be a doubt whether the owner had left the article there inten- 
tionally or whether he had lost it, then it is forbidden in such a case 
to touch the same. 

3. If a man, who is aged and respected, found a thing which had 
been lost and that thing was a common article, i.e., of such a nature 
that even were it his own he would not take it up and bring it to his 
house because it would be undignified for him to do so, he is not bound 
to attend thereto, he should, nevertheless, do more than the law requires 
and concern himself therewith even if it be beneath his dignity. 

4. If one found an article and he does not know who lost it, 
whether it be marked or not is immaterial, as there are many different 
laws concerning the same, he should consult the ecclesiastical 
authorities before acting in this matter. 

Laws Concerning Deposits. 

1. He who deposits money with his neighbour, in these times 
when we are all engaged in commercial affairs and money is in demand, 
we must take it for granted that the depositor tacitly consents to the 
use of that money by the receiver in the requirements of his business, 
the latter is therefore allowed thus to use it, and that (money) assumes 
the character of a loan, if, however, the money consigned be sealed up, 
or tied up with a peculiar knot, it is an indication of the depositor's 
objection to the use of that money by the receiver and the latter is not 
permitted to use it. 

2. One to whom a neighbour had consigned any article is for- 
bidden to make personal use of it, even to put it to such uses whereby 
the article is in nowise spoiled, he is nevertheless as one who borrows 
without the owner's knowledge, and he is classed as a robber. If it be 
well known that the depositor would not interpose any objection to his 
use thereof, it is permitted to use it. Some authorities forbid this on 
account of it being a deposit, and also in the case of a thing which 
people do not trouble about. The prohibition is due to the fact that 
the receiver is also in this manner making use of a trust or deposit 
and it is best to follow the stricter opinion and not to use the deposit. 

3. It is the duty of the receiver to guard the article deposited 
with him in the best manner possible for such an article to be kept, 
even if the depositor did not usually take pains in guarding his own 
property, he must nevertheless be particularly vigilant in the keeping 


pi 1 ) nrjwi np^B r\vhn m 

Y3 jnpwi nx rpsn 1 ? nt«n nps:n pn ,w pipi 1 ? a^n pnpfia 
ypvib Svn a*:i Tpson a'aa •odd w d^dnji D*i#a '■•bn onrw 
*:3D nnw 1 ? i*iw xb pnpsn n« Y?nnS KStPa .dSvn iSkd onai 
tavn* pan nvx A ■wrt aa^a pi .injnD ¥hv Tpson b» wa 
dkpu nfl anon ]d *a vmh Tmr6 toa* ba« .tain Fftrt ik A 
•nTa i*? tok *?a tpsd ^yam nwi rpna wwi 

♦rayw npns ncfln 

nvw pa ,nNt*D nnn man inDnai -pna wina vjbp ^ ♦N 
m nn rft *iki# naa inv n^y nvnb pa nb win nwd n^y 
pnsp t»6i ."iay airyn any, tdhi* ,t^d pins 1 ? ir^a 1 ? nisa 
/rty pmrti "wrA i 5 ? nitr i6k /ft -j 1 ?^ lyva wan n« rw *6 
f^a ,]ya kSi pis k*?i wan an man dki ."cpn Dpn fl idnjp 
TDn n« nmn i6, idkjp jfwwi nb niva by iayi ntpy msa 
f mn* oys pyabi pins'? a^n /ibsn nimi ,|yai pis .'ui "-pna 
•pi* "p^sb "iay Dpn opn airyn airy,, '«w ^Dys n«D ">sto 
<r« new by* A idin d"kk ,1b "par «d» nois iy lay "|W 
«b« a>ina ir« pyaS baa .Dana nipyb -pi* npns nivai .-\b -pi* 
A nb\tfb a^inD ipy -[bint* no iya pi ,na»a 

^a p« wi man Am* ana tw6 jrwv nman ^a ^ 
bsa dm ba« /pna nab imnbi anman oy ■nsft dwi rman 
pan* p«i i^aa nisA d^k^i ^Sa ^b my bia^ ir«i man 
ptki m^jya pyoii» nman ^a pi vma inv A^a»a aaynnS 
D^t^i lwan ]^« ]pnb ayo nin&6 invty Sip^p nt'K dhd nn«S 
•wtd inv nam aaynn 1 ? -pit a*« kSm udd r»^ 


of property deposited with him, and he is forbidden to deliver an 
article deposited with him into the hands of others, even if they be 
proper people and of greater integrity than himself, unless the deposi- 
tor is accustomed to deposit such property with them. On returning 
an article which was deposited with him he should not return it to 
any of the members of the depositor's household without the latter's 
knowledge, this law also applies when returning a thing that he had 
borrowed, or when repaying a debt he may, however, return it to the 
depositor's wife, as it may be assumed, by virtue of her being the 
manageress of the house, he (the husband) consigns all he has into her 

Laws Concerning Unloading and Loading. 

1. If one meet his neighbour on the road with his beast lying 
beneath its load, it is immaterial whether it be a fit and proper load 
or one too heavy to carry, he is required to assist him un- 
loading the animal, as it is said : " Thou shalt surely help with him " 
(Ex. xxiii. 5), and after he had raised the load he should not depart, 
leaving his neighbour in distress, but he must help him to replace the 
load upon it, as it is said : " Thou shalt surely help him to lift them 
up again " (Deut. xxii. 4). If he left his neighbour neither helping to 
unload nor to reload, he has neglected an affirmative precept and 
transgressed a negative precept, as it is said, " Thou shalt not see thy 
brother's ass or his ox fallen down by the way, and hide thyself from 
them" (ibid.) If after he had unloaded and reloaded, it fell off again, 
he is obliged to assist him again in unloading and reloading, even a 
hundred times, as it is said : "Thou shalt surely help with him " (Ex. 
xxiii. 5), " Thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again " (Deut. 
xxii. 4) and for that reason he must accompany him the distance of 
a parasang, 1 as he may perhaps need him, unless the owner of the load 
tell him, " I do not need you." The commandment 'of unloading 
is to be done gratuitously, but one is not obliged to load otherwise 
than for compensation, he should also be paid for accompanying him. 

2. If a party travel together and an accident occurred to one of 
the party's asses through breaking its leg, the companions are not 
permitted to separate with their asses from him and to leave him alone 
on the road, but if the accident that occurred to the ass be of a serious 
nature and one that will prevent it from continuing the journey, they 
need not, for his sake, tarry any longer than a reasonable time and can 
separate from him. Likewise in a company who are travelling 
together in vehicles, and if an accident happened to one of the latter so 
that it is necessary to delay a little to repair the damage, the com- 
panions are not permitted to separate unless the delay be prolonged 
beyond a reasonable time. 

•The Par&sang = 4 mils=the distance walked by the average pedestrian in 1 hour 12 minutea, 

167 k 

jv?) n'w win •pan mw vrn JYl 

♦nron tei cpan rrmtt rvebn 

npyan nau ,-pA npjm nwi 'w» u A npya twyb y n n <H 
Aisn n*?i mby din uw 1 * nb npm mm jnu dtob "»a flins yn 

2*\ "Dte JOT N^ DJD>0 pl&B Dmty r»DD»D ]•»«» lA* fXI 

npyaa a^n ^ma^i din in tean* mao •£ t?n* nan ba n^n .npjfoa 
rwyn xb by iajn nry m*a ba^a npyta ^a vroon bs\ .ppvn 
wrn -pna to ib ant* na pa /^maa dw own nSi, noitsv 
^ xbw *ido ib rwb in bvisa rray maj «^in ib nwyb a*n 
iDvnbi'wanb npyrvrcD nwaa na:o ia t*w waa ba pi ,din ia 
man dni .ind -j^sa -napi -jb iatpn idio» ns^ wa mwfri uaa 
nam npy mva btra ^ruao *rt owaon rv6it?ran n« Ton n^i 
b-uan pi vrcm imaa naiy jnjn d^id dm |ua can dwi «ba 

jn aba 

•bpbpb *bm rtz*h *bv isua mrt diiwA -pjrr ot*a 4 2 
nnrt -p* -p ,ind "j^sa tow lb Tbwi 'njp iaa ip^rr6 nSpi 
* ,^3 "ia»an bs\ .yvb nb«n ibpbpb iA«n TiaiA ate i:iaaa 
,To^b mya piro in ,DDNaa in ,nppa in baaa na«a in ,-ua jnip 
«ba naiy din ua ia \am» *im mnt* nan ba n«» bpbpan pi 

.'ui »nvp nN mntwi n^ 'w» nvyn 

♦ DWD WKl EMI ^J?2 "1J?S WK 

ba Wr6 a^n NaviNi /n bya ba -ips*? mmn p tidk 4 K 
pv^a on dn ^N t na: fw '*sni ipsn S^ i^sn *iyvo n byz 
)ywb ;, sn mia ,iai •wtrt in hniqi 1 ? onb D*wn i^w in din s 
^naTiy ni^nn n^imn nnr pyxS ]^t^m t*ni 



Laws Relating to Physical Preservation and to the 

Precept "Not to Destroy." 

1. It is a positive commandment for one to make a battlement 
for his roof, as it is said : "And thou shalt make a battlement for thy 
roof" (ibid. 8). The height of the battlement s .ould not be 
less than ten hand-breadths and it should be strongly constructed, in 
order that it may not give way when one leans upon it. 'J h^ roofs of 
our houses are exempt from this precept because we do not use them 
as in the East. The precept applies not only to the roof, if used, but 
also to any place where danger might arise through a person meeting 
with an accident there and entailing a possibility of fatal consequences. 
Proper safeguards are required in all such cases and anyone who 
neglects this precaution violates an affirmative precept and tntnsgresses 
a negative precept, as it is said : " Thou shalt not bring blood upon 
thine house " (Hid.) E.g., if one have a wall in his court he is obliged 
to put around it an entrenchment ten hand-breadths high or to cover 
it to prevent anyone falling therein. So also with regard 
to any stumbling-block which might prove a danger to life, it is a 
religious duty to remove it or to beware thereof and to warn others 
in a kind manner, as it is said : "Take heed to thyself, and keep thy 
life diligently " (ibid. iv. 9). If one left these dangerous obstacles 
thereby not removing them, he has violated an affirmative precept 
and transgressed the law, " Thou shalt not bring blood upon thine 
house * (ibid. xxii. 8). E.g., if a broken ladder stand in his house or 
in his court, or if one bring up a vicious dog (it is his duty to remove 
the same). 

2. Just as a man must guard his body against all injury or harm, 
as it is said : " Take heed to thyself, and keep thy life diligently (ibid. 
iv. 9), likewise has he been enjoined to guard his money against all 
loss, therefore one who breaks any utensil, or who tears a garment, or 
destroys food or drink, or befouls them, or who throws away money 
or spoils anything that is proper for man's enjoyment, transgresses a 
negative precept, as it is said : " Thou shalt not destroy the trees 
thereof" (ibid. xx. 19). 

Laws Concerning Cruelty to Animals and Castration. 

1. It is forbidden, according to the Torah, to hurt any living 
creature. It is, on the contrary, one's duty to save any living creatures 
from pain, it is immaterial whether the creature be ownerless or if it 
belong to a non-Jew. Nevertheless if they be injurious to man or if 
they be required for medicinial purposes or for any other human need, 
it is permitted to kill them and we do not hesitate to cause them pain 
thereby (of course, only the minimum pain) since the Torah has per- 
mitted Shechitah (ritual slaughter). 


itdj ir6 in ^pVipo opaS upsm Thspz D^ienon d^did # i 
v :ya iyv dwd naA «]K w? rniPB ,iw ^a "jwof? pbw pw 
.proa ipkd inv» thhA nai naa nam onut n^ 1A0 o^n 

.^y* on 1 ? rvw pya *pjn rvn /nana *br\ *wpb iidk # 3 

^nr om wd mm wra ^ *py am^ iidk /l 

•d*ti ^ya 

o % «at9 in* .ipyi rroi flm pai ,dik pa did 1 ? iidk *n 
a^n DiDon ^ai ,pi*6 pro pa tow pxa pa jarm mm 
c^n ^ya ik&6 i« t^*6 jnpy *?p oia rwpvnb itos*i .mptoD 

.iidk onarn 

maof? itos»n n**i •*• nana did 1 ? n'lay^ ityfc iiok ♦! 

O'layi DWD ,110k ilDIDH JUT DK 13P HWIfi^ I 1 ? TU^b IN D'layS 

om ww ,w *ja 5y iaiy *?*off\i a*Ni ,di^d iwk *?y rmta a":i 
*iv y"& did 1 ? ma o"vyb pu pi iD*ya didd ruipn D"iayn p« 

♦iniDi ^i vtb *m mi 

rypa naa rwa Ana nun ^>a ,tmiia toJi wi toe ,K 
nairw dwd a^n» pip y6* anpn Ana iD^pam ,m&an now 
town «to p^ mxb ,enpn ma *?a^ d*tu iiwa ^d wi ,pn 

.pmn ny#a n 1 ?** prrtp 

iai mi by ya«m iay dm Saw ,mna«m p pnm* pi # i 
ptonw pin 4 nwa wnw »*jrn viytava hdip «*?« ;rty tora^ k 1 ? 

.pmn nypa ato* njnatwi bv 


2. When horses which are drawing a cart come to a rough place 
or to a high hill and they cannot draw the cart without help, it is a 
religious duty to help even the horses of a non-Jew, because of the 
precept forbidding cruelty to animals, lest the owner smite them to 
make them draw more than their strength permits. 

3. It is forbidden to bind together the feet of a beast, animal or 
bird in any way that might cause them to suffer pain. 

4. It is forbidden to make a bird sit on eggs which are not of 
her own species, for this is cruelty to the creatures. 

5. It is forbidden to castrate either a man, beast, an animal or a 
bird, clean or unclean, in Palestine or elsewhere. Anyone who trans- 
gresses deserves punishment by stripes. It is also forbidden to give a 
man or any other male living being anything to cause sterility. 

6. It is forbidden to tell a heathen to castrate one of our 
animals. Some authorities say that it is forbidden even to sell it to a 
heathen or to give it to him on terms of half the profits if one be aware 
that he will castrate it, because the heathen is also forbidden to 
castrate. Therefore, in acting thus the Israelite would cause the 
heathen to transgress the law. If, however, the heathen who is the 
buyer would not himself castrate, but would give it to another heathen 
to castrate, this procedure is, according to all authorities, permitted, 
since the possible indirect cause of transgression is not operative in 
this case. 

Laws Regarding Vows and Oaths. 

1. One should not become accustomed to making vows. Every 
one who makes a vow is as though he had built a high place when it 
is forbidden to do so ; and any one who fulfils such a vow is as though 
he had offered an offering upon the high place and thereby incurred 
guilt for offering a sacrifice outside the Temple. This applies to 
ordinary vows, but one is commanded to keep vows of consecration 
and one should not consult the wise concerning them, except in a 
case of necessity. 

2. One should likewise keep aloof from taking an oath, but if 
one had transgressed and did take an oath concerning any matter, he 
should not consult the wise regarding its annulment as he is obliged to 
fulfil it, even if it cause him distress. One should not consult the 
vrise regarding the annulment of an oath except in case of necessity. 


ymb aia pt npirt itom/iai dw w iito nnrt "p* *3 

pib* ,"6 ]*•« dni ,td jn< trpb mnn nw no tra iS an dn xbx 

one? pioa^ inn npl* Depots dni ,tu *6a jn*i A rmv ny 

pm:p m»bj p^arara ]di ,th "6a FCtt «™ ewsa ne^ 

•nnA A wid nnv nya kyi dk ,nnj *to noA an nprrt 

/rwn nr* nwy^ in nnvia ma^ nr* A jnap^ injri dn 4 t 
mvpS rnrei ww p ntt.d Nin# in a"na ^enjr p nt Nvn 
nn:a nn*sa Ttn6 "6 nma ,ima nvx nwyba wzh in W* nra 
•nana nSn njna» i* th pt^a mat n 4 ? dn i^sni ,njna#a in 
idw mrwa Tirt onN.n "px pSi !p^ .a«\nBi ina nn ,»of?ya 
p y*N m«n *w» aim .tu ^a noiw mxa nan npN rwn* 
♦om: pya Th tea* ate na ,nwi nan rwy 1 ? inDNa '*b» 

/qwdi pt? m m /nmiD pnS na D^nn: nnw na # n 
ruw ;tto i« ,p? pith n»a ^ xbv nn:i ,Wir ppn» nn ,nrj 
mum pww "»d pi ,pa«fl3n ppro nNPi pn n« vty now pa 
v'm wn rrnay non *ftNa mo ,nra wrrcn nwu y6? bapi wa 
najnr6 «n i6k /«w an bvyb onN 1 ? A p« i^Na o^nnja dj d"bi 

.onu N*?a dj vnn ^ 

tu dn few ,on» iato vs n\n dk n*?n ^n twh pi # i 
^ nn: la^a nrmw w vns^a mw iaa in^n rm n^» n^aa 

♦nn: nr pc ^nwa wnm 

tin r^D nonD wno D^nnian D^nana rtsm ** anae? ^d J 
fiin^ 1 ? *bm n^a ^lan^ «W in rmbon wzv rwwn j\aa nrm 
*A« nnx d^s pn p ru n 1 ? ^bh a'Vai ^"m mm t**d p 
mn kSv B ff j; i|N D ff ^ p :.n^ in obiy 1 ? p «rA injna nvw 
^«a nf«r6 nxini nn: ^a icnv n:nn hSi d^ p mh m^na 


3. It is necessary to avoid making a vow with regard to any 
matter. It is not uood to vow, even for charity, but if one desire to 
give something which he has in his possession, he should give it forth- 
with, otherwise he should wait until he has it and then he should give 
it without any vow. If a call be made for charity and one is obliged 
to contribute in common with others, he should, when offering, ex- 
pressly stipulate that he is not making a vow. At a memorial service, 
where it is usual to make chaiitable offerings, one should say, "I am 
not making any vow." When one is in distress he is permitted to 
make a vow. 

4. If one resolve to fix a certain time for the study of the Torah 
or to observe a certain commandment and he is afraid that he will 
thereafter relax in his exertions in this matter, or if he fear lest, 
incited by passion, he might do something which is forbidden or he 
might be prevented thereby from observing one of the commandments 
he is permitted to fortify his soul by making a vow or taking an oath. 
Even if, when making a resolution, one merely make a simple declar- 
ation not in the formula of a vow or an oath, it is nevertheless a vow, 
and he is obliged to keep it. One should therefore take care, when he 
resolves to do a good deed or to adopt a certain good practice, to say 
that he does so without making a vow. This is likewise a good rule 
for a person to observe even when saying that he will do something 
which is optional, so as to obviate transgressing the sin of violating 
one's vow. 

5. One who made a vow in order to improve his conduct 
is zealous and praiseworthy, e.g., if one be a glutton, and he vows that 
he will not eat meat for a certain time, or if he be intemperate and 
declares that he will not touch wine or other intoxicating spirits, like- 
wise one who allowed himself to be conceited and proud on account of 
his ^ood looks and to correct this folly he takes upon himself to be a 
Nazarite or the like, in all these cases these vows are for the worship 
of God. Nevertheless one should not accustom oneself to take even 
such vows, but one must strive to conquer one's passion even without 
a vow. 

6. A vow is not effective unless the lips and heart (of the speaker) 
are in harmony, but if one made a vow i., error, that is, he uttered 
with his lips a vow that he had no intention of making, or he thought 
of making a vow but he did not utter it with his lips, it is not accoun- 
ted a vow. 

7. If one had accustomed himself to strictly observe certain 
practices, from which he is exempt by law, but which he has volun- 
tarily assumed that they should serve him as a barrier and a fence for 
self-control, e.g., fasting during the Ten days of Penitence, or abstain- 
ing from meat and wine from the 17th day of Tammuz to the 9th 
of Ab, and practices similar to these, even if he thus conducted him- 
self but once, but he had it in his mind to make a rule thereof, or 
it he had thus conducted himself three times, although he did not 


p ana» na ty ta^nriD irro nanna nnB^ ,i-nnn -p? ,Kna ia*K£ 

jfiwnfii a^oS ninain nraa Jin: 1 ? mrn kvw ^d p 1 ? .ma d&6 

aviaS injna jnw na*o da ,maa p vty *?apa wk» n^nna naio 

.dSw 1 ? *6i rraw D^aysa ik kwi oysa «Sk ,p 

roue rwte <?w i^in jqnam w man na pvia ifa ♦(! 
tfy& ma nw yw oma mabna *pa mm ana mm min ^aa 
w .* w om ,pviD -pm nwA trtw oan« jno row wnfr 
.nun \d n-w ■ft tw ,aia a'frna w 

-iy 'ma raw pn i* nninatf nisan *?a payte s'jth 4 a 
ww ny rfrna nrK nam row kwi rw may ffb» iS w* 
tsnb t*> Porp«n ma pay 1 ? *?aK t mwo mtwi nap n^w dvw .-6 
na naapni 'a om na& rrw ow p ppnr .nna nap nanp 
*a d&6 owao dk d^d^d wan *6 iV»bn in« Dm nap nnpp nna 
'*bk |rt pro trnvn *?aN /qrov Dnjnan ,ma ornna ,wtMi wa 
cmaa oaw 1 ? ifrw hS» ona pjna a"ai .oi^a annai pa ^a^aa 
on^y pna jvm wy 13 pap Spi pp nan mn dhi .mjnapi 


nap a*> n 1 ? vmp /ta*rn ,naannp ny ma *rra vsa aan / 
,pYBa to .vipn m: ybb ^pam .napa k^p mm onmn nppi 
man n« ip^v whp nxan pp*? nap in *?aa ik ibid a"a nai« 
**? nnnn p&6 ^k ^Tasa n 1 ?^ i« maaa p noix^ p np^D 
ijhs» dn la^m .dj^d^ ova pn nsn*? pto" i^« oai /??mi a«a ^ano 
.ova vd» dki r "nrrK^» Di s n tei nWn ta p^sa nWn n^nna 
oa^« mm ja^ayon n«if i^ pn ^tbd p« M3\»i n^vS 71DD 
b&sn n^n ^na ioa ^ ibid nb id« , » «S nat^a ^r\b \bw 
*imn i^dh S^an in aan dw »nra k*i^ ^a« ^a n 1 ? nDi^i la^a 


resolve to make a rule thereof, if he had not stipulated that he wa*> 
doing so without making a vow, and he desires to change his custom 
owing to his ill-healtb, he requires absolution of his vow, and he should 
make the opening remark (to those who will absolve him) by declaring 
that he regrets that he had acted as though he had made a vow ; 
therefore one who desires to adopt a very strict observance of some 
law, that should serve him as a fence for self-control he should first say 
that he does not adopt it by a vow, he should furthermore say that it 
is only for this occasion or for any other time when he will desire thus 
to act and that he has no intention of making a regular practice 

8. How are vows or oaths to be annulled ? The one, who had 
made the vow or had taken the oath, goes to three men who are learned 
in the Torah, and (at least) one of them is to be an expert in the laws 
concerning vows in order that he may know what kind of a vow may 
be annulled and what kind may not and in what manner they may 
be annulled, these three absolve him. One who makes a vow in a 
dream should be absolved thereof, preferably by a body of ten men 
who arc learned in the Torah. 

9. Although with reference to all the precepts in the Torah a 
son is not considered of age (and liable to perform same) until he is 13 
years old and shows signs of puberty, and with regard to a daughter 
the age is 12 years, but with reference to a vow or an oath they both 
become responsible a year earlier (than the aforementioned ages). Thus 
a son who had reached the age of twelve years and one day and a 
daughter of eleven years and one day, even though they lack the signs 
of puberty, and who furthermore understood in whose Name they 
made the vow or took the oath, their vows are of no account. They 
should, nevertheless, be reprimanded, and taught not to accustom 
themselves to make vows or to take oaths. But if the vow be of a 
trivial nature, not entailing (by its fulfilment) any physical suffering, 
they should be compelled to keep it. 

10. The father may annul the vows of his daughter until she 
arrives at the age of twelve years and six months if she be unmarried. 
The husband may annul the vows of his wife. How are the vows 
annulled 1 He says three times " It is invalid " (itie) or " nul and 
void" or he uses some other expression which indicates that he has 
entirely abrogated the vow, it being immaterial whether he said so in 
her presence or not. But the expression (mnn) i.e., declaring that to 
be permitted (which the one who took the oath had stated to be for- 
bidden) does not apply to a father or a husband ; moreover they can 
only declare the vow void during the day they heard it declared. Thus 
if they heard the vow pronounced at the beginning of the night they 
can declare it void during the whole night as well as the day following. 
If they heard it by day just before the time when the stars become 
visible, they can declare it void only until the appearance of the stars, 
thereafter they cannot annul the vow. On Sabbath he must not say 


p-fl Tnn nten *n m 

RYW pt^ 1DH» Kf?K »1TS3 1DH *6ff B tf ^« TOl to i"WVlB KVW 

aw nma rreno kvw atsnn iato pi dk *wn hmo m ptto 

•mrA to vph 

r» o*w Kpn lerf? toan ik a«n pto d^u nra ,J0 
toam inra nsvai ^Diansi toa ,ttw*pi mnm jua ffs: nrp ana 
paw onain p on dm mdj nry ona paw . onai dj nan*? to 
pi to «to d^wd Dm An toa o»wa na^a onswi inwNb t^a 
♦pa sTttDK wtirw in rwDtonw miAi ♦vnnn naw kto 

•■pro w p*w ofnai -wen -pin nbsn p 

vnma pi "pro ]*? mm* dipdd pa waa pa yrb mm 4 K 
wto wi ma* D^a» wn w bw nwj/o kxh* ti*6 vpaS 
k"ik 'n tfhro .fro nton tosriD ,omn to ftar iroA nan 
prto naia ]r6 sunw p*i crcn 'to maw ."d* Dito^ wto? 
jorwai Ty to mia^D ^d k<w nna 1 ? maw 1 ? aia nrrm .toi 
•uro dtp dj npiaa moiA to Ty nwta ]fn ina naa 

♦jidid ninsn to 1 ? nato i 1 ? «h a"*m nnix tosnrA p* ♦! 
toenm to n:>p dm .rowmn naia "yina tosnrfc ■A r* ntonafn 
*pyb naioon none "pf6 j^an k 1 ? p*uw natoi Tina iww pi to 

♦na pto mm msw 
*rp dk id 1 ?'! n*mn naiab -jidd max^ pa*i* inn nton J 
m«0 t? nroo -pia ]b rm» i« wn nana -pna nai*n -ipiaa 
naiaa ,hw Dip ttot idwi («r» Diip oj Tnn nton noi^ to 
T^n nm i^ id^ wxm onon teun nana in« mDir iwn 
nana ■pa'n inn to nan np« rmr« ik bw in^an ntonn inN^ 

•Tnn nton idk^ nS ^di towm 


to her (inc) " it is invalid for thee " as on week days, but he should 
annul it in his heart and say to her : " Take, eat " or similar expres- 
sions. If the father or the husband first say that he is satisfied with 
reference to the vow, although he had not explicitly said this but he 
uses such language which indicated that he was satisfied, or even if he 
only thought that he was satisfied with her vow, he cannot then annul 
the same. 

11. What tows can the father or husband annul? Only such 
as involve physical suffering, e.g., to abstain from washing or toilet 
(perfume) or cosmetics or rouge and such like. The husband can annul 
even such vows which do not involve physical suffering if they refer to 
private matters between husband and wife and might provoke jealousy 
between them. These vows can only be disallowed as long as she lives 
with him, but if she became a widow or divorced she is bound by the 

The Law Regarding the Prayer for a Journey and other 
Matters to be Noted When Travelling. 

1. One who goes on a journey, whether from his house or from 
the place where he lodged over night on his journey, as soon as he has 
gone beyond the outskirts of the city, i.e. 70$ cubits beyond the 
last house, should say the prayer for a journey, namely, 'n tfw 
*ttl whvh ua^inff ff'w. 1 The prayer is said in the plural except in the 
phrase ]nb n:nm. It is proper to say the prayer after one had tra- 
velled 2,000 cubits (i.e., a mil) beyond the outskirts of the city and 
when he is travelling and has lodged over night in any place he can 
say it in the morning before he resumes his journey. 

2. The prayer is to be said if he travel at least a parasang (4 
mils) and one should take care to say it during the first parasang, if he 
should forget to do this, he can say it as long as he is travelling pro- 
vided he had not yet reached the last parasang on his road to the city 
where he intends to spend the night. 

3. This prayer should be recited immediately after a benediction. 
Therefore if one go forth on a journey in the morning and he says on 
the road the morning prayers or if he had lodged over night when on 
his journey in a certain place, he can say this prayer before he resumes 
the journey. In the morning prayers he should say it after the bene- 
diction "ww vzvb &2VD dhch 'to: 2 . If he set forth from his house after 
he had said his morning prayer, he should eat or drink something on 
the road and say the concluding benediction (or Grace) and then say 
the prayer for the journey. 

»S«e Authorised Daily Prayer Book, p. 310. *Ibid. p. 7. 


^71 T ,w n ^ sn " :n ^* 

bk n7#a i7in in 5311 Nin oni .mtijfa niaN7 e* ,1 

1N7 ONI W 17.103 31511 DWS W Hana.1 1W17 1#BN 

♦13 niai* 

n:n dn 73n ,i7in Nint* oi> 733 n"s nSn nniN n"n 4 fi 
r.b mm iia?7 .uod n**i ^d: a*nNi dv J177 nin by iy «ipn3 
p nw ix nWai ova ibm on .rrop dj/b .iioin .lira 1 ? aie6 in 
maiN owi iNe>ai navina main ruimn oyfl # aien oipaa nSp 
/to ina ten ae?nj zw oipaa )7 N70 pi 73 *a navin ate 

a^iuna men 710^7 an npit jn* A en in 1 ? vwir dim ,1 
nw iain 117W 7ir,eM7 en 13113 rrtra- iain wan* /i<Sft* 
i? iBipaa nay 1 ? tiv uaa ema inrwa iTan dn mtem dwim 
017^3 I? 17 iion 1 N7 in a i7inn7 Miaon .wya D7IMV i7iffiw 
ion^i f *fna Tnafcn # 'we> rtwia per Tna Kirwa .017*7 1 1 ? N7N 
icy ns 17 n.tb? mn njttam iwtaa o^nn •mora row oi* 733 
nra tesn Nae> nw icj? np^ 17 eh dji anp oipaa i7in ">sn 
^33 Nm 310 *3a m« oaa^ D7i?7 ♦nisDD 7B3JTn mriN w N71 
ino7i /miir nann npa oaa* \bm rvsb Jvaiy wawa '*■ aia 
.-pia Nin»a n3in 73^ N7 .17 aia tni an nonn pan iy JVid* 

nwNi a*nyan on pipi7 tis no* 731N nw N^oaNa 4 t 
yvp wn» oipaa 103 71316 mm oni jmdrji oneo nan uva 
♦vSy nwoni am Nin nsi orneM Nin '•a aa\i emi7i npn*? in* 17 

n^aa tpynrk inn 111a nnne> n^sn bbtm mw2 4 n 
hm^ pirn jap rAm *a no^an*n^aa 77sna m 102 ri7TU 
i*7aae>ai "cri 7Nien j?at^ piosn iaiN»a nit T»^ia *fm on ,nwa 
rtBnai /wia rtjjra aw in aan oni aa\i iaS pan» maj; 1 ? -pi* 
»7»a ninsn 737 ma^b 7ia> on ,12117 pin: Nin oni .iiasn y u ty& 


4. It should be said whilst standing, if he be riding or travelling 
in a conveyance and if it be possible to let the animal drawing the 
same stand still he should do so, because one riding an animal is con- 
sidered to be like one who walks. If it be not possible to let the ani- 
mal stand still, he should say it whilst travelling in the conveyance. 

5. It should be said only once daily whilst travelling, but if he 
rest in a certain place for the purpose of staying there overnight 
and then he changed his mind and went away thence to reach 
another place or to return to his home, he should say it again. 
If he travel by day and by night or if he spent the night in an un- 
inhabited place, on the first occasion he should say the prayer to the 
end, but on the other occasions he should say it without the 
concluding benediction (n'rcn tf&W . . . ^Via) for as long as he does not 
spend the night in an inhabited place, his journey is reckoned as one 
uninterrupted way. 

6. Before going on a journey one should give charity and also 
bid farewell to the leaders of the community so that they may bless 
him, wishing him a prosperous journey and if possible he should get 
some of them to accompany him a little way. One who accompanies 
his companion must stand still when the latter departs from him 
until he disappears from his view. The people who bless a person 
going on a journey should not say to him : " Go in peace," but "Go 
towards peace." When travelling he should meditate on the Torah, as 
it is said : " And when thou walkest by the way " (Deut. vi. 7). He 
should say devoutly and humbly a few psalms daily. He must be 
careful to take bread with him even if he be going to a place in his 
vicinity, he should also take fringes (ren*) lest one of his fringes become 
unfit for use and then he would be unable to obtain another and he 
would be interrupted in the performance of a religious duty. A per- 
son should always enter a place whilst it is still day 1 and also go forth 
during day time, i.e., when he wishes to come to an inn for the night, 
he should go in whilst the sun is still shining and on the morrow he 
should wait for sunrise and then set out on his journey which will be 
prosperous. He should not eat much whilst travelling. 

7. It may be necessary to make inquiries concerning his lodging 
to ascertain if the owner and his staff be trustworthy. If he 
desire to eat meat in a place which is unknown to him, it is necessary 

to investigate carefully the reputation of the slaughterer and to inquire 
concerning the ecclesiastical authority and the one who superintends 
the Shechitah (ritual slaughter). 

8. When saying the morning prayers whilst on a journey he 
must enwrap himself in a large Tallis just as he would do when pray- 
ing in the Synagogue, for the Arba' Kanfos lacks the proper size of a 
Tallis. If he were walking when he says the verse ynv "Hear, 
Israel," etc., (ibid. 4) and tie words V^eaffa, he must stand still in 

*Cf. T. B. Pesachim 2a. The expression means lit. " that it was good," see Gen. i. 4. 


p*Tl nmn roan wr JTH 

aawa ^sn" ^ dni .aaia nww niana rt»ai mwni rnana 
td "•bk ^sn^ im^ aia djbmi .a^va w»nan nrjw nf?:iya 
fiaw na ovn nwn nnM nyp **n td '••bm nma ux\ nrwn n'bya 

»*iMnai naiya ^snn 1 ? 
Kinpa m fanna nna 1 ? nma ■frna NVW2 TTO W" °* ♦& 
on f>aM ,aaynn^ "par dm y6jj name injn pw ^bd -jSna 
•aero -pa 1 ? -pn* ptan nana dj na^va •jaM 
panaa pe D"iay rraa a^aun ima antra* paw mp /■ 
nma ^6 ov jaw iyap dm a*ai iwap *w M*n awa pana 
naina nana ub nb'w mn jannn inaM*i pann ^aa 1 ? ps urn 
]^ia> 'k ?ra d^sik aw .aSiy ny una** aipaat una^n aipaa 
m6 dmi •rrwoh tya ty **pi mn a'nya nx -pa* Kin pnnn nai 1 ? 

.wm "pa* mn jannn naM* 
wa^ pa niKDns »te ja w tf"pa irb niDM una ♦JO 
mrnaai *una nap nvnya •on* jwfr "6aw na nnM aipo^ pa 
*?a -pnv a'ai .nma twao din "ja avw *jsa n?a praa pt ^m 
na# W^n nann *a bru awi mya miwuA DJaw nMa nnrt b-jm 

.annMnat* no ** by Ma 
dm .niya i 1 ? 0*1 ,pbaa -pna imp nat? ova Min» •»a jj* 
dki .nvpia on nnt? ^aa pnnrA maM pratf? im p*psnS fna* 
ona my" 1 mVi n*aa atw ruaa p"y ansn* uaa aiaw* me^ ktod 
f?a kyv» wm» nr none ndp nn^i »•» dm im .arry pM» Dipaa 
Drwa ona rm^ nnio i:dd obra^ nvo iS »n!f w^t m^ao ovn 
•niDM i s :y Vaa iD^aa on dm few •n^aa onisn 

•nruD nban ^n 

nruo nMnpa kw rhytfn nvnDi m^» 'oa mvt mar ^p? ^ 


order to pray with devotion. If he ride or sit in a vehicle he can say 
this prayer :ts he is situated. He must stand still to say the Shemoneh 
'Karen. If he be pressed for time to complete his journey, he should, 
if possible, stand still at least for the recital of the first three benedic- 
tions and the last three benedictions If not, he should pray whilst 
sitting in the conveyance and thus perform the customary rights of 
bowing. Nevertheless it would be preferable to say the Shemoneh 
'Esreh immediately after dawn and to say the afternoon prayer directly 
after 12.30 p.m., in order to pray standing and in the proper manner. 

9. If one ate whilst walking on a journey he may say Grace 
after meals whilst continuing the journey because he would feel uneasy 
if he were compelled to delay (to say the Grace whilst sitting down). 
If he ate whilst sitting then he must say the Grace in a like position. 

10. The custom obtains among a few people that if they eat in 
the house of a heathen whilst travelling they do not unite to say the 
Grace after the meal, since they had not made an appointment here for 
this purpose. If, however, they had agreed to unite to eat together 
there, it would not be right to ignore the duty of uniting for saying 
Grace. They should say the following extra pWV\ : \A nbw> sin jpirai 
thxo 19 una^ Dipoai una*Vn Mpea rune naia. If they partake of the 
food of an individual they can say the special ]emn : ns *pai «in \nrr.n 
run s'nva, referring to their host, otherwise they should say pmn 

.Unix fW ton 

11. According to the strict interpretation of the law, it is for- 
bidden to go on Friday more than three parasangs either to his house 
or to any other place, so that his household cau prepare the Sabbath 
meals as is proper. In these lands we are not particular in this matter 
because the majority of people prepare in ease. Nevertheless it is 
necessary for everybody to enter his home whilst it is day, for fre- 
quently the Sabbath is desecrated by people delaying in this matter. 

12. If one were in a lodging whilst on a journey on the Sabbath 
and he had money with him, if he can deposit it or put it away in 
safety it is well, as he must not keep it in his pocket for the money ia 
nspic (i.e. that which is forbidden to be handled or used on Sabbath or 
Holyday). If he fear that the money will be stolen from him, he may 
sew it in his garment on Friday and he should remain indoors and not 
go out on the Sabbath wearing this garment in a place where there ia. 
no 'Erub (i.e the symbolical act whereby the legal fiction of com- 
munity or continuity is established). 1 But if there be cause to fear 
that by reason of his refraining from going out the entire day, the 
people will imagine that he has money and that they might rob him, 
he can then go out with the money sewed in his garment but he may 
not go out under any circumstance if the money be in his pocket. 

The Laws Concerning the Afternoon Service (nn:a). 
1. The right time for the Afternoon Service is at 9h hours of 
the day and that is called the short period for Minchah (small Minchah.) 

1 See JMtrow.Tarjjum Dictionary, p. 1075 b. 


Laws 2 — 6 

Tm nn ^ n ^ n ^ rn 

■pi* kvw w it6 riNY 1 ? -p* imv p:o .pmn ny#ai .map 
titod ronpa mm rrcriDi rwv vv *vxh TO Stanr6 *a* ,SidkS 
nV6n cantp njw rwati njw ny ntanaS inn rua? l^Dm ,r6m 
<«in r66n iy ruap nroo njwn <a •nruDn Jita mpj nn /w nVi 
w»a ik naynai wwi np» am htd nmm .nvnoi ni$» w 
■jvfcnpn ana nny pni: pi •owian an* iy WsnnV toa* pmn 
f twn ,iw»i w nan Ah nipn ,nW? -poo nruo ptaAmv 
am tfpta a ff 6 dim p^nnD nnjnpB "W nnnn nrrntD ovn tv ^ 
•ny«6 nawu mrnoi nyp nn rw n*> ^m ovn 

♦map nroaS -]iao n»p rmj» 6<bn Sia*6 f?wir6 tdk # i 
tew* acta mvo^ io*y yaip *une an Anrijj njw **n wi /pool 
«n pn wd warm Anm ^«?an i« jtitb yiH in nnw ik 
"wnorA in pma*? d:d6 tidk pi ,roa dj TOnr6 ff* taa .pro 
r6nD nna ik prm) nnvo pia ,r6m mvw .naap nrua^ -;idd 
ovn rovna wn /6m nroab -pao 6w bnw6 iidn /idtisi 
oipaai rrrron trnp 6tarw r6m nma p? ny wia* ata tdk 
*>*»nnr6 nma w*a bbanrb ?sn& 1^6 ^ mm a"anaS pip«p 
yanaS p*np» Tap mtai a"na dji map nma 1 ? -jidd map miro 
tdn mop mxb -poo r6m impai ,Stanr6 jpov mrw naa p w 

o'arcA pipw opaa 6w f?mnr6 
n<w ntar6 laa pwi ny *aa a":i pan* nma ntar6 J 
pa ptisn dk ipia*> pi nroo pa posn dm anyn n^sn 1 ? pi 

•w ^id6 *p* nnn» 
n^ 3"anaa pao nnw iv rtnaib onipty nwn "igi 1 ? pa 4 *i 
p:D N^a nr« vidk dki ya viok» hd ta ^npn iax , » f»»pw 
»vi &np p»»n *iDio ^n«i taaia hpk mDN^ pjan otai a^rwi 
qki v*ipb n»n pa p^osrA n^» n»K mip n6ba «|Dynn^ p*»r6 


In a case of emergency, e.g., if he had to go on a journey or to take a. 
meal he can say the afternoon service immediately after 6i hours of 
the day ( = 12.30 p.m.) and this is called (the beginningof) the "large 
Minchah." Actually its limit is extended to one hour and a quarter 
before night but not later. This is called nn:cn ibt (half of the small 
Minchah, but if the day be exactly 1 2 hours long, this point of time is 
at 4.45 p. m ), for two hours and a half intervene between the begin- 
ning of the small Minchah and nightfall, and half of this period is one 
hour and a quarter. If there were no option or in a case of necessity 
one can say the afternoon service until the stars appear. Likewise we 
are now accustomed in many congregations to say this service shortly 
before night. The hours referred to are proportionate to the length 
of the day from sunrise to sunset divided by twelve, and if the day be 
long containing 18 hours then every " hour " is really one hour and a 

2. It is forbidden to begin even a little meal shortly 
before the "small Minchah/' The term "shortly before" means half 
an hour. If he did not resolve to take a regular meal, but he was only- 
eating or drinking momentarily, e.g., he partook of fruit or a dish 
of even one of the five special kinds of corn, to do so is permitted by 
some authorities. Others are stringent and forbid even this. It is also 
forbidden to begin even shortly before the " large Minchah," i.e. at 
noon, an elaborate banquet, such as a wedding banquet or a feast to 
celebrate a circumcision or the like, but he should wait until half an 
hour after noon had elapsed, and they should then say the afternoon 
prayer before the feast. In a place where people are summoned to 
attend Synagogue and if he be accustomed to go there to say hi3 
prayers with the congregation, he is permitted to begin a little meal 
shortly before the "small Minchah" and also thereafter, provided he 
will cease eating immediately when they call him to Synagogue to 
pray. It is forbidden to begin an elaborate banquet shortly before 
the "small Minchah," even in a place where they summon people to 
come to Synagogue. 

3. Prior to beginning the Afternoon Service it is necessary to* 
wash the hands up to the wrists as at the Morning Service. If on 
concluding the Afternoon Service he made an interruption before 
saying the Evening Service, or if upon terminating the Morning Ser- 
vice he made an interruption before saying the Additional Service, the 
aolution must be repeated. 

4. »*»BfH (Ps. cxlv.) which inaugurates the Afternoon Service 
should not be said before there are ten male adults in the Synagogue 
in order that the Reader can say Kaddish after this psalm has been 
said in the presence of the Minyan. But if »*WfH were said with less 
than a Minyan present, and in the meantime ten adults had 
assembled, another psalm should be said after which the Reader should 
say trnp. The Reader should enwrap himself in the Tallis before 
reciting nc« in order to avoid an interruption between ^stn and B»np, 


yt-fi nroo rbm *n m 

srpios mm nam C|Qj;n s n»» na«p nrmf? ijr n^a rwi vb 

,*np ^io Drptytf 

«np nr.N td p ff twi bw» rtW6 ainpi nptn nytrn dm 4 H 
bun naaff ny awjn a^yaw *6k Mbjt nS rnavm on ^ipa v'vn 
urn nwa nptn njnwi dxi rrAa rttomsi p« dw w tfvipn 
id^ iA Wpn ^xn natw nriN 1 ? ny p'twi *?y ww dkp «nrA 
-iv r6aa nte wAa p*0?i ay td bh&nrh fro* w tto onSsn 
•mana ty rur» in* D*na^ htw nwsN dn aw .«mpn ^«n 

•pic p*#n 

anay ^sna ,y ff # pWw* nias ksbi a'ana 1 ? ica» ^a # l 
nan* DTip y*tf TttA ^arp n? dm # jr^wi nmA ntwc nam ,y*» 
•wnpn oy y^n te f'ffn maw nn*6 ny jvrt? dki ♦rwnpS f ff ffn 
nba nfann nnrna p'ffn or trr6a Www jvid* ,nSsn pi -nap 
naiN kvw loa tai nvn ynb on nvnpn nou to ioy nam nbaa 
Dnm an .r6sn yaw nanai mpn ton nana mw iay bw 
or nato «^ to* *wn ws pi tmn ay iww na nwa n&x> 
mm ok pn .ttt niw iaa nSsn yawa now ato iuy p ff »n 
ntonn n« j^n nnm nnx iy pnn* am /rain oy anya Wfinnb 
aa Din .p*»n m?n ay nroo Wwi^ .nnwa jrany bb&nnb tw 
?m pa ruy*i vrqpn ban ?"vn naicw nni6 ny pna* nmpf? -pao 
anp) onia d;i nton yaw nn«S^ pa n*# t»dbw ^ •Warj' 1 
*F2&\ na«i oy n^any n^sn i^owite ^sa «)ny '•an a ff a (own 

,nma pro inav nyirn dk 

pn ••a funn tumt nS nWn ny nman nbsn navaa dm J 
nWn ny i^an k 1 ?^ mivrAi nrb pa^nvi ,nWa pann onaw 
}va ova Mannv n^snn ^y Sapnn »np ona^H p« m ""a tc^aa 

.finnan art i^w nWrw 


but if he only obtained a Tallis after he had already said «nrn, ho 
Bliould enwrap himself therein and say some verses of the Psalms, after 
Which he should say r*TB. 

5. If the time proper for Minchah be limited and night be 
approaching, immediately after the Kaddish the Reader should say 
the Shemoneh 'Esreh aloud whilst the Congregation should only listen 
and make the responses until the Reader has said trnpn bun ("the 
Holy God ") to which they should respond JDK, and then they should 
silently say their prayer, if, however, they be very much pressed for 
time, and it is to be feared that by waiting until the conclusion of 
rrtpn bun (by the Reader) they would be unable to conclude their 
prayer while it is yet day, they can immediately pray with the Reader 
saying silently word by word with him until mpn bun, it is neverthe- 
less proper that there be at least one who can respond ]CK to the 
Reader'6 benedictions. 

6. One who arrives at the Synagogue whilst the Congregation 
say the Shemoneh 'Esreh should also say it with them and on con- 
cluding the same he can say nrtt. If, however, he will be unable to 
conclude the Shemoneh 'Esreh in time to say the Keddushah in the 
Reader's repetition and if he wait until the Reader has concluded the 
entire Shemoneh 'Esreh with the Kaddish, when the time proper for 
Baying Minchah will then be passed, he should wait for the Reader's 
repetition and say with him silently word by word, he should even say 
the Reader's version of the Keddushah including '121 mi ^ib, and 
terminate the benedictions mpn ton and nbtn rcitr with the 
Reader, he should also say omfi together with the Reader in order that 
he may then bow with the Congregation. On a fast day, however, he 
should not say 1322 together with the Reader, but he should insert it in 
nVsn yew as is proper for a private worshipper. Likewise if he desire 
to say the Evening Service with the congregation and if he should post- 
pone saying the Minchah prayer until the conclusion of the Reader's 
repetition of the Shemoneh 'Esreh, he would be compelled to say the 
Evening Prayer privately, he should say the Minchah Shemoneh 'Esreh 
when it is repeated by the Reader. If he came into the Synagogue 
just before the Keddushah he should wait until the Reader has con- 
cluded the words trnpn *:«n and then after responding ]C»s he should 
say the Shemoneh 'Esreh. And although he will miss the response 
]en after the benediction nbtn PBW and also the response D*11fi (•' We 
give thanks ") which are obligatory, nevertheless it is better to miss 
these responses rather than to lose the opportunity of saying the 
Evening prayer with the Congregation. Much more so is this the case 
if the time for saying Minchah be on the point of passing by. 

7. If the Minchah Service were prolonged until night Tachanun 
should not be said for this prayer of supplication may not be said at 
night. The utmost care should be taken not to delay the Minchah 
service until it is actually night, as then ^apnn imp cannot be said after 
prayers which were recited during the previous day, since the night 
Wongs to the following day. 


^71 ^j» rtw w m 

in nap "frap naa bnpm y'anaa nruab ff ya ua» ^a J"i 
nb ,13*13 "ncx B"vai na^n di^ w msta viax na^a wn ,tt*T" 
dxi Wbm noxn mb pn -j^ x*?x ,nin a ff anaa nn:a Weni 
aw /ona nw dxp TDirn oy w» x 5 ? lana naix p'^np yaw 
rpaip rtsrv nam nya dxi) ^n ^ nbsn a"nx ^snrft wn wx 
y*vn maA ^av *6# a*px ,B*n natr nbipb -pao xa tam .(nvw 
♦invia ^nna» pa ^snnb toa* a"^ ix nap *apn* Dip 

♦a*T)ra nfrun n n 

'j l^xwa x^n n^anj/ St* n^sn te jhw nx^p jar ,X 
pma vpam /iate psan kvh* ny pjw pwan avai ,a^ap Maia 
*:sa nW vpx ]""iytp b"s?k nn:a nnx epvi a'nya iiava WwinS 
Dip xn^ x?^ naSai .nw niavn «yiDxb mia x*™ .mayn nniD 
Sbsr.D^ ■*& nt^Ki XHtv dtk nayna i^bx rx ^ ,nman : f ;s 
oy nWn nan 1 ? nmna poij; anya*? nma pai nWa mava n*a-iy 
Dip iiava W?bjyj dn# d">d» xv ^ *un D"ayi .nwia dim 
Mron nxv inxS rai ,piw x*?x nWn Dip f?a^ xb nWn 
bbsimb "b niDH maxa Wsna uw ^ai tp"p *?# ninns # j mp* 

.o^aaian nxv crop n\ny n^sn 

*vdxi D*aa\an nxsa tb rpany Wanrft in* rAnnab ,2 
n«» Dip nyp "»vn toW i^sxi nai dw nwS in biax 1 ? ^nnnS 
-laA «\nt» pa /n:s iS ^x dxi map nn:D^ "pDD iaa traaian 
n^n nnx i^b« Tajmai ,nbbn nnvna nnv nn«^ «*? s^a^ D^ana 

.xy' 1 inwn Taj? n*?y x^tr ny 

^snn 1 ? pw noxrw xxai n^anj; nSsnS y'anaS xap ^a J 
anaj? ^sna n^abi nn:an Asa xbx nW wn ]"t; i^dx 3;"^ 


8. One who came to the Synagogue on a Friday afternoon and 
found that the Congregation had already inaugurated the Sabbath or 
Festival, that is to say on Sabbath they had said rown cv 1 ? vb> 11D1B or 
on the Eve of a Festival they had said 12ns, then he should not say 
the Minchah Service in that Synagogue, but he should withdraw and 
say his prayer. If he hear the Reader say 12^2 he should not respond 
with the Congregation, for by responding to 1212 he forfeits his right 
to say the Minchah prayer of a week-day and if he made a mistake by 
doing so, he should say the Shemoneh 'Esreh of the Evening Seivice 
twice. If, however, he arrived at the Synagogue shortly before the 
Sabbath or Festival had been inaugurated and although he could not 
complete the Minchah prayer before the Congregation had inaugurated 
the Sabbath or Festival, he may conclude the same in the Syna- 
gogue as he began it there when it was permissible for him to do so. 

Laws Concerning the Evening Service. 

1. The time for reading the Shema' of the Evening Service is 
when three small stars are visible. On the day when the sky is over- 
cast with clouds one should wait and not pray until he knows Deyond 
a doubt that it is night. Nevertheless, the God-fearing man who had 
participated in the congregational Evening Service before night, should 
wait and not partake of any meal before night set in. Immediately 
after the stars are visible he should read the first three sections of the 
Shema.' One who does not join in the Synagogue service is not 
allowed to say the Evening Service before the stars have appeared. 

2. The proper time for holding Evening Service is exactly when 
the stars appear. It is forbidden to begin a meal or to engage in any 
work or even to study (the Torah) half an hour before the stars appear, 
just as applies shortly before the " small Minchah." If, however, one 
had no spare time, e.g., he was engaged in public teaching he should at 
least not delay the recital of the Evening Service longer than midnight, 
although if one had inadvertently allowed that time to elapse without 
praying, he is permitted to say the prayers until dawn. 

3. If one came to the Synagogue for Evening Service and found 
the congregation saying the Shemoneh 'Esreh, he should say it with 
them even if it should not be night, although it is less than one hour 
and a quarter before night. Later when night had set in he should 


paw imn DMi ; n^^n oy Wpn ioik nW> nvwa yrw ,?"» 
y"&> n^sn 2 ? ijp^ Dip i&'ft mn» "6 t^i jfpma'ttf tf'p pv&aa 
'n -p-D Ai*i ,p rw ,ij^ tow* id? ibw iy wow Dy t?"p 
Warn *6 *nn dmi ,r6ann nru6 d'Tim liEwS -p* wan "oi d^i^ 
dj; #"p onaiw imnp njwa nma y"p n^sn Warp nn:» pnjf 
dj; y"tp z"m bbtim moa 'n -pVn to s"n^ d^d nnaw maian 
.'•D-Dn oy t?"p idn*" 1 rM 'vraa 3"nKi ip-i^dS nuxn 

ydxi .nMha idi^ bp ,wy ikt ny dS^7 'n 71-0 p .1 
pi^p^d PBtww nmy^n "inN^ ny Dim Nim nbnn p p^csnS 
jhb&m -pi* wi dwd ,pDsn *in k*? /todi te t ny\ 

:pti nWa a^naa anyo ^sno *prr dim *wj dm # n 
DMi .inaera W?ann m^p na inbsn d"d^> iy pnwA ran 
a^n i^m naxn oy in^an d^dS ^av *Ap ny»a bbsnrb ^nnn 
.inDD wkp dj3j "om Kny-iMn «n^D anaia *w vby jvionS 

♦ nWn mo 

r6p Mnni nWn rniyoa Dy&^ K*on wa din 1 ? *un 4 X 
■una \wb vbv inr^i .nw aw \wb *p*ian d-jnS m .dim rmyca 
nnva ip oipoa «ri ,nnva an o^psa prt «^ /hyp 

vbppm trepip ]8t^ ina^n DTp» d^ep *pp f?af> *i*n ,2 
f?y top^i n^y mvm tnnrp ^iray npyp aw dki ,ovn Sa wy» 

•TO nnwj; 1 ? m^ d^ a^a iDvy 

'n!2M , » >?M ♦H^ i 7 n\"l^D t^"p ^ nVBHS W^ttf Mlp M 1 ? DM J 

-;nv irM r6^a didm dm bzn jtemsn byv t^ ,; pa nv»iB ^n ^3 
p nivD 1 ? d*di na^a rwrn^tfi ne^is m'^ rrann ^vt^ ^ ;/ pn ^ai 1 ? 


read the Shema' with its proper benedictions. If the Congregation 
were reading the middle of the Shema' with its benedictions and he 
will have time to read the Shema' with its benedictions as far as IDW 
1$h bx^v* ie» before the Congregation say the Shemoneh 'Esreh, he 
should do so and omit # w thvfb 'n "]Vta and he need not say this prayer 
after the Shemoneh 'Esreh. If, (when he found the Congregation saying 
the Shema') he had not yet said the Minchah Shemoneh 'Esreh he 
should say this prayer whilst the Congregation say the Shema' with its 
benedictions, alter which he should wait for a short time, at least 
as long as it would take to walk four cubits, and he should then say 
the Shemoneh 'Esreh of the Evening Service with the Congregation, 
and after nightfall he can read the Shema' with its benedictions. 

4. One should say the prayer, tbtth 'n •pa up to 1JW Wfl whilst 
Bitting. 1 One is forbidden to interrupt oneself when saying the pray- 
ers from cim Nim until after the Shemoneh 'Esreh, but the announce- 
ment by the beadle of «2^ nb?i or 1B01 bv is not considered an inter- 
ruption, inasmuch as it appertains to the requirements of the service. 

5. If one would be left by himself whilst praying in Synagogue at 
night his companion is obliged to wait (for him) until he has completed 
his prayer so that his mind should not be disturbed. If, however, he 
began to say his prayers at such a time when he could not finish with 
the Congregation, the companion is not obliged to wait for him, for 
truly in this case it is evident that if one come thus (late), he will not 
be afraid (to conclude his prayers alone.) 

Rules for the Night. 

1. It is proper for a man of average health to take a frugal sup- 
per at night and it should be lighter than the meals of the day. It is 
sufiicient for a healthy man to sleep six hours. One should neither 
sleep alone in a room nor in a place excessively hot or cold. 

2. Every one who fears God will examine his deeds of the past 
day before he goes to sleep. If he find that he has transgressed he will 
feel remorse and repent and resolve with a perfect heart not to repeat 
this si». 

3. If one had not read the three sections of the Shema' when it was 
night, he should say them when he says the Shema' before retiring to 
rest at night. If he had said the three sections when it was night, he 
need not repeat them when saying his prayers in bed, he should say 
only the first section of the Shema.' Nevertheless the most desirable 
way of discharging this duty is to say the three sections. Then he 

»Somc authorities say that this prayer must be recited whilit itandingr. 


"•ami ••piDsi mata anaw a ff nNi jwns t^n ^a now nnaian 
amp ^san nana asia ewtw aina d^ihi .aniTaa ds-up iaa 
♦nrtrt naiao nanan anntp epaa ^san nana nai^ aia mw & ff p 
^san nanai ♦inaaS t^uw amp amaian or ya^ wt*ip nam 
kSi teio a 1 ? ^san nana n&«» nn*&i inaa by xwa nato 

♦]ew •# -to-p h^i nnv 

vtyja pSraa /wiatea p* afri vVya wa*?a onw # n 
nnn waba rw *6i .nSnn ^kdp ^ botdi pbm vn:a bpisi 
iw ,vra by aatrt "my n« ^nnb tkd nnrt "pnxi lvwmD 
na -ps\na iK ♦r6ya i ? v:ai naab ia:i wn ,ppns aa&6 Sin* 

♦to ty «pn k^« .nfya 1 ? laa naa 1 ? 

,"pvia 'n na naa awi ,-pn nxi -pan n« naa avia 4 & 
Tina m ,mvi ivAk 'n nx avoi ,iKnvi vaxi ia* b^n avia 
nt^p .aaniai amaa ^ nix p ;wmai fmjn ia» maa *?y rmv 
nai van na naaa anxp jara ,ia«i va« ^Tapn ,a"i»a #> psnw 
.^naai onwa *nm *«a arrty ^a ntya n"apn nax ,1dm 

ik ,in>aa *sb *b nnva.n iaipaa mar *6 ,*ma wh # 3 
,vnaa ao.-6 ^ nnvan aipaa aan *6i ^sjvA "6 nnva.n aipa 
p*nj naxS i^sk .^sa vnan n« rna 1 " n^i /man n* rn& vh\ 
t hnpn PKna-awi niman naS jan mn ,a*ma p\n ny .aaa nan 
*6 ,v:sa ipTi ^t<n Sy imam ,m:ia nx ijnpi iax w vax i«ai 
n ff aa ja kt^i pm» s .an^a o^y «f?i ,an^:sa nj;v^ «Si antN a^a^ 
nDsnn ^ \nb ani« yian*? ^a^ bax ,ni*ff n'apn 


should say psalms and Biblical verses referring to God's mercy, such a* 
we find in the Prayer Books. 1 But in the majority of Prayer Books the 
benediction ta&n (" who makest to fall ") is printed before the Shema', 
it would be better to say this benediction at the end of the prayers so 
that it should immediately proceed sleep. One should therefore read 
the Shema' and the psalms before getting into bed, and when in bed 
one should say the benediction taon and thereafter one should neither 
eat nor drink nor speak. 

4. One must take off one's clothes and not sleep therein. When 
taking off the shoes and garments one should remove those on the left 
first. One must not place the clothes under the pillow and one 
must take great care to accustom oneself to sleep on one's side. It is 
strictly prohibited to sleep on one's back or in the reverse position. 

Laws Concerning Honour due to Parents. 

1. It is written, "Honour thy father and thy mother " (Ex. xx. 
12) also "Honour the Lord with thy substance" (Prov. iii. 9). Again 
it is written, "Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father" 
(Lev. xix. 3) also "Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God" (Deut. vi. 13). 
"We thus see that in the same manner in which He commanded us to 
honour His great Name and to fear Him, He also commands us to honour 
and to fear our parents. Three partners have a share in man's creation, 
namely, the Holy One, blessed be He, one's father and mother. 2 When 
a man honours his father and his mother, the Holy One, blessed be 
He, says, " I regard them as though I dwelt among them and they 
honoured Me." 

2. What is the fear due to parents ? One must neither stand in 
the place appointed for one's father according to his rank, nor in the 
place reserved for him to pray. One should not sit in the place 
of one's father's seat in his house. One must neither contradict 
one's father nor corroborate his words in his presence even by saying, 
" It is obvious that father is right." To what degree shall parents be 
feared ? If the son were attired in costly dress and presided over a 
meeting when his parents came and rent his garments, and struck his 
head, and spat in his face, he should neither insult them nor feel 
aggrieved in their presence, nor display anger towards them, but he 
should remain silent and fear the King who is the King of kings, the 
Holy One, blessed be He, who had thus decreed. He may, however, 
seek legal redress for the damage they have caused him. 

»Sce Authorised Daily Prayer Book, pp. 294 ff. *See T. B. KidUushin, 30 b. 


|Vll D«1 2N TOD W fTJ 

,M*ttn D^3D /IDaDI Piabfi /IflpPfi ib^ND ,1133 TIP* J 

D^:s ib rmim ^jtidids ib^aKD ^*bk» yDis' 1 d^:s naoa lb uirn 

"IW DK I^SK jD!Pp* «b ,DW ^ON IK V3M 1V1 ,vby Bttyj i^fi^ 

/tt^ 1 Dt < # m ^ ap* ww^ P^ °n ^K / cjw ** ^ n ^" in m ^ 
,ma ntanp pa /irpnb .tod ,rvmn nyjD by WW /npp «b dw 
obw ^sd ,nivD nan ia#b i« ,ftDJan jrab nabb ,wpr& tod pi 

.Dipan raaa d^ti 

bwa visn v^bt^ yw ,Tya *Di w»b "ps mn ^ 
•>b wy ,id*o ab ,-6 vw> ib'OPa d;p f ynn» "»b by ^k ,v3m 
♦va^a "roan mbnb na ,Naa b«a»a ^ ntrj^ ,idm* *6m ,^303 
-|b idk ••d /to* i^xt^ -p in*o ^nt^jn ,n«t nifi^jr /»dk ib men 

^ *3M DUW ,lb ST1DM 1DKV 1DN 1 DNP ,t2\nD MVH ,nw flWyb 

♦vby vaM dp id t byp s"yK ,nb idm* b« /dm 

nan dn inaip abDa idm ■obs'i vaM "0B3 iiDyb 3*n # fi 
mwi ,nnaa^ ^xn ,nw3y >by3i dwi on dm i^bmi ,d^3 
,mvi *tai by naw ^axb hmi ,niy*b iidm» p» bat ,o?tobd 
rmna avia m3m ,ib "laio «bM ,min nai by may /ib idm< «b 
Mbi /wd pa* 3Mm /romaa «bi /odd biw Nin ibMa /pi ia 
nn .npDna ib*BMi ,onaia i^sm /dm w vax maon bai ,tf*an* 
.^dmi va« nbpa wr* ^dnj» /nia^n ^d tiim bb^a n? 

nt^Nnt^ «bx p«i a« Toaa o^a^n nty«n inxi wxn nnx ^ 
iiaaD pnnsfl mvi "p^sb y nbyab majmsfo M"iw jva ; byab rrnwi 
♦n 1 ? i»bm» nan baa na^ina ,n^by tb?d nbya pm dn i« ,dxi a« 

f niaa by onoy pipibi vja by ib^y n^aanb Di«b tidm 4 T 
aNnir pnb binD-i , vry cby* «bM ,bwao n^b dm^ Mbty 
t^inb »n? p?a r «a n« nianb iidni .binD i-naa f maa by bnD» 



3. What is the honour due to parents ? To provide them with, 
food and drink, with garments and clothing. He should bring them 
home and take them out. He should give them with a cheerful coun- 
tenance, for even if one should feed them with crammed birds but show 
them an angry face, he incurs thereby Divine punishment. If his- 
father or mother should be asleep, he should not arouse them, even if 
through their sleep lie will lose much profit, but if the father would 
profit by being aroused, and if he should not be awakened he would be 
grieved for the loss of the profit, it is a duty to arouse him as that will 
make him happy. It is also a duty to awaken one's father to call 
him to go to synagogue or for the performance of any other command- 
ment, as all are equally bound to honour the Omnipresent. 

4. If the son were in need of something which his fellow-towns- 
men could do for him, and he knows that they would gratify his desire 
for his father's sake, even though he also knows they would do it for 
his own sake as well, he should not say : M Do this for my sake " but 
rather let him say : " Do it for the sake of my father," in order that 
it should redound to his father's honour. If his mother told him to do 
a certain thing which he did, and his father subsequently asked him, 
u Who told you to do this ? " If he perceive that by telling him that 
his mother asked him to do so, his father's anger would be kindled 
against his mother, he should not tell him, even if he himself thereby 
incur his father's wrath. 

5. A son is bound to stand at his full height in the presence of 
his father and his mother if they be virtuous, and even if they b6 
wicked and sinners it is proper for him, nevertheless, to honour and to 
fear them. Naturally it is forbidden to cause them pain. If he saw 
his father transgressing any of the commandments of the Torah. he 
should not say to him, " Thou hast transgressed the commands of the 
Torah," but he should rather say, " Father, is it not written thus and 
thus in the Torah?" as though asking for information, and not as though 
he admonished him, the father will thus take the hint without bein? 
put to shame. Whoever puts his father or mother to shame, even if" 
only by words or only by a hint, is included among those whom the 
Almighty has cursed, as it is said, " Cursed be he that setteth light by 
his father or by his mother " (Deut. xxvii. 16). 

6. To honour one's parents is the duty of both man and woman, 
with the exception of a married woman, who by virtue of her marriage 
is responsible to her husband. Therefore she is exempt from the duty 
of honouring her parents. Yet it is incumbent on her to do all she can 
towards fulfilling that commandment if her husband be not particular 
with her in this matter. 

7. One is forbidden to place a heavy yoke upon his children and' 
to be too exacting with them in matters relating to his honour, so that 
he should not thereby cause them to stumble. He should rather over- 
look their shortcomings and forgive them, as a father can allow his son ! 
to neglect the acts of honour due to him, and the son may avail him- • 


■yni am ix tod w rn 

^n naan f?ai ,D^aia mw k^k rrcyaa in nana viaa Dinnv 

.biraa jnn nS Tiy "os 1 ? ty nan? /tfia ua 

yuaa Vwi vnn ,va« ^« : Diiaaa a"n on«n» jn £ki ,p] 
^sn ,ton dpn ,iman /insn .dkh p pa ,a*n p win mrwf p 
*om ,na"p ««» idt *?a /laa S^a ,o*p va«» pr Sa ««n u^n 
/ibni van ina i^bk ,ibn tyai ,va* ton naaS pan 

"ik tok n^ata dhi ,Dma tin 1 ? dj wm vaa na:^ a^n ja 
piojp /»aN in va« naaS naxa rem nvhp "»ai ,naiab wnai ,area 
'*ipk ,nvnan anew jmb bn* maa irw ,m« awyaai muna 
■*m /urn -pna i^n pn pc on Saa .nra p ib-up dki aaS 
.judti iAhj vnp ntpiaa chin r*ao Kim ,i^P nsnn "w wan 
•uaa naS* vaai ,,TiBmi na^o Ttra i^in /roa by omen pan pi 
,mnN w^ "5m a: ,jna imai nnrvi apr# na Sax ,ia naarw 
H by ma* pjr npia, ,aviaia ,amaN pya aviai ,p«h -pna anreai 

•mra rima nvnraN pm ,"D\ja 

p ,w ma by p /rnn nan ty tayS van i 1 ? ibn /» 
"va« *6 naN ,ib ya«n Hi ,pa"na mva Sp p ,ntw nS m?a Sy 
-•pirn «6 r« p^finnb rem pm /6 Sina" 1 h^bti ,*r6a ay nan 1 nSp 
yirajr naiy WKvira nS dn ^mx aw ni:b6 ton ••a /pan mips? 
"maSS iW rem pn ox pi /6 narvrt iic«t» ,y»i mvw pit ik 

/i«-ii pn dj?o ^a inw i^aaj^a idk i« va^i ,n»« «»•»'? in .niin 

,]r6 yia^S a^n pn j^n 

"la xra n^n # mT i^nh van miab in ,Wp^ itdk nj ^ 

•toa nypa 



self of this permission. 1 One is forbidden to chastise his son when he 
has reason to apprehend that the latter will defend himself by opposing 
him either in speech or action, but he should rebuke him in words. He 
who beats his grown up son transgresses the commandment, " Thou 
shalt not put a stumbling-block before the blind " (Lev. xix. 14). 

8. It is incumbent upon a man to honour the following persons : 
his grand-father, his elder brother whether from his father's or mother's 
side, his father-in-law, his mother-in-law, his step-mother during his 
father's life-time, his step-father during his mother's life time. It is 
highly proper to honour his step-mother or step-father, even after the 
death of his own parents. 

9. It is one's duty to honour his parents also after their death, 
thus if he mentioned their name, either in speech or in writing, he 
should add " may his (or her) memory be a blessing." He who truly 
desires to honour his father or mother, should occupy himself with 
the study of the Torah and with good deeds, for this is a great honour 
to his parents, of whom people will say : " Happy are the parents who 
brought up such a son," but if the son go not in the right way his 
parents bear a reproach on his account, and he disgraces them in the 
most infamous manner possible. Likewise a father who is compassion- 
ate will go in a good upright way for his children to learn from him, 
and they also are honoured through him. But the offspring of one 
who perverts uprightness and chooses evil will take after him and will 
also choose the evil w r ay, and will die in the sins of their fathers, as it 
is written, " visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children " 
(Ex. xx. 5). There is no cruelty more atrocious than this. 

10. One should not hearken unto his father when he tells him to 
transgress a commandment of the Torah, whether it be a positive or a. 
negative commandment or a Rabbinic injunction. Thus, if his father 
tell him that he should neither speak to, nor forgive a certain person 
to whom the son wishes to be reconciled, he should not pay heed to 
his father's command, as it is forbidden to hate any human being, 
unless he saw him transgressing a commandment, or if he be one who is 
notoriously wicked, in which case it is forbidden to associate with him. 
Likewise, if the son desire to go and study the Torah or to marry, and 
his father or mother oppose him doing so without giving good and 
sufficient reasons, then the son is not bound to obey them. 

11. A proselyte is forbidden to curse or to despise his non- 
Jewish father, but he should treat him with some degree of respect. 

'Lit. ; " his honour is remitted," §ee T.B. Kiddushin, 32 a. 


}vfl fen ,n*ro ,pn ;tsn td:d *n m 

♦fDi Ban Tofcrn 4pn /on maa *an 

J>1 unssn itJ^si ,!p? ^b nnni ,oipn nsn* usa 3vn ,X 
Xr\ |aw ,0^3 ]p» wk i^sk ,nnin3 :6bid n"n mdd Dip 1 ? mrct* 
oy mn *bm ,ruv aw p irvn /isn* ^sd op 1 ? nwo pi 
vmt pnnn ,niDiKn ikpd p? i^bki ,vun an* k^p -13^31 ,p*n 

.12D1D 1 ? v "6 D^niii fDnma 

'^ru pr iVaM ^3D i/iv l wn w tod3 dik rri 4 3 
n:vw 15a tro/m-iS tidki ^rrowb ik ,trD3n *vnbn mzb Kin 
ok la* pwm\ mm "3113 "^vw ,D:n ra^ns n? by\ ,ni3^n 

.nu*»0 'rpi Kin m ,niirDa Mid Kin 

^»3i ,vnin*6 ffwm ,y*0H3 a-m ,7113 mfae ww n»te # 3 

Akdp 1 ? ppm po^ ^run ,]mrt iD*y twb ina 

.rwip 1 ? p»Ki nwA ,pan dk tnpnS mum p v'n /l 
pi ,ntoin vnrfa "orA ,d? pa? S33 tfwon iwn iwfti ,minn 

-3115 ,p3 pnw Dipfi3i .pan n3i3i mm "p3S ,DTp Kin ,mij?D3 

♦Ak ^33 ^wi *An onprfj 

; 3"P3Di nniD ,11133 by SniD Kin dxi ,jtj33 0Dr>pn l ?*TDx # n 

.^jrt> D'ncitin d*t3T3 iDnpnb t b«m&b 1133 pibn 1 ? ^isn* 

# m» ban irnnk fw man 

'«|m*i p^ ,na*p*i it 1 ? nimn Ki3n vhs nsv*i pno* # K 

^33 nnipy 1 ? pnpi^i ,roy n3HK3i nno»3 rmtan npjn /rmn ii-ik 
•SW13 i nii3n3 ru»jp ,nni3ri3 nmtry 1 ? w»k dki ^rpnipti .yb-ib 



Laws Concerning the Honour due to One's Teacher, 
to the Aged, to a Scholar, and to a Priest. 

1. It is written, "Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and 
honour the face of the old man " (Lev. xix 32). This has been explained 
by our Sages, of blessed memory, as implying that one is commanded 
to rise up before the hoary head, i.e., a septuagenarian, even if he be 
an ignoramus as long as he is not wicked. One should honour an old 
man, even if he be of any nationality, by speaking politely to him 
and giving him a hand for support. 

2. The honour and reverence due to one's teacher is more 
obligatory than that due to one's father. It is a great sin to despise or 
to hate the scholars. It is forbidden to make servile use of a student 
of Halakhoth (Rabbinic Law). All the above applies only to a scholar 
who follows the ways of the Torah and Religion, but if he slight the 
commandments he is like the most worthless fellow in the congregation. 

3. When three go together on the way and one of them is a 
Rabbi, he should walk in the centre whilst the other two should each 
fall back and walk on each side of him, the elder on his right, and 
the younger (or the less important person) on his left. 

4. It is one of the positive precepts of the Torah to give a Priest 
the prerogative of being the first called to the reading of the Torah, 
also to be the first speaker at every public gathering. At a feast he 
•hould also be the first to say the benediction over the bread and to 
say Grace after the meal. In the absence of a Priest, a Levite should 
have the precedence over an Israelite in all the aforementioned cases. 

5. It is forbidden to make servile use of a Priest, it is, however, 
permitted if he does not stand on his dignity, and the latter may, at 
any rate, bestow honour upon an Israelite, by giving him the prece- 
dence in all things aforementioned. 

Conditions to be Observed for the Fulfilment 
of Every Commandment. 

1. One should be eager and anxious for an opportunity of 
fulfilling a commandment, he should eagerly desire to 
observe it with rejoicing and with intense love, and he should exercise 
the utmost care to do it in all its details ; if possible, he should perform 
it with the congregation, as it is written, " In the multitude of people 


m /i? niyoa nmA pan* /tna nws rvnvBi ,»Y>d mm cy yd, 
•vrttwD nw ,tt stisdi ,nbi3 iim A d*tok ,to&3 ^nnam /i 
ipw dw> ,dv* wmi* w .mvD^ ponpo ppn J3 
nion mibi ,nWn rAnna onp* ,nWa vyixd» in pi ^n^^ 

,pvw3 rmn& ton a 1 ? hd» ,nn*o mvo '5 p«njf pi J 

mean ni^Di jmrw mva ina irnDte nos ,m*M rmn pDiym 
,mna iwy 1 ? vtw nxvw "asd ,rurw 161 ,rutfjp /Ann nA 
*rra ,mnK nwjA *w ^A nnwA p* ^ ' nNr r W D * nin 
r? ipsneo ,n"-d o"n« nnwjAi wna nrcnrA iidnp dp"3i .tch 
nnx dn m ,po nrm pi D"pb te* wk dm tea ,pn» nwy 1 ? 
ruw nn«i mnn nnx d«i ,rroBnn npjp ,fw&& n^p nnxi mien 
n«W ,mnw nr« nntfi mw nn« dki ,n*win n#]p #nwn 
Tim ,mn nApa nw nSp ^twdti mtwi ran inn ,mwn 
pi bz mrai p nunA iidm ;si:d inv rmran nx na^ ,to 


nww nnwjA mro tea t*is p 1 ? ,Ynan Ah n? ym 4 T 

•mvM »Ap ly ,tod:} inn ,yid*i li^am jrmtcfi rm 

.rfra m 

nAp rmyw w ,U3 nx ^d*? snh ^ w divd ,tf 
^mjDUtti nar n^aa mn nvm ,nbvn w ywi pna *?kipA 
iwra ^itA ran uw ,Snio pa an ,SttA jw "ohc a«n dot 
Sy us nx iDYjn n^r a*em ,nr SniDa nyA n^ 1 ? »^ ,iara i6m 
,n^an ny»a A*k tid^i ^nwft teran dm bhw^ .p^on wa 



is the King's glory " (Prov. xiv. 28). The fulfilment of the precept* 
requires the intention (of complying with the law), so that one should 
resolve to discharge his duty with regard to the commandment one is 
performing, which God has commanded us. He who begins to observe 
a precept should fulfil it in its entirety. It is better for one to accom- 
plish a precept himself than to have it done through his agent. 

2. The zealous hasten to fulfil the precepts, hence, one should 
rise early to perform a precept which must be accomplished during the 
day, and likewise one should begin early in the evening to fulfil that 
precept which is to be observed at night. To perform one precept by 
transgressing another is invalid. 

3. One should not perform two precepts simultaneously lest he 
will not be abie to give the necessary attention to both, therefore, one 
who is engaged in the performance of one precept is exempt (then) 
from the fulfilment of another. The precept which comes first to one's 
hand should be observed at once, and it should not be postponed on 
account of another precept which he desires to perform, even if he 
intend to carry out the former precept immediately thereafter. Much 
more so is it forbidden to neglect one precept for the sake of fulfilling 
another. One is forbidden to be needlessly dilatory in observing a 
precept, (intending) to fulfil it later on. All the aforementioned lules 
are applicable when it is possible to fulfil both precepts, but if only one 
of them can be fulfilled, then if one be more important, and the other 
less important, he should rather fulfil the former. If the observance 
of one of the precepts be of frequent recurrence whilst the other is 
fulfilled on rare occasions, he should preferably perform the former. If 
the time appointed for the observance of one of the precepts be 
passing by, whilst the other has no fixed time for its fulfilment, he 
should preferably perform the former. One should beware never to 
perform any precept in a spirit of levity or in a contemptuous manner. 
He should show more honour to the precepts than to his own personal 
honour. It is forbidden to derive any material benefit through the 
fulfilment of a precept during the time set for its observance. 

4. It is written : " This is my God and I will glorify Him " (Ex. 
xv. 2), it is therefore necessary in the performance of every precept to 
do it so that it becomes glorious and beautiful. Our sages say : " One 
should spend for the sake of beautifying a precept as much as one 
third more of the cost required for its ordinary fulfilment." 

Laws of Circumcision. 

1. It is a positive precept for a father to circumcise his son or 
to appoint another Israelite to act as his agent who knows the 
Laws of Circumcision, and is careful and zealous in the performance 
of this precept and qualified for performing the act of circumcision. 
If the father be incompetent to circumcise, and if the operator in atten- 
dance refuse to circumcise gratuitously, but only for remuneration, 
such a person should be censured by the ecclesiastical authorities. The 


avn Sai ,vitW WDvn Bra nann fxw ny pSa pa ,i 
i^sm y-ipiaa tb pSai ,ni¥aS jnanpa pnm nSk ,n^S nt^a 

.ovo kS» nwt ^i»ta nSp n^a 

«Si ,ntan Sy i ff a p"x ,-pnm cmp ,iBiyB -paa San 4 J 
■pvw ; Dnisnn B^non a^rna t^a nSyi ,nanan So ^ibjp ny Sia* 
/laiya -paa pn *aw ,a>*ra wya in? ^paron /fiab pbwora 
ana* S» vmaa iD\janS va p"k jfljunwA nSnyn rowi pa 
nmnS d:^ p nnaS D:a:# aete ,pM Snpn pn* a'nai f w»c 
jrm xwv in irAwi Svn pn ••ax \n bki ppsm anpyaSi nsinSi 

.iD^anS na^a # a«nna pnaon -pa^ ,t^ 

,awm aia wn pn:am Snian rmv mnS dinS t^ # 1 
,nna pa pn:o i^k n\n "uwt t^*6 niKp-UD pma pro* pjmn 
ia nitnS tidk ,ua n« Siaw SniaS maan axi ,ppmn na a'ax 
,*Wi ]a Sman nt -|Sn -p -pnai ,imb maan dni ,nn*6 lasSi 
,ptfmn Na ia -pnai ,nroA mpi ,n^an ptS wa^ 160 aan a#m 

,pp*nn vbrw 

osinv piion naS ,anaw n^an Ss*» ayn Sat* pjnu # H 
,nnan -jkSb *np3» /i,tS*6 aoa nwS parol ,aw Kin ,puwi 
,bp anaiyni pn ■•am ,vrtn St* «oan nr ,vrroa iaw ln^apai 
/wean ^Vfl /i^wi pat^ ,anpni nnan ^pn, ,n^an amp via*o 
pnay , n^BK nSt wn , Santera a^m m#y v,tp p-nna 

.nntpjra n^nsa 

pirn S^ law va« dm .n^an nn« ; Dian Sy piaa ,1 
/i&tAi vaxS nrn n^n nx a^p x'ik ^naian noi:a anaw ,ff»a^p 
onaw ^a« nna axi yVaxS pSnai f U3*tS anam ,vaa na bjo 
nrn n^n n« a^p onow jDnw ina tarn ,idmS pAnoi ,va«S 


father should place his son upon the knees of the God-father 1 and hand 
the knife to the operator and stand near him during the circumcision 
to indicate that the former is his agent. 

2. The circumcision shall not be performed until sunrise of the 
eighth day after his birth, that entire day being the proper time for its 
performance, but the zealous hasten to fulfil the precepts, wherefore 
the circumcision is to be performed forthwith in the morning. The 
circumcision, which (for certain reasons) is not performed at the ap- 
pointed time (on the eighth day), can only be performed in the day- 

3. The operator before performing the circumcision should stand 
r.nd say the benediction rfyvai bv \*2 p'H and he should not circumcise 
before he had concluded the benediction, unlike the operators who, 
eager to display their skill, perform the circumcision immediately they 
begin the benediction, whereby they betray their ignorance. The 
father of the child whilst standing should say, in the interval between 
the circumcision of the foreskin and its uncovering, the benediction : 
:r2K DfTttM bv IrPiaa fe'aan^ i*a p"K, those present should respond p« 
D'aia b'vpbb nt\nb) min^ Dia< p mak oaa» bra. If the father be not 
present at the circumcision, or know not how to say the benediction, 
the God-father, who may remain seated, can say the benediction 
'\ai (iroarf?. 

4. One should be particular in his choice of an operator and a 
God-father who should be the best and most righteous men possible to 
select. It is customary for a father not to select as God-father one 
who had already officiated as such at the circumcision of another of hi3 
sons, unless this son had died. One who gave his word to an operator 
that he should circumcise his son, is forbidden to retract his word and 
bestow the honour upon another. If the one, to whom the assurance 
was given, had in the meantime left the city, whereupon the father, 
thinking that he would not be in attendance at the time of the circum- 
cision, appointed another, and in the meantime the former returned, 
then the former should perform the circumcision. 

5. It is customary for those present at the circumcision to remain 
standing with the exception of the God father who holds the child> 
and therefore he remains seated. It is also customary to prepare a 
seat for Elijah, who is called the "Angel of the covenant," 2 and when 
he places the child upon the seat, he should say plainly bv ndsh m 
vnbt. The father of the child and those present should say previous 
to the performance of the circumcision, -pxn pa»* jsnptvi inrn nm (Ps. 
lxv. 4). The ceremony should be performed, if possible, in the 
presence of ten adult male Israelites, but where that is impossible the 
circumcision may be performed when less than ten are present. 

6. After the circumcision is accomplished, a benediction should 
be said over a cup of wine ; if the child's parents be alive the bene- 
diction should be said as follows : ien 1 ?! ro*h run -rVn n« b*p k'w, if the 

^Called rn:Q. 'See Pirke de Rabbi Elie*er, xxix. 


I'm rb* w m 

vS? d^bik rroian San y'jw ^tdd nvi puwi dki /ibp mp*i 
rroh D33W otw k"k pn ,k"k ,"ia D^p k*ik ^aa /wa ton*» 

•iraa amp rAnan njwa dw»di ,p« piy pi ,'ia d:^ p 

V« ,Jtoa on naon^ pi vni ,Hib tftmw "fru» pp ,T 
mpwi w en n«i /ia D^p k"ik onow pi 7 naia ow pisa 
/i^an rraS nr inn nra ^nw jwao ,D^i«n on#a *\* ,h^b 
,rvnsb djd 1 ? DTip «in ,Diip "Awn ina ^a 1 ? niaian ^a piaai 

jAd n*nsn bzb ,naia bv d^d nw puon i« -paan # n 
,naia bv Diaa nw? nipuvA pnu ,a"na ^wn ^wnai /todjA 
f\n ,bwn -p^> pnu pi jfflp'uvA prm ]"« omsan Dva ^aa 

/>T! "pBia D^IDWa /6 JWlOT HDD 

yn ^"an'oa jAd d«i ,nswb wby d^.dik n^an inx # B 
nw 1 ? jwvn ; rnniN on^t* txwn rfrisn ina 13; j^ann pSin 

Yiain nxvb papa inm /wia frnpo fwy 1 ? ma »w ^ ,aiD*? *6 
♦yos *?y irort mt-n ,neny ton na* 1 iA ,nuira woa 

•6 \*h dk ,i^n ty jetotin orp iipn 1 ? ^rrasn ty nam / 

/u&? ina biaS ipskp /?an dn nnn jwaa n:ao ">a ,Ain wn 
^tr> ,toiam ,rAin pwnn nn d«i Aki^b nn« tpaj im"A k*ki 
,ua?a ]n ,pirnn ^ n^en pi 3;^^ ^ni ,inw ^ia^ yid .D^n 1 ? 
nna» num 1 ? ^oya hphd ^ntvon n« aay'? iid« /u»?s k^» p 
pwm p ]n^ p^ ijWNin ort n^on nn onnxon ^neinai 

n&W! n^on v nnrm pb-n nana rv>& *m ina^ n»« 4 J0 
e^a w dk pi /ina prnn^i hiH» ny v^vn n* ybn yn ,ona n« 


father were dead, the mother alone is mentioned ()£nb) and the 
reference to the father (vsk't) omitted. If the mother were dead, the 
father alone is mentioned and the reference to the mother is omitted, 
and if both were dead, the following should be said : mn n^n n« b'p 
'131 K1p*t If the child be illegitimate, although all the benedictions 
said at the circumcision of a lawfully born Israelite are also said at his 
circumcision, yet the following benediction should be omitted : dn e*p 
'131 ,mn i^n, as well as the following response : '121 r\^ib DSdSV cti'2, only 
•,bk should be responded, and it should be publicly announced at the 
circumcision that the child is illegitimate. 

7. If a child were born circumcised and requires only to undergo 
the operation causing a few drops of the " blood of the covenant " to 
ilow, no benediction should be said but only the following : '121 b*p n'ik. 
If two children have to be circumcised, even if they be twins, yet they 
.should be brought one after another to the place where the circum- 
cision is to take place and all the benedictions should be said for each 
child separately, and the one born first should be the first to enter into 
the covenant. 

8. The one who says the benediction or the God father should 
drink at least a mouthful of the cup of benediction, but if the circum- 
cision take place on a fast day, even on the 9th of Ab, the cup of 
benediction may be drunk by the children, but on the Day of Atone- 
ment children should not be given to drink thereof, but it should be 
given to ''the tender infant who is circumcised" in addition to that 
which is given to him when saying 'Wpfina (Ezek. xvi. 6). 1 

9. At the conclusion of the circumcision tOMfb wbv is said, if the 
circumcision took place in the Synagogue the Tephillin should not be 
taken off until after the circumcision, as they are both signs (of 
acknowledgment of the sovereignty of God). It is customary to pre- 
pare a banquet on the day of circumcision 2 , and one who is invited is 
forbidden to refuse to attend, when the people who are present are 
respectable. He who can afford to prepare a proper banquet, but fulfils 
the duty in a niggardly manner by merely providing cakes, is acting 
wrongly and deserves censure. 

10. It is the duty of the operator to thoroughly examine the 
infant previous to the circumcision to ascertain if he be ailing, as the 
fulfilment of all precepts must be postponed if there be danger to life. 
Moreover the circumcision can be performed later than the time 
appointed by the Law, but the soul of an Israelite once sacrificed can- 
not be restored. An infant who had been ailing but became conva- 
lescent, should not be circumcised before the doctor has been consulted 
as to when it is proper to perform the circumcision. Immediately the 
time for the child's circumcision has arrived, whether it be the appoin- 
ted time or not, it is forbidden to delay the performance of this pre- 
cept for any reason, e.g., to gain time for providing for the circum- 
cision feast, or the like. Therefore those who postpone the circum- 
cision to celebrate it on Sunday are destined to render an account for 
their deeds. 

* Ibid. t Hid. 


OiTjq n« A^ n 1 ? nvron nN&> dj n« /fro nono inn l wnn w^ 

.ipwwi Vnrp ny 

"•no ,Dsr6 ^xt^ i 1 ? dtp in /worn pa nSij^ pwi ,y* 

/wuc *bw 

in Tiva nap bx« inw {Aa 9 Vnrov dtp na# pirn Jp 
tw A r«Tp SaN .n^on bv pnaa jw /irAijra "Tap* Hte ,njpa 

«nnb pi ]«ijn* iva row on /mbiya wm inapt ina» dni .naA 
i Vnan» t&nr6 en dni /frt^i nap n* ninsf? pnir ,napa bvujw 

/napn n« runs'? p* 

# tȣn dni jitan Di*a mm 1 ? ni^S w nna Span # T 
pi ,ddd tin ^ener nwan n^aai ^mom p™n dj rrrrt Ay» 

♦junn onaiK 

•rw ,"03 rw pao man* ,Vkto*d ^n Sa ty n»y ni*D ,K 
irnp pan in ,ant in *pa ,panf? jnnp wi ,D*y*;D r na ,101c*? Toa 
,onina no:p pan dj sum ,*fnx *pa »A»i d*6 'n ids nw 
njnsa a"nN jn^ pan dni ,ua |msa .pan Ta span irtnnS 

Aqp 4 ; A inio ,ormnn in »pan ^nhS 

irt ov» *;n DNi /mAS n"S dh ny Toan nN pre p* t a 
,djin nra ^sd ,k«^ ora ua nN rmsf? n"np ^n p^a in na^a 

tVntwho nWa pn ]insn w»^ A vno 

^ twA tdk ,ua dn nw WW tin pa 1 ? rman dn # J 

•*r» nn ,tin paa vtn mw nm dni 


11. If a woman lost two sons presumably from the effects of 
circumcision, as it was apparent that their constitutions were so weak 
thai the circumcision had caused their exhaustion, her third son should 
not be circumcised until he had grown up and his constitution became 
stroDg. Likewise if the sons of two sisters had both died from the 
etlects of circumcision, they should not circumcise the sons of the 
other sisters until they are grown up and have a strong constitution. 

12. An infant born in the twilight or immediately preceding it, 
should not be circumcised before the ecclesiastical authorities have 
been consulted. 

13. An infant who had died previous to his circumcision, should 
be circumcised at the grave with a flint-stone or a reed, so that he be 
not buried with the foreskin attached but no benediction should be 
said on this occasion. But a name should be given to perpetuate his 
memory. If through forgetfulness he was buried uncircumcised and 
they becajne aware thereof at a time when it would not be apprehen- 
ded that the body had decomposed, his grave must be opened and he 
must be circumcised, if, however, it be surmised that decomposition 
had already set in, the grave should not be opened. 

14. The one who causes the infant to enter into the covenant 
should make an effort to be called to the Torah upon the day of the 
circumcision, likewise the God-father and the operator should also be 
called to the Torah if possible. 

Laws Concerning the Redemption of the First-Born. 

1. It is a positive precept devolving upon every Israelite to 
redeem his son, who is the mother's first-born, from the Priest by giving 
him five Sela'im or their equivalent in silver or gold, or any other 
article, the value of which should equal two and two-thirds ounces of 
refined silver, 1 the father as well as the priest being fully agreed upon 
the latter's absolute right and title to that money as the price of his 
son's redemption, and if the priest should subsequently return that 
money or property as a gift to the father, the latter is permitted to 
accept it. 

2. The first-born should not be redeemed before the 31st day 
after his birth, but if that day fall upon a Sabbath or Holyday, or if it 
be impossible for him to redeem his son on the 31st day through some 
hindrance, he is permitted to postpone the redemption to the day 

3. If he had promised a certain friend that he should officiate at 
the redemption ceremony, he is forbidden to retract, nevertheless, if 
he had changed his mind and another priest had redeemed his son, the 
redemption is valid. 

fifteen shilling?. 

r p3tt ua nN mis'? p dj bw !*T^n aipaa axn pic dm /] 
^ noiH jnam ,vmB^ niaa p ^ »•» ,]na^> nawi ,dp hvi ncwa 
a*™ ,mfij kSp A jnin ,id«S maa kvw nw ."o -sta n^a ^aa 
flwwn toa pns ty V'ap« -paai frwz y"x avis'? 

*6 na ik {na na ^wn ,pn pnsa d^tbb Dnf?i D\ina <fi 

.pnsa niaa roa ,Smp^ nNtwp 

♦oanb •focen ,«a"p p m^ a'tiKi ,n^sn» n^x # i 

WTa nvta D^pD» *a tei ,pn p*ia^ i-itj/d nwjtf> pma # T 
■nw mc wi ainaa jtrnun *bd -pana /?a avia aab a % oa rava 

♦nanaK *jki *?kt^ ^a fy 

•ntflDun hm w 

"]ai ,Tra ab-o i«w m* ,dik ,tp us nnvf i^rt tdk 4 & 
tdk niabia wvc ifrwt ^aaiai niaSi nan nvvra v*A tdk 
ma^a puc ok ,n^aa jmn^rA San f *r«v wk ^ara i^ski ^m^ 
'f?m»^ tdkp na byi> ,\rwyb nw vicrft na«* 1A0 pn pnmD-- 

•]nw^ *iw wiA laub tdn r frmvb 

Kin OK ,01K ^a BjlVIB pi 1^£K1 ,D1K ^DB HI^S TDK ^ 

,mp nniK ^pw tj ,tdn nnintpn^ i^bki # nnw^^ tdk a^ia 
n^K rrmrn dk f?aic flifyv oaim o\ry vwa /la^p mwa Kpvn 
V naijn pTK ^Dsa tenon 1 ? tdki .tdk i^k ^ma^pa .tip? 
jva ,n^aaan byv nvmra tea /fcrWicn ^k ijsn ^k,, avian 
.(^n n"i K /y y f j t"ya 'oina pp) .nnia — na j^yir 

..lanT iriK inaj nir^a fry* n^ana n^a n»r k 1 ? # 3 
?ww |r&i#n n^an ]n^w f rrvjr n^an T:n ,d^k n^an icTiDan 



4. A father who is not with his child may, nevertheless wherever 
he may be, reiieem his son through a priest by laying to the latter, 
" I have a first-born son to redeem," whereupon the priest inquires, 
" Which wouldst thou rather, etc." The first-born of his mother, who 
became aware that he had not been redeemed, is obliged to have him- 
self redeemed as soon as he is grown up, at which time he should say 
the benediction pn p*ito bv V'rpN also wnnv. 

5. Priests and Levites are exempt from the redemption of their 
first-born sons. Even the daughter of a piiest or Levite married to an 
Israelite is also exempt from the redemption of the first-born son. 

6. In the case of a woman who had miscarried and subsequently 
gave birth to a healthy son, the ecclesiastical authorities should be 
consulted (regarding his redemption). 

7. It is customary to hold a feast in honour of the redemption 
of the first-born son, and he who performs the commands of his Creator 
with joyfulness and gladness of heart on account of the abundance of 
all things is blessed by the Almighty, as it is written ''and they shall 
put my name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them " (Num. 
vi. 27). 

Laws Concerning Forbidden Images. 

1. It is forbidden to draw pictures, 1 representing the faces of an 
ox, a man, a lion, and an eagle in one group. It is also forbidden 
to draw pictures of the sun, moon, and the stars, even if the figures be 
not in relief. It is likewise forbidden to draw them for the sake of a 
heathen. If the figures are not in relief one is permitted to keep them 
in the house. One should not, however, ask a non-Jew to draw them 
for him, for whatever an Israelite is forbidden to make, it is likewise 
forbidden to ask a heathen to make the same. 

2. It is forbidden to make the graven image of a man or to make 
in relief even the mere outlines of a man's face, moreover one is for- 
bidden to keep it in the house, unless he had slightly disfigured it. 
The foregoing prohibition applies only to the image of a full face, 
having the complete features of two eyes and a nose, but if the image 
be incomplete, it is not forbidden. One is forbidden to gaze at the 
graven image of a person as by doing so he transgresses the precept, 
"Turn ye not unto idols" (Lev. xix. 4). One is, however, permitted 
to gaze at the images on coins, since we are accustomed to see them 
continually. (See Tosaphoth to 'Abodah Zarah 50a). 

3. One should not make a house after the pattern of the 
Temple, commensurate with its height, length and breadth, nor a 
gallery similar to the porch (of the Temple), nor a court similar to the 
court of the Temple, nor a table similar to the table which stood in the 

l For idolati ous purposes, 6ee Ex. xx. 25 and cf. Ezek. 1. 10. 


]*H1 rbip rttn wn rn 

won te nrp bax ,BHpBa nmw rnia&n man rrmo /enpea 
ib^sx ,rwr n 1 ? nyat? *?p *?ax ,ruo0 to* ix ^nan* hv ix ,DMp 
i^bxi ,DTnBi tfTinBDi D^aj N^a i^wn ,nvaria td nxp to 
tnpaatf m^ca dj onain ito ^at* dwd dtibd n* maa nrx 
to p ox ,nvo:a viaa nvwyn wnawi ]mxi ,payo vn x 1 ? 
.yvaxa 'm fwa n»» jxpy i^sh ^idx DMp nya» 

♦ n?nj? nvrfi *an 

iVfiHI /wit^ WK to J^ ,tolttn to p ^JSKO f? ^a ,& 

■prjrwi wwi /inrtwa dwxih dw 'j pipj wkp pvya *n:i 

X*?X ,01^ DVD DM1D pX ito DW 'Jl •fttirtt TOH ton /ilfl^pm 

n* "u*n ,n"i ny dv Y'd t*n* jwa ,ax mna r"a dtp r^a dh 
two a'nxi ,rw sotu ,n^a dv Y'd 1 ? a"™ ,nn^p n^ nan dv 
nat? arcro x 1 ? n^xi axa i"ca dy»d yaj dx ^ax /iwid dmp 'a 

.dmp 'j ntwiB ruiai jDitoS nx? 

Dipaa wan f^x ipy» ix ^ay ix ,pjni paun -inx # 2 
wn) -paan pi pnx frxa spp avnan ton ,ntoya o^a^n ,*inx 
inyvax paaai ,]vxn *s#a nnx ^bwi , pxa xau rwnjw 
finS pna ,|^xn ip^D iannt? *]x ,(in«n *rea xtw ipxt ,p«a 

.ntoy dwd ia ]«x 

Vw na vn ,nBa pxna nau *WtM DX ^VpW ]^H # i 
dmidi ,n^a a^n ,nsa ixtw xb dn ^ax ^nb^a a^n wn d ,; hk 
pn i^bh 'nainn vt^n^D in^ji ip^tr j^hi jirxpn rwa own 
.^sy nBDVt ^a mv6 ^a^ ^"a naina nn^j dx ,ayia nan 


Temple, nor a lampstand similar to that which stood in 
the Temple, but he should make it of five or six or eight branches, 
and not of seven branches, even if he make it of any metal other than 
gold, and even if he make it without bowls, knops and flowers, and 
even if it be not eighteen handbreadths high, inasmuch as all of the 
foregoing were not indispensable adjuncts to the lampstand of the 
Temple. The lampstands which are made for the Synagogue must 
not be made with seven branches ; it is forbidden even to make them 
with six branches in a circle and one in the centre. 

Laws Concerning Fruit which is Counted as Dncircumcision. 

1. The enjoyment of the fruit, seeds and skins of all kinds 
of trees (planted) for food, whether they belong to a Jew or to a 
heathen, even if they grow in pots without an orince, during the first 
three years from the time they were planted, is entirely forbidden. 
These three years are not reckoned in full from one date to the other, 
but if one had planted the seed before the 16th day of Ab, inasmuch 
as there are yet 44 days to JUM r»1 (New Year) of which 14 days are 
the period in which the plant takes root, and the 30 days that remain 
of that year are counted as a full year, so that two years are 
subsequently counted from nrn. If, however, one planted at any time 
on or after the 16th day of Ab that (part of the) year is not counted 
at all, and he must count three years from Tishri. 

2. One who had planted a seed, or branch, or who had trans- 
planted a tree, is obliged to count the fruit of all these as uncircum- 
cision. If one grafted a branch upon a different tree, likewise one who 
had bent the branch of a tree and had inserted it in a hollow in the 
earth (which he had prepared for it) in such a manner that the middle 
of the branch is buried in the ground while its end protrudes from the 
opposite side, even if he had severed it from the trunk of the tree, the 
laws concerning fruits counted as uncircumeision are not applicable 
thereto in countries apart from the Holy Land. 

3. A tree which was cut down until its stump remained, being 
a handbreadth from the ground in height, if that stump should subse- 
quently grow, one is not obliged to count its fruit as uncircumeision, 
but if the stump were less than a handbreadth high, he is obliged to 
count whatever grows subsequently as uncircumeision, and its years 
should be eounted from the time the tree was cut down. A tree which 
was uprooted and had som3 of its roots left in the ground, no matter 
how few, if there be enough left to sustain their life without requiring 
additional earth, their produce is exempt from being counted as 


p-fl nona wbi *rn tidk *n rn 

♦ f?\s nam ms* *sn 

bv e\:y pa ,wo irN^a pa f^Na ]^n awA tidm N 
,mb n? owin dtd i^sni ,msna :nnN in ,:mnK j^xa man 
• nra nr oniDN ,dwd 'a on&> jva ,M¥V»ai njp msna men jua 

]D *py np^ wei /inns udb bijn nan ^aN ,D^a aaTitan o^p 1 ? 

•■wm oipoa lytuto aaiton 
jnt a*«« ,p*A pna onion dj"n dtit vAai oian ^a 4 3 

•wa man vnr oy pi* wd 'a in jewem wn 'a 

♦nana w?a '*an 

pa ,manaa fa r twd 'ao nap: ^ na mttA tidm ^k 

•tom laaTP on: 1 ? ifown ,nwa pa ,mna 

wow in ,ona wnnb pa ,d^d 'aa naMta nwyS tdn 4 2 
o« ,tidm on^y pjn* Mvitsf /laSa bipa wwA frwn ,p-ipn dm 
nniN catsna o^a» /tvp wm ^ rfap p*?n pn^ onwp on 
^ynS -poo -^v ^ki^ ton iT?#n ^ tow* bv mb?&i 
•ovAaa jvhb owo tidm mi ,nno la^p orrtp pyv nep p^vn 

wm i^sm ,na atrt Tidm ,nmM dwid owbantr rfo? ♦} 
mta n 1 ? ,vm pp wp* nS ,nnN pa wm dwidp n^y jvub 
mw owe pn i^fiM ,irr dwd 'a wpf? "tidmi ♦nnn« 1 ? m^i 

•wis* »6» 
en ,o\ro 'a ia 0*1 # T«snm oion p *Awi mvi iib 4 T 
n? o^a om ,Tion raw Ntno icmp »*i ,,-nion ibmi did v»aM» 
ok ^ipi aan dwm udw pno ,rvnns 'a -wp^ Nan p^i /ua 



Laws Forbidding the Grafting of Diverse Kinds. 

1. It is forbidden to graft 1 a tree of one kind upon that of 
another kind, e.g., to graft the branch of an apple-tree upon an Ethrog- 
tree or vice-versa, or even if the species be similar, such as the branch 
of an (ordinary) apple-tree upon an apple-tree that grows in the woods 
or the like, inasmuch as they are two different kinds it is forbidden to 
graft them. An Israelite must not allow a heathen to graft for 
him two diverse kinds of trees. It is forbidden to preserve a tree that 
is grafted with a diverse kind, but it is permitted to enjoy the fruit 
thereof. It is permitted to transplant the branch of a tree grafted with 
a diverse kind. 

2. The mingled seeds of the vineyard and the mingled seeds of 
grain are not forbidden in countries outside the Holy Land, unless one 
had sown two kinds of grain or two kinds of vegetables together with 
the seed of the vineyard. 

Laws Concerning Diverse Kinds of Cattle. 

1. It is forbidden to let one's cattle gender with a diverse kind. 
This also applies to beast and fowl, as it is forbidden even to cause 
them to gender together. 

2. It is forbidden to have work done by animals of diverse 
kinds, e.g., to plough with them or to let them draw a vehicle. It 
is forbidden even to lead them by one's voice by calling to them 
when they are harnessed together. Therefore it is forbidden for au 
Israelite to walk at the side of the cart of a heathen drawn by hetero- 
geneous animals and having the load of the Israelite therein, as it may 
be feared that the Israelite will cry after them to hasten their pace, 
and that is forbidden on account of leading heterogeneous animals. 

3. One is forbidden to sit in a vehicle drawn by heterogeneous 
animals even if he should not drive them. One should not attach to 
a vehicle drawn by beasts of one kind, a beast of a diverse kind, 
neither at the side of the vehicle, nor behind it. One is forbidden to 
tie together two heterogeneous animals, even for the purpose of 
guarding them so that they should not run away. 

4- A mule is bred by a horse and an ass, and consists of two 
species. One species is bred by a horse and a she ass, and the other by a 
mare and an ass. They are considered as heterogeneous beasts, therefore 
one who wishes to tie two mules together should first examine their 
characteristic features, such as the ear, tail and voice, if there be a 

^ee Lev. xix. 19 ; and Deut. xxii 9. 


pil m:d "xb *n m 

fasm anew w f anmai via paa laa^ jnra ,nA nr |*m 
na*Aa ia ni^ 1 ? -nato ,a^a 'aa aaff awa a^a *in /in* us 

•iAy aia*A in 

♦nnaa u6a n n 

id™ pa ,8**63 a x t?a iidh ,ptps ay aAw aAm ia* ,K 
isnp pa ,B*.ajp *aina *,k ; *pb *a*,na A*sn ,]rws nja ay na* *ua 
,*iav *»£Din ay ]n»s *ain «wp» pa ^sto in ]n^s ara lbs ua 
/ntppi nnN na*an *pinn .o^a n\m oniD« Ah *?a in* pAp* w 
iidn pSi ,b*n^ *ra*n m ,*i»p »Atf. *jn ,ms*an vw epn# in 
.tain t-6a tana *p Jy A*ea jn#s i^aa na*f n:ia larA 

^aina psrA ima anja ana BWt& a^aan nvny 4 2 
jjriPBn ana viaiw a*aya^ ,-iavn ^ nia*A a*win ]*ni ^rws 
♦Aaai *a*#n nbi B*a*.n pw na*n ^ jtidwi Aki bwb 

at*A TDK .naaba Dental ,m aj Sy nr royva *w A*sn # i 
ia*fy rvcaS tdn ,uaa im nspa wifew ^vu "ua ,pAyn f?y 
•pnn Sy n:ia mfzsrw *\h ,wn nvpa A*bn /a 

«1K /»a*na nevi ,*w wn ^apa avAa rraa wan ,*j 
/Ay rotat* naa rmrA pa< lAr na^ai /ivnaan* by pj*.b nioanaf 
*A» natei ,-ima paa^ anuria ^>y ]n*,N praw rraa *n3*.a pi 
jttMMn *j£a in nrsn *osa anAy *o\rff una* 

,nrmn tin ana avupap nmsna pi ,bhvi mnfiaa 4 n 
iAy a*mipp nnsaan pi ,ana Htvs\ /Ay ]Aa^^ jnbwn nnsaai 
]A s ii pi ,aniD« D*K^a ana w uk ,a^an s aa pbwn by n ff ca 
nniD t^ipn p« *osAp nana ^ax ^^Saa ni^y*? tick 


similarity in these, it is obvious that the female parent of both belon 
to the same species, and it is permissible to tie them together. Some 
authorities are of the opinion that the use of even one mule as being 
" of a diverse kind," having been bred by heterogeneous species, u 
forbidden for the purpose of doing any work with it or for riding 
thereon. 1 

Laws Concerning Garments made of Linen and Wool. 

1. It is forbidden to mix the wool of lambs and goats with linen 
because of the precept forbidding (the mixture of) "two things of 
diverse kinds/' 2 Whether the woollen garment were sewn to the linen 
garment, even if it were sewn with silk thread or hemp thread or 
whether the woollen garment were sewn with linen thread or vice- 
versa, or whether linen thread were tied to woollen thread or braided 
together, all of the above are forbidden because of the precept for- 
bidding " Kilayim." If one fastened two pieces (of material) with only 
one stitch and tied it or fastened the same with two stitches without 
tvino- them, both cases are considered to be connected (or woven) as far 
as Kilayim is concerned, therefore it is forbidden to connect a woollen 
and a linen garment even with a needle without thread. 

2. It is permitted to sew garments made of lambs' skins with 
linen thread and there is no occasion to apprehend the possible 
connection of the woollen hairs with the linen thread, as these woollen 
hairs, not being threads, are of no account and are ignored. 

3. Even if ten mattresses lie one upon another and the bottom 
one be a mixture of wool and linen (i.e. Kilayim) one is forbidden to 
sit on the top mattress. If a garment contain Kilayim at one end, it 
is forbidden to cover one's self with the other end, even if the former 
be resting upon the ground. 

4. One who is sewing for a heathen, a garment made of Kilayim 
may sew it in the regular way, even if the garment rest upon his knees, 
he should not, however, intentionally derive pleasure from the garment 
being upon his knees. Likewise sellers of clothes who carry the clothing 
upon their shoulders in order to sell them, are permitted to do so, 
they should not, however, intentionally cover themselves therewith in 
order to protect themselves from the cold or rain. 

5. Handkerchiefs, towels, table-cloths, and the like, also the cover- 
ing of the reading desk in the Synagogue upon which the scroll of the 
Torah is read, if they contain Kilayim their use is forbidden, it is also 
forbidden to make a curtain of Kilayim but the curtain before the Holy 
Ark may be made thereof. 

•See TosephU Kilayim, t. 6. *See Lev. he. cit. and Deut. xxii. 11. 


^71 rvfra -now ypj^p -now •tfn nn 

♦no 5j? nmpi ypyp nnTo tcn 

.ypyp naina via .'oaa win 16 ppyp nainai, rrnna avia ,tf 
k^&di Twa to a*wn vn .d^ pnoa irap ypt^n npinan ana 
on pi .trwvin cravat ikbo ik ma in Wiaa nepwn tnpo 
imo d"di .wto iaw yavn oipoa ow a"n*o yava nbrm yai* 
0:1 *a wmn *\xwv b*im nma'A naon to onan inn isk p^ 
#ppp naina dwd new 160 vto maim mm inw inaoD 

*Ai vnunnj, n*? ayiai *oa*it*aa unn xb wsib b*)B% a^na 4 2 
Msa pa piDHi p nn« nwm rmii "no 1 ? oa^ pa nmp iDvn 
nw dip ny ma to no mart "»s*n .ran ma k^p pa nan 

,1108 1HK iyt to I^SKl TIDK 

nna msHPa i^ski no by wm wo trtintp *on nmp # J 
.w*n toa e^aai imp* toa nmno wwi dji aw* arw 

♦prm wnn nwB m^a tow 

*nto rwn opo aim t*tnn epoa ovw on twnn nws 4 K 
wn mm pra onsooa orAA i^shi pan bum bKSVtt p<o 

pto ,pow w wzb -pao mwn p oiSa *wo *Ai wa 1 ? -poo 
W ^00 waS tod onM? »6» w naisn 1 ? on^ "p* on 
vArw DipD pun p rmth w inms to» iyt? iaaa nasn 

•d» "nsnoi n^v pnnnn 

p nwfini ^yna «^n mwnf? mvi niD« n 1 ? jprn nws 4 2 
lap? to to w Tar n 1 ? dw nt -p^ .mjnn pa iaii pon 
p*6 lyn p pi^n i^«i .pian nnx i« rwi^jrn m to '"ew Wa 



The Prohibition of Tattooing and Making Bald for the Dead. 

1. It is written in the Torah : "Ye shall not print any marks upon 
you " (Lev. xix. 28). What is the meaning of |>ppp naina ? A mark 
which is etched in and submerged in the skin so that it can never be 
erased. One who scratches his skin and inserts in the incision stibium 
or ink or any other colouring matter which leaves a mark, likewise one 
who first dyes his skin and then scratches it there, transgresses a nega- 
tive precept. Nevertheless it is permitted to put ashes and other things 
upon a wound for medical purposes even if a mark remain ; for this 
would also ensue as a result of the wound and this would show that it 
was not done for the sake of tattooing. 

2. It is written : " Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh 
for the dead " (ibid.) and it is also written : " Ye shall not cut your- 
selves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead " (Deut. 
xiv. 1). Scraping and incision are alike prohibited whether on account 
of the dead or not. Even to smite one's flesh with the hand so that 
blood flows is prohibited and any other form of self-mutiliation is also 

2. Baldness due to the plucking out of the hair of the head on 
account of the dead, even (the plucking out of) a single hair, is pro- 
hibited. Women likewise are to be cautioned against transgressing 
the precept, "Ye shall not make any baldness" (ibid.) and much 
more so with regard to, "Ye shall not make any cuttings" (Lev. 
xix. 28). 

Laws Forbidding the Shaving of the Hair of the 
Temples and the Beard. 

1. It is forbidden to shave off the hair of the temples on both 
sides of the head at their juncture with the hairs upon both cheeka 
and before the ears, or to cut the same even with scissors like a razor 
very close to the skin so that no hairs remain. Therefore if it be 
necessary to shave off' the " corners " for the sake of health (e.g. in the 
case of an operation) one must take care not to shave them off quite 
close to the skin. The length of the hair of the temples is estimated to 
be from the hair of the forehead as far as the hair below the ear where 
it is divided by the chin. 

2. The Torah has forbidden the shaving of the " corners " of the 
beard with a razor only. There are five M corners " of the beard and 
one's constitution increases with their growth, therefore, one who fears 
God should not use a razor on any part of his beard, even on his upper 
lip or under the chin. There is no difference (in the law) 
between a razor and a sharp stone which cuts the hair, e.g., pumice- 


'^ TIDKP paiMPCD'* IK BJKDJPft JUa miJf^H ft* ^nT,» 1H 

ao^pa vw pn ,iyp -pm nb# paoa nrreten nx nviA xbv 

.K"2 '^0 RTtfl *att) nDVDl 

raw rmm las »a^ k? dwd nmoxn tnai 

tw b"j/k h^n ^ nn« ro^D '■>£*< una 1 ? 1 ? bwA tdk 4 K 
pia^D /s sn na 1 ?? rw*6 tidk pi ,p*k wins? v&wd na^a ia\j 
^ai twan ^a i^bn «*?« d^idh owate in 1 ? *rtn t «h* W nn« 

•rwi6 tidk owrt invot* no *?a pi ia new 

#|wnD nam K»nm rbinn *h 

qnp /Am t6v onam dik tfpa 1 * d^ ^r wren nna« 4 X 
non vp wma twi ,itok wi /laam mar «an i 1 ? d^dw r6n 
wya nan \t pr^D 1 ? bsm naa 1 ? r6y ,i^pa murwtf iaa wya 
* ten dk poia omA D^ijrn ^a» ,frri o*nA imtyrw ica 

,01K ^ pErtplfi p &$) fit** WH IK 1 ? DN1 ,^lt\3 D^VU ]^^piS 

vty ona^D jwn tyjf»m dind yvn A^m ,mtei dw;?di nawi 

nna pbo late vty an dk a idk:» f toro ,mat vty id^d 'ni ,nain 

/ia "nrw mna vi;i« ie»«i wm /han 01*6 tjhA ,^k •od 

# wa -prq rf?in A »^ *d *?a ,N&n ia onrs ^a-i tm t 2 
»w /raa ^a«te i*?d nan ff raaww ^Dni rtf »pa*i can ^« ^ 
n^sn ,nai^n "»a ,nbvin n^a d^j^ 5 ? ripis nth D^rrui /'njisa" 1 oan 
^"janraa nbinn n« iia 1 ? o^nii dj ; nnt;n yin n« pi^a ^pixi 



Btone, they are both forbidden. All who remove their beard by means 
of a lapideous salve should be careful not to scrape off the salve with 
a knife which might cut the hair but they should use instead a piece of 

Prohibition of a Male Putting on a Woman's Garment. 1 

1. A man is forbidden to put on even a single garment of a 
woman even though he would be recognised as a male by his other 
garments. A woman is likewise forbidden to put on a single garment 
of a man. Not only are the garments forbidden, but also the orna- 
ments and the various toilet utensils used by women for adorning 
themselves in that locality are forbidden to be used by a man in a 
similar manner and for a similar purpose. Likewise what is specifically 
intended for men must not be used by a woman. 

Laws Concerning one who is Sick, The Doctor, and Remedies. 

1. Our Sages of blessed memory have said, " One should always 
entreat God to preserve him from sickness. If he fall sick, he is told 
to produce his meritorious deeds and obtain relief. '' They have also 
said, " If he have headache, it should seem to him as if he were put 
in chains. If he became so ill that he had to be in bed, it should seem 
to him as if he were brought up to a scaffold to be punished. One who 
ascends the scaffold, if he have advocates to plead his cause may be 
saved, but if he have none he cannot escape." What do we mean by 
the advocates of a man ? Repentance and good deeds. Even if nine 
hundred and ninety nine (accusers) show up his faults, and one (advo- 
cate) shows his merits, he is saved, as it is said: "If there be with 
him a messenger, an interpreter, one among a thousand, to show unto 
man his uprightness ; then He is gracious unto him, and saith, 
Deliver him from going down to the pit, ..." (Job xxxiii. 23, 24). 2 
2. Rabbi Phineas, the son of Chama, preached saying : " Whoever 
has anyone sick in his house should go to a wise man and ask him to 
plead for mercy on his behalf, as it is said : " The wrath of a King is 
as messengers of death, but a wise man will pacify it" (Prov. xvi. 14). 
It is customary to give alms to the poor on behalf of the sick person 
for " Repentance, Prayer, and Charity avert the evil decree." It is also 
customary to bless the sick person in the Synagogue, and if he be 

1 See Deut. xxii. 5. The rest of the context up to verse 30 should be read. 


fix dwd CBys^i ,a*w nnttfn i^sa ima MinD piDD nyi oai 

♦ot im mp wwi w» dj "o ,ffrinn dv 

p*?i ^st asii iBa3P ,masi^ asn^> mm n:nj nunn 4 J 
nnpb ,o^n inn jrunrA n^n aba ,wn ^ t»dS nbinnb i 1 ? p 
vun mm dyip ,aan^ rmpte y"a iwd? ••di /nasw asii 1 ? 
mi njn ,n^o am* tnp&a o:n by -jidd 1 ? noap nnan ,nnp 
mipb *b m ,d: inn as inn* input by "pw ,nw:n kw 
naa o^ni Bpai ^Dtrt mb am nai bnm ,nnnib imm kotitA 

.mb nani 'm "jNi ^"m pun NSiniT 

,am tfsj nips bbnm ,masib *pan asm by am stod 4 T 
••a ,ina asm nbinn"? «n ib^sai t nisn i&w am m y"a jwa dhi 
,it by asirw tffitpn p am '■biai fmaamnb nm» Dia bna a 1 ? 
a"ba&> /udd biu dp pi ,*pa am n"aa ,maiaia poym ab bna 
iioa ,dt6 tw nbin iTnm o^ddd ib ant* •>& .d^bi -pip ro "nn 

/lain p w d>t&to mbynb ib 

pja ,mm mm masinnb bav oa ,njnD in p» nbin # fl 
nai /rca mi dw ib pvna p tVuwr iy nsp mnttfb p*w 
bmab ym amp idd ,ibaiab 71* oa ,110^ mib apn T" 1 * 
/nan -pia abp baa ,n:2D in pp p^a bmab ib iioa ,nt im 
iVsa ,im& ^nanai ,mai uaa jwyb pi ,id im in m^D^ pan 
D'niDatp ; n^nn irm Dinn ^a^nD pin ,nann iiDkn im am 
p iioan imn a"m ,to3D pw cipan ; onajn inn a^ i^sa 
nbin i^^a ,m masinnS iniD f pniiD iioan im ^na ,nnnn 
na nn»^ aSi ^a 1 ' vbv mbi .jnan inn i^sai ,ru2D in paw 

mi ^ i^at^ ^nio^an tea asina ,njno in wv rhn J\ 


dangerously ill, he is blessed even on a Sabbath and a Holyday. At 
times the name of the sick person is changed, as this may avert the 
judgment decreed against him. 

3. The Torah has granted the doctor the privilege of healing, as 
it is said " and he shall cause him to be thoroughly healed " (Ex. xxi. 
19). Therefore the sick person should not rely upon a miracle, but he 
is in duty bound to act according to the custom of the world and call 
in a doctor to heal him. He who avoids calling in the doctor is guilty 
of two evils : in the first instance of transgressing the rule forbidding 
one who is in danger to rely upon a miracle, the other evil is that he 
manifests presumption and pride in depending upon his righteousness 
to cause him to be healed in a miraculous manner. One should call 
in the most competent doctor and in spite of this, his heart should 
hope for the help of heaven and he should plead for the mercy of the 
Faithful Healer, blessed be His name, and his heart should trust in 
God only. 

4. It is a religious duty for the competent doctor to heal. This 
duty is included in the general rule of saving a life in danger, and if he 
avoid doing so he is guilty of bloodshed, even if the sick person have 
another doctor : for the sick person docs not enjoy the merit of being 
cured by every body, perchance he is the one appointed by Heaven to 
effect the cure. One should not, however, practice medicine unless he 
be competent to do so, and if there be nobody there more competent 
than he, otherwise he is guilty of bloodshed. One who has medicines, 
and his neighbour is sick and requires them, is forbidden to advance 
their price above their proper value. 

5. One who is not seriously ill, whose cure might be effected by 
means of an article permitted to be used even if there be some delay in 
obtaining the same, should not be permitted to use a forbidden article, 
but if he especially require an article whereof it is forbidden to eat 
in the way in which the article is usually eaten, he is forbidden 
to eat thereof, because he is not seriously ill. He is, however, per- 
mitted to partake of it in such a manner so that it does not give him 
pleasure, for instance by mingling a bitter substance therewith, or to 
make a plaster thereof, or the like, even if it be an article whereof the 
enjoyment is forbidden, with the exception of the mixed seeds 
(Kilayim) in the vineyard, and meat cooked in milk, the use of which 
is forbidden even in such a manner so as not to give him pleasure, so 
long as the illness is not serious. All the foregoing applies only when 
the article is forbidden by the Torah, but if the article be forbidden by 
the laws of the Rabbis, one may cure himself therewith, also a person 
who is not dangerously ill is permitted to partake thereof, even if 
taken in a manner so that pleasure is derived therefrom, but he should 
not eat or drink that which is forbidden. 

6 One who is seriously ill may use for his cure any article that 
is forbidden, as nothing (forbidden by ritual law) must be insisted upon 


p-ft ttfyti ipn *n m 

b-jp ^an rowi nvny *&i t"ya pn ,tpw ropa ^M tow 

.ana Nsinrf? pin ,iw *?«i Jirra 

dp* ion "fram ,rwiA ronsi naiAajj pioyf? kbi-i 1 ? in* ♦? 
,psw Kin viriAaa pi .nam roan "pia nr# uriw pa 0* 
;a ,vnaa f* ina ksyi ntf «m /ism n:so pa dm ma wan 

♦Tanr6 tp 

/ra D^DJDi ananni a^npn ,D^nn n« ip^ mia 4 X 
b^nb ,n^ta ywb n^p ,d^ 'j tin tir d^jsj or« atwim 
^aw ,ra mjd; D^pimn i^s« ,^nn v^y psp aw ,n^n a# v 1 ?? 

f|*Dian ^1 ,DV3 D^Dj;S HDD l^SN! ,tt&& ppH HN ip^ ^ i 7H;n 

♦n^nn ty nTia 1 ? w *6p izby\ ,n:wa n\ m 

mn na ; n^nn w*a pi/ 5 ? Kin fifon npa nisa ip^ 4 2 

ppa*! injn jn^ a:n /iTan d^ mn nn: aw^i /inaiaS rw 1 ? -p? 
p^i ,nraan nx n"p xb t vhy cram ppa 161 ipi aw /rty d^dhi 
^a .-6in Sa m# ^sa ,avn f?P nuw-in nw r :i3 ppaa pt 
S^ nunnxn nw 'ja nSi ^am vty t^pn 1 ? vw «^i ,v6n v^y 
♦a^arn vty ppate tr*wi ,v^n vf?y raaa r«t^ ,avn 

naw aw *6t£> ,^a«a ianr «Si ,Y»bna y^ xb awn 4 J 
vrai ,D-iNn ^>a spa nn pma \nhb bix ,\b nyvb vb& \wn ,m6 
s brti Dan ^sb i^bh /flajp «^ n^nn .niutpm d^w *>sh bin 
.aap i« fiv ib D^iaiN p« pia^; 1 ? nvn dni 

in ,ndd ^ by ipsisn w nS ,piNn by zsw n^nn^a 4 T 
^ 3^^ npaan 1 ? v»ia ,naaa aaw rAwwa ^x ,i:aa niaa Sdsd 



in a case of saving a life in danger with the exception of idolatry, 
immorality and murder, concerning which one must give up his life 
rather than transgress any of them, consequently one should not 
cure himself by transgressing any of these three sins. 1 

7. A doctor may practise in the case of a woman, even a married 
woman, inasmuch as he does not do so in a sensual and an immoral 
spirit, but be is merely following his profession. In the case of his 
wife during menstruation, if she be not seriously ill and if there be 
another doctor available, who is as competent as he is, he must avoid 
attending her case. 

Laws Concerning Visiting the Sick. 

1. It is a religious duty to visit the sick. Relatives and friends 
should visit immediately, but strangers should not call until three daya 
(of the illness) have elapsed, in order not to spoil his chance of recovery 
by casting upon him the designation of an invalid. If, however, one 
became suddenly seriously ill, even strangers should visit him imme- 
diately, and even a great man should visit a less important person than 
he is, and visit him even many times a day. He who visits the sick 
frequently is praiseworthy, but his calls must not trouble the invalid. 

2. The essential feature in the religious duty of visiting the sick 
is to pay attention to the needs of the invalid, to see what is necessary 
to be done for his benefit, and to give him the pleasure of one's com- 
pany, also to consider his condition and to pray for mercy on his 
behalf. If one visited a sick person and did not pray for mercy for 
him, he did not do his religious duty, therefore one should not visit a 
sick person during the first three hours of the day, since the sickness 
then assumes a milder form, the visitor w r ill not be sufficiently im- 
pressed to pray for mercy for the sick person, nor should one visit him 
during the three closing hours of the day, as the sickness then takes a 
turn for the worse, and the visitor will despair of his recovery and will 
not pray for mercy on his behalf. 

3. One should not visit an enemy in his sickness, nor comfort 
him when mourning, that the latter may not think that he is rejoicing 
on account of his misfortune, and that he came only to vex him. He 
is, however permitted to follow the dead to the grave, as that is the 
end of man. In the foregoing one must consider what sort of men the 
enemies are and what is the nature of the enmity that exists between 
them. The sick person should l.ot rise up even in the presence of a 
great sage, but should he desire to do so, he should not be told to sit 
down or to lie down. 

4. If the sick person lie upon the ground, the visitor should not 
sit upon a chair or a bench higher than the former, if, however, the 
sick person be in bed, the visitor is permitted to sit on a chair or bench, 

»See T. B. Synliedrin 57b. 


]vn B^in *rp* w rn 

tya* /trm nsa t*pa* na /Arm te mam rpa&pa *n 
»pa* ,rfmn ■sea ate? dwi vpa&va Sax ,mnn* prt tea vpzh 
ny iteia» T-no^ ^*n«n ^in te Tin vim Mot pvpn jwte 
an^ a^an* na*oi ^an ^ jmaia ,w njfDiw inten p^nxn 
nmsni piy6a i«i nap, tow naP3i ••toit&n •'Sin te Tina -pte 

••oi^a waan ,dwtb whi ,NiaS narp 

anan n 1 ? ,A naaoi ,njni teewia via vdt anpaan /| 
rr6n dk ,Y»r# te wjn pw if? nam ,avpaa anai abi a^na 
.niana ni ^sa ins , » tei /itea a'nna in anna tea Tpsn la 

,pyn ^mS aVi ,aaiaa bwb ,a"j;a ^in? Nb pp3a pa 4 f 
pa ,anai m*?.n#pi /Nate n^ ^pm ntei te pi ,pam 'te^ato 
bn /a ptmii ptein # jnmn maa worn n^n /rasa mia anpaa 
♦an:nn vte anppaai /ny* a^awi pan nnaS -pi* 

bn ,a^tea wrai D^in mpa # niva vw vssh tw ^a 4 n 
bni /nte ansm t^pa^ na ,aiip B^in mpa ^tjw D^pS ^ iwsn 
ay ion n^&j avw ,B"np a^tea ditto f on^» a^p 1 ? 1 1 ? n^aa ^ 

•DV«Mi ojn D«nn 
pat? is ty *}& ,Dn*wi mam ,nnaf? TOaa pun te 4 a 
13? 3"syai ,\ja\n nma a^aan mi pa ,mwa 13 a^nij bvwi 
nanva T?ri> ate> ,niTon mai .an 1 ? jna» na te3 a^nan 
tot aai .nwa ama iaw )3na i^sa ^-ivna rwwi na prayor 

♦B3r6 tet^ ,o^D^b VD3:a **iprA 

,mwa in#NP in ^teiai a^ap in ,troap a^a i 1 ? «n bn # ^ 
»paa» nVm otej*» ny a^apn ^awa poynv r aisnais« naa* 
ax J3i jna^a i^sx uaa pip ,ninwri dm pin 1 ? ,pp ntep nwyf? 
.tArVi na»a mm wa niat^ 1 ? nnio ^arp n« m-p^ nArt »paa 



5. One who prays for the sick may say his prayers in any 
language he desires in his presence, if, however, he pray in the absence 
of the sick person, he should do so in Hebrew, and include him 
amongst all the sick of Israel, for by thus including him with the others, 
his prayer will be more readily heard for the sake of the many. The 
visitor should say to the sick person, bvew* ^in bz ^\r\2 yhy cnv c^cn, 
and on Sabbath he should add Pbmi ,K^b nanp hkis^i ptyita N\n n2ff 

X^'2 \H2?1 ^HVID 

6. All who visit the sick person should speak to him with 
judgment and tact, they should speak in such a manner so as neither 
to revive him (with false hopes) nor to depress him (by words of des- 
pair), but they should tell him to concern himself with his affairs, 
indicating that if he had granted a loan to others, or had deposited 
anything with others or others w r ith him (he should mention the fact). 
The sick person should not fear on this account that he will die. 

7. One should visit neither a person who is suffering from abdo- 
men troubles so as not to put him to shame, nor one who is troubled 
with his eyes, nor one who has headache, nor any person who is very 
ill and to whom conversation is difficult ; one should not visit any of 
the foregoing, but should call at the door of the house to make inquir- 
ies regarding his condition, and to ascertain if he be in need of any- 
thing ; he should also pay heed to his distress and pray for mercy on 
his behalf. 

8. One who can discharge two religious duties, namely, visiting 
the sick and comforting the mourners, and it is possible for him to 
fulfil both, he should first visit the sick in order that he may pray for 
mercy on his behalf. But if he find it impossible to fulfil both duties 
he should rather fulfil that of comforting the mourners, as this is an act 
of loving service towards the living and the dead. 

9. The spirit of the Sages takes no delight in one who bequeathes 
his property to strangers and disinherits his natural fheirs, although 
the latter do not act properly towards him. Nevertheless the 
strangers are entitled to receive all that was bequeathed to 
them. The pious will refuse to witness a will in which the natural 
heirs are disinherited, even in the case of a son who does not act prop- 
erly. If one desire to consecrate some of his possessions to religious 
purposes, he should consult the ecclesiastical authorities. 

10. If one have young children, or both young and grown up chil- 
dren, or if his wife be pregnant, he should appoint a guardian to act on 
behalf of the little childi en until they grow up. A sick person who 
desires to make a transfer of his property by the symbolical ceremony 
of acquiring possession c^pn'rip) in order to confirm his will, may do 
so even on the Sabbath ; likewise if he desire to send for his relatives, 
he may hire a heathen on the Sabbath and send him. 


,vty vijn *pian iA» ,* ppro P* / nD ^ ^ n ^ n ♦X 1 
,paia pri .vian ^ttn nop ,jmp^ A orem pa /6 jnu i^sni 
]s /Di-p i:w p|« r m« na by pa ,ina ty pa ,TOsa prsoa pin 
♦^sa o^aman an j^pvittftai .ma 1 * Nin nw nna* 

nbn dined .Ty ^aa jjvu-6 "wip ,onian "6th tana ♦l 1 
nnx /6 iibjoi ,dton nwp in ,p*nn •'Na: rtN ia^ ^n^ 'j ova 
,031*1 ainabi nuri a^airA ,o^inn bz bvx jnjan Kin ja» njrp 
*njn .I 1 ? o^n d^yin^ nai ,a"n rrn«» no ,ainaji m*n pbi 
DipDa N"naa .i 1 ? p^nia ,VNan ty minan ta <a ,mmn i 1 ? o^bin 
p« ,nNT n:a pap oipoa ^aN ^a 1 ? pm rupna ,rw upvi iaa» 
onaiatfa mib py pan -pi p» ,nm^a ty jnt nbp ,p if? DnaiN 
iay D'aaoa ^ib 1 ? now ,onpaan owitfa Dips ^dbi ,minn i 1 ? 
,ma *6i mnn nam d ,nra jn-ih toi y mmn A d^bini onaia 
.Nan o^iy*? p^n i 1 ? en minan *?ai /n nrw mina r\r\xv nrpai 
,wnwA jnv \tn dni ,iaba mw ,vsa nnwA ^ irN oni 
Pni /"•nuiy bz by nnsa vin^a icrtnv ]m w a max — i 1 ? d^din 
nb# .o^api onw ysa nSi pNn w ^sa onann i^n *?a d^din 
tppan* i*? wan dj fin 1 ? ]niN pwxiD n^n ,n^mn a 1 ? nat^i iaa^ 
♦D'nana pa paaa pa /rua Nontit ^a ^S n^na 

,vnait vi^ni vft* 'n -pjs6 •on mia„ snivpa wn mo jp 
,na^ nNisi ^«snn» n^ste pvn m^ ,-jT«a '•nn^ai -ji^a wim* 
^nNont^ jaw^si rraiyi o^Non *?a ^ nisa ^nn-o win niaN oni 
faynvh psvn a^-iij; 1 ? ■sari ,py ]^a ^n jm ,y&b *nyvzm wym 
wa nwin ,omsan ov ^nna ,-jnNn 1 ? nirti oni 

♦imam t»td ddtti ^h 

jnun baty ,ia yr 1 ? iidni ,tnai Sa*? ^na Nin m ooin # x 


11. If a member of the family of the invalid had died he should 
not be informed thereof that it may not worry him, and even if he 
became aware thereof he should not be told to rend his garment, lest 
it increase his distress. One should neither weep nor mourn in ihe 
presence of the sick person, whether the dead be a member of the sick 
person's family or a stranger, lest he fear that he also will die. All 
who comfort mourners in the presence of the sick person should be 
compelled to remain silent. 

12. The great exponents of the Law have written, that it is 
proper to institute in any city whenever one is sick the custom for 
the Treasurer of the Holy Association (n»*ip n*Dti) or other people to 
visit him on the third day of his illness and to say to him : u Thou art 
aware that it is customary to remind all sick people to write their wills 
as they desire, therefore tell us and we will write your will, mentioning 
what you owe and what others owe you." He is furthermore told to 
confess his sins, for whosoever confesses, his sins are forgiven. This 
course is to be followed only where this is the usual custom familiar 
to all, where, however, this custom does not obtain, the sick person 
should not be spoken to in that manner, lest he become anxious that 
he is about to die, for it is characteristic of the people generally to be 
very nervous when told to confess. Nevertheless if the visitors per- 
ceive that he is dying they should tactfully turn the conversation so 
that they are led to tell him to confess and they should add : " Do not 
fear that evil will ensue, for many have confessed and did not die. On 
the contrary, as a reward for having confessed, thy life will be pro- 
longed. Moreover all who confess have a share in the world to come." 
If he be unable to confess verbally, he should make a mental confession, 
and if he know not how to confess he should be told to say p**i w 
tfiWP bz bv mw »nrva Nnntf (" May my death atone for all my sins.") 
These words should be spoken neither in the presence of ignorant 
people nor before women and children for it may cause them to cry and 
thus make the sick person broken-hearted but they should be excluded 
from the room. The sick person should also be reminded to ask the 
pardon of all against whom he had sinned, whether in money or by 

13. A brief form of confession is as follows : " I acknowledge unto 
Thee, Lord, my God and the God of my fathers, that my healing and 
my dying are in Thy hands. May it be Thy will to heal me with a 
perfect healing, and if< I should die, may my death be an atonement 
for all the sins, iniquities and transgressions which I have sinned and 
perversely committed and transgressed before Thee, and grant my 
portion in Paradise and cause me to merit the life of the world to come, 
which it stored up for the righteous." If he desire to prolong the 
confession in a similar manner to the confession on the Day of Atone- 
ment, he is permitted to do so. 

Laws Concerning One Who is Dying. 
1. One who is dying is to be considered as a living being 1 in all 

»Sce Semacholfe L 


pw /mnyan ntov n: 1 ? nan nam nab .aw ^wa Kin nn \a 

•^ ^VM 1J^5t 0*1 /fllM JD? DDU NW «|K1 .na^ TO DIN in JfW 

tipn pa ,yaan -pna «*?» nSuaa pa ,mnA ton a'a /ramp'fl 
wean asy 1 ? btjw nan nrn dp «n bn tea ,nnna maw ,w py 
a6« ,ntpya ma pan /iTanf? nma ,psn ^p at* wv pa ,nN^a 

JlftW BN B"B !DOUa V^ niBNtf *]N1 /Q JtfU pKI ymn AN TBBP 

vDTip irrn ,miN pawa n^n ,n*aa miK prroo pa ,fvaa np^n 

•mp nsD nbsn 1 ? 

>nbv ,i:aa nnsnS «•«»*! din uw pa ,mb bin najp p^a ,2 
,rs:n rwr nytra aiNn *;y may^ nivai ,*wa Kim wsj N*n 
-Banana ipor. *6i .nats^ rwr ny&o wra ,nn^y pap*? *im 
nsoa nmaaa ,jwpai nAsnai ,a^nnai nmna ipoy n^n ,a^aa 
./irroeh nap anaiym pom ^sa nvu p^nrA B\jnui ♦pa> naya 
4tte ,nean b»n niNBa vray^ pSi ^naa 1 ? pr6 naN aw ww n*:p 
/rorrt ia yrS ton ,iwim p wy «b ax a"ai r ^i in t kw 

pa # «fajn rwin arp ,naS fro nan aw pan 4 ; pi # Jj 

•vwAi nap awn 1 ? tbki .nap awn 1 ? in ,pa*nan in pna K*»ar6 
,rsa dnw amp p^saa 161 ,pynip pni .nna*? ny mna 

pm:a a*nKi ,onnK jyaira prnaa naiw n^v nnN 1 ? 4 T 

rvu^n pnnis mi .na» jnra ,ny:y:na nrx bni ,nru ibbti ^n 

-anew ,naNn p -yina 1 ? twfcrai ,pnn pm anaiN a^awm ,man 

. nyt^a anaiyn bai ,nt nn«» ja^oa nmaan pa r pmpi nia^ai ntra 

»pn pNtr ,B|n»i» r\"ob nan nt na 1 ; nh ,v^pb a^a^n ,nat^j mwn 

,h^n bv in iinpa na^ pp by i^sni ,nivai mm ta p«» ten^a 

f paK^nb rrv»ay nr»y a^ays 1 ? nan m n\n i^bni ,y^pb a^a^n 

ipn i^sK .niTav nwyb b*r\ rwi bn ^aN ^y yup 1 ? a^a^n 


matters, and it is forbidden to touch him (for fear of accelerating the 
end) for anyone who touches him is like one who sheds blood. With 
what is this comparable 1 With the lamp's flickering flame, which 
becomes extinguished as soon as a person touches it. Likewise if he 
be a long time in a dying condition, and it causes great distress to 
himself and his relatives, it is, nevertheless, forbidden to hasten his end 
either by natural means or otherwise, still if there be a cause that 
prevents the flight of the soul, such as the noise of knocking, it is per- 
mitted to remove that cause, inasmuch as that is not a direct deed 
which hastens the end, but the mere removal of an obstacle whereby 
no one touches the dying person. Although it is forbidden to touch a 
dying person, nevertheless if the house caught fire, he should not 
be allowed to remain there, but should be carried out of the house, in 
which case he takes precedence over the preservation of sacred books. 

2. From the moment that one is in the grip of death, it is for- 
bidden to leave him, in order that his soul may not leave him while he 
is all alone. It is a religious dut} r to stand near the person at the time 
his soul is about to depart from him. It is indeed proper to gather 
ten persons (male adults) who should be present at the departure of 
the soul, these should not engage in frivolous conversation, but they 
should occupy themselves in words of the Torah and Psalms, also in 
prayers and supplications, as arranged in the book called pa* 127c It 
is customary to kindle lamps (or candles) in the presence of the dying. 
Those present should be careful to see that no part of his body (usually 
covered) projects out of the bed, they should therefore place chairs at 
the side of the bed in order that he should be unable to stretch a hand 
or foot outside thereof, nevertheless, if this were not done and he did 
project one of his limbs, it is forbidden to touch him for the purpose 
of placing the same back in the bed. 

3. One should not prepare anything necessary for the 
dead before the soul has departed, such as bringing a coffin or shrouds, 
or digging a grave. It is forbidden to dig a grave and let it remain 
open until the following day. One should neither rend the garments 
nor lament before the soul has departed. 

4. After the soul had departed those present should wait a few 
minutes and then place a feather near his nostrils, if it should not move 
it is a clear indication of his death, whereupon the windows of that 
house should be opened, and the mourners should say pro pnx and 
when the benediction na«n p "jm is about to be said by them, they 
add the Divine Name and title of King, they should then rend their 
garments in the manner described in the following section. All who 
are present during the departure of the soul are required to rend their 
garments. With what is death comparable ? With the burning of a Scroll 
of the Torah, as there is none so worthless in Israel who neither 
possessed some degree of knowledge, nor had fulfilled some of its com- 
mandments. The garments must be rent also at the death of a child 
who had learned the Bible, likewise at the death of a woman. Even if: 


p 1 ) njnp *m m 

anaiyp *asa pjnpp x^x /rtjr Joanna ]<xp nan ^yp n«r nynpi 

•»f?w3 ik ,*nrn p l^an ,najna njnpa md ^nfitrj nyr nywi 

♦*jd iaan 

cki ,nxr ua wp a*aa i 1 ? pnr w ,na ^>p wp paws 4 n 
vwran ; fi«n ^ waprf? inaaa nan o^piapai ' # mn rwjf^ naa p* 
♦naa aa ma iW\re dipb via jmap no *?a *a l no , Ofi k«tp 

otq r j oti ,nan worav traiKP a^an ^a -pap 1 ? naan 4 l 
no i^sxi /im^S ;I ? Tina ■A* na i^um ,nan dp npx nw ay 
p* ,napa bxw na axi .a^an "pert Tanrfr p 11 ,vnma *nrp irx 

•nat? wiaa -pap? 

n^enai yap nx^pa t^s ,wb wkp «;« ,nan nx levari 4 T 
^snai HTp mi napa n> ,d s jp vn ;mna hvnaien nrca ^aai 

♦dp now iina nana dip -pa*? mom 

./.ax /nan pa /rty ^axnnS a^n mriv ,na A na ax 4 K 
ova Sew) jm^ ov onrtp nnx inap ,vnnn ,vnx ,ina /taa m 

IX] 0^103 1^5X1 ,DXn )D IK aXH ]B HTiKHP p ,(|A Q'P^P 

vp p^xn ,p\^6 nxipa in*™ nrni i^sxi Jmaao o^xa orxp 
■p* ,apva mp axi /l&qraa mpfr }"n ,n^a ^y npxn ,inpx 
nan ua auonj imp v^pb -p* r6vinato .vaiya impto Tim*? 
n*aa ynp^ fix amroan awipn f?jn /w oian Tjra papa 
ynx\ ,iaan anvA x^i ,naa^i nspn p ynpA "pari -jmth urntn 
•nwm oipaa xbi m^nna dSp naanp o'paa jmpf? 


the dead person had sometimes committed a transgression when mis- 
led by passion, still the garment must be rent for him, but if he were 
an habitual sinner, even if he only sinned through passion, he is yet 
reckoned among those who depart from the ways of the congregation, 
at whose death the garment should not be rent. The rendin^ 
of the garments of those who are required to do so merely because they 
were present during the departure of the soul, but who are not mourn- 
ers, may be discharged by rending the garment slightly, even at its 
side or hem. 

5. The eyes of the dead person should be closed. If one had left 
sons it is the duty of one of the sons to do this, and if there be a first 
born son he should do it. In bearing the dead person from his bed in 
order to place him on the ground, care should be taken to keep him 
covered, as the laws of decency, which must not be infringed by the 
living, apply also to the dead. 

6. It is customary to pour out all water contained in vessels in 
the vicinity of the dead, which means, the three houses including the 
one in which the dead lies ; even if a child had died within thirty days 
of its birth, and even if a heathen had died within one's court, one must 
be careful to pour out the water. If an Israelite died on a Sabbath, 
the water must be poured out at the termination of Sabbath. 

7. One who watches the dead, even if there be no kinship 
between them, is exempt from the reading of the Shema' and the 
Shemoneh 'Esreh and from the observance of all the precepts of the 
Torah. If, however, there be two watchers, one watches while the other 
reads the Shema' and recites his prayers. It is forbidden to pronounce 
any benediction in the room where the dead is lying. 

Laws Concerning the Rending of Garments for the Dead. 

1. One who had lost a relative for whom he is required to 
mourn, eg., his father, mother, also his son, daughter, brother or 
sister, being older than thirty days, for if the death occur on the 30th 
day the mourning need not be observed ; it is immaterial whether the 
relationship be on the fathers 's or the mother's side, even if they be dis- 
qualified by birth, but are not the issue of a non-Jewess and even if 
his sister had been married, and the husband mourns for his wife 
or the wife for her husband, all the aforementioned mourners are 
required whilst standing to rend their garments for their dead. 
If they were rent whilst sitting they must be rent again when 
standing. If possible one must rend his garment* before the coffin is 
closed, when one's sorrow is still intense. For the dead enumerated 
above the relative must rend his garment near his neck in the front 
thereof. It must be rent lengthwise and not crosswise, also in the 
cloth of the garment and not at its seam. 


pi nnp ot m 

nynp 1 ? ,dx ^ ik aK typ ,n^»ipn wa »•» D^n d^ti £ 
;w ,vt jrtyn -ma nsa snip travel *?a ^ iwnpn ikp byv 
hi ynpb "p* /idk ik vaK ^1 y nwn ^a dwd ,w imp 1 ? 
kto laan i^i .snip "aw nivian p pn ,ia^ lua -iy on:ian 
dji pip 1 ? k*v Kin Dtbpifri ^bman ^ao nfyab o^pisb pi »aA 
*?:> mp k*? dki ^npS -p* i^k d"j n? 13a ^wp-njniK) ny^a 
rftnn jfipn ^rax dwd ,n#Kro •kip k 1 ? yinip 1 ? "p? kvip ,yh:o 
riK mpn a"nKi ^mrt jnpn m Ttnni r n^sS pnnnn nan n« 
k3^k r"a ^na nwiaS kvw c]ki ,na*? n^nn xbv tfvbyn ten 
aK Sjn t \w nvD wnp D\mipn n«0 byv jwui ^ms dwb 
I/rip 1 ? fw oviDn *?a ^ .aayD n? pK namai ,f?Ki30 i*d dk ik 
•hwto ny^p -p¥ idk ik vaK ^jn ,Kjma 

va* ^ ,^aa mp nn ,Ta mp nm ^anpn f?a ty J 
,poa nvp iron npvrp nnanna inKt? ruom »Ta Kpn idk ik 
k^i mi i-roA ^ip^ warn jnpi innn mp&a dsw taiim 
•nynp njwa "pa* ,DDKn p n"BK ^"Ka "pa kS pjy dki vonn^ 

■p* i^k ,nya&> T>na onoa ^na dk ,oviDn f?a ^ # *| 
vua «i^no Kin dk ,dk ik aK bpi ,nny wxb *vw i^Ka pnpb 
ep^m nn# na^ ik ,ona y\*\pb yntt ,r\yzv -ynw tonsi ^a 
flomrh D^nK cn^a A jn< dki ,jnipn n^aa t^iaf? Kn^ *bi ,inja 
^n n^a t^ia 1 ?^ "U«n ,nat^a ^non Km t mnA yipn nK i^n^ 

.na» n^a t6 ta« ; onnK 

vk nv ,njnpn ^ki Wa ian^ k 1 ? avian Sa ^ 4 n 
Wa nam k 1 ? dk ik aK tyi /iKia yipn man 1 ? nnio a"nKi ,tswbv 
nTsn *^r») *wia y*\pn w kSi ,d^» ihk ny nynpn vhi 
-^nn 1 ? mrv dk v^ski t n^yb frin 1 ? isnn nx*m ubv jsiKa ,n^sa 


2. The mode of rending the garments for one's father or mother 
differs in many respects from the mode obtaining for other relatives. 
For the latter it is sufficient to rend the external garment only a 
hand-breadth, and it must not be rent more than that, in order not to 
transgress the precept "Thou shalt not destroy" (Deut. xx. 19) but 
for a father or mother one must rend all one's garments opposite one's 
heart, with the exception of his shirt, and one need not rend the upper 
garment that one wears only occasioLally, i.e. the overcoat If 
one did not rend all the garments that he is required to rend, he did 
not fulfil his religious obligation. A woman should first rend her 
undergarment privately in accordance with the dictates of modesty, 
and place the torn part on one side, she should then rend her external 
garment, so as not to expose herself, for even if she were covered by 
her underlinen it would still be a breach of modesty to expose herself 
even thus. It is customary to rend the right side of the garment for 
all relatives other than one's father or mother, for whom the left side 
of the garment must be rent, nevertheless, if this were overlooked, it 
does not invalidate the fulfilment of the duty. For all other relatives 
one may rend his garment privately, but for one's father and mother 
they must be rent publicly. 

3. For all relatives one may either rend his garment with his 
hand or with an instrument, but for one's father or mother it is with 
the hand only that one must rend it. It is customary for one of the 
brotherhood (nrnp man) to cut the garment slightly with a knife, 
whereupon the mourner takes hold of the garment where it was cut 
and rends it, those present must see to it that he makes the rent length- 
wise and not crosswise. If he had not yet recited the benediction 
nc«n pnn'DM ^«2 ("Blessed . . . the true Judge") he should say it 
whilst rending his garment. 

4. In the seven days of mourning for all relatives, one who changes 
his garments need not rend those he is putting on, if, however one 
who mourns for a father or mother, change his garments on a week- 
day during the seven days, he must rend them. But in honour of the 
Sabbath one should change one's garments, and not wear torn gar- 
ments on the Sabbath day, if he have no other garments to change, 
he should hide the rent part of the garment. Changing one's gar- 
ments for the Sabbath in this connection means putting on other gar- 
ments which one wears on the week-days, and not such as are worn on 
the Sabbath. 

5. Garments rent for all relatives should not be repaired at all by 
connecting the torn parts until after thirty days, after which period it 
is permitted to sew the torn parts together in a proper manner, but one 
should not connect the torn parts of garments rent for one's father or 
mother until after thirty days and one should never sew them together 
properly, (i.e. in such a manner that the seam should not be 
visible). One is forbidden, should he desire to do so, to mend the 


HI njnp vi m 

nvno new .tox /nwifo tik m n^nn dp onrti mpn itimd 
,pwft ^gxp cjnpn w .rown •obo /in^x 1 ? jnpn np*n ta Dr6 
jmrA won "ps pbi /nsnb npibn tidx ,in*A "uan *oo Vrsx 
fy mn hop <a p^yb pflnb npiS-6 tdx ,onD pso Din /ipfcrft 
,ono3 irona *m tocawn pvn iroA no laa tod!> ^dxi ,ow ax 

.xr x 1 ? jr^p oxi ,to "»im /o yiip*? "nox 

^2x ,jnip \xv dv^» tin ny yo# xb ox ,ovion bu by J] 
on^n -]x ,nrop nyvz vby nnw dh:q ^ijn mp ,ox in ax *?y 

,y\*ipb *"x p"nN sj^no kw 

Vm ins ox pbi ,nynp pb dj onrtr nYU ^ono *?m 4 T 
f?m ,nruo tin hm mitt toA Tisn*? ^y ,owp -inbo /l ? 7m 

•njnpn fm *on^ i>y dn in ax 

'j ioa ptno ,tix no *b no nynt* iinBi ,no by y^p ,n 
]wntj yyn by ^diop ix ,nso y*r\p\ p*mn jnpn ns myavN 
*?3 v^y rpoio /rty ynpn mi* pt ta ,njnp tin*? bit< ,nao 
/ox ix vax mn wm ^avipn t«po 'vi prmn nx -]x /pinnw 
jw ,iun3 jnipSi mjmN 'j ptitA -pit njttP tin"? i^bn nx 
/jbvd ix /ion a"nxi ,r6nn vax noa pn xini ,nsDVD 10x1 vnx 

.nann ni;^p -pv 

vsx viop ,nnx d^dd yoew ix /inxa 10x1 win -6 ino JH 
iox ix vax Sax ,d.t:&6 inx yip jrnp ,D*nnx D'arip yr w /oxi 
prno 3"nxi /ox ix vax by nbnn yi\p ,&mpn ixt^o inx ny 

♦nso inxn ^ jrr»pi niv^vx ^ 

jn^ ^ wiw x^x iH 1 ?^^ in^n ox ,no 1 1 ? noty rfrin / 
■pna i^iv xin d"xx .yinp^o 3*nx iim f i^na p^oo iwrw nono 
nnvi xb» nono ,^vtpf? bw xb ox ^x ,010^ n^t^ xwm flysv 



torn part with another piece of cloth, but a -woman out of mode-ty is 
permitted immediately to connect the edges of the torn parts. All the 
rent garments which one is forbidden to sew together, should not be 
mended even by one to whom they were sold. It is therefore necessary 
for the one -who sells them, to inform the buyer thereof. If one sold 
them without giving this information wiih full particulars, then the 
one who bought them, not knowing for whom they had been rent, is 
forbidden ever to sew them, for perchance they were rent for a father 
or mother. It is forbidden to sell such a garment to a heathen. One 
is forbidden to rend a garment that he had borrowed unconditionally, 
as that is equal to robbery, and if he rend that garment, he did not 
fulfil his duty. 

6. For all relatives, if one did not hear of their death until after 
thirty days, he need not rend his garments, but for a father or mother 
one must rend the garment he is wearing at the time when he hears of 
their death. He need not, however, rend the garment which he may 
change thereafter. 

7. The intervention of a Holyday cancels the customs obligatory 
during the (first) thirty days (of mourniug), also the rule concerning 
the rending of garments. If, therefore, after the death of any relative a 
Holyday occurred during the thirty days, one may sew the garment 
together completely on the eve of the Holyday after the afternoon 
service, and after tlie death of a father or mother one may then con- 
nect the edges of the rent. 

8. If one had rent his garment for a dead relative and another 
death had occurred with the first seven days of mourning, he should 
either rend his garment anew, beginning at a distance of three fingeis 
from the first rent, and rending it the length of a hand-breadth, or 
he should rend the original rent another hand-breadth, but if the 
second death occurred after the seven days, so long as he is wearing 
the rent garment, he may tear it asunder a little more and his duty is 
fulfilled. If, however, one had rent his garment for any other relative 
and his father or mother died thereafter, he must leave a space of 
three fingers' breadth from the first rent, and he must rend his 
garment anew in accordance with the rule, even if the death of hi3 
parent took place after the seven days of the first mourning, as the 
loss of a parent is not considered merely as an additional sorrow. The 
same law applies in the case of one who had first lost his father and 
then his mother, or vice versa, when he is required to rend his garments 

9. One whose father and mother had both died at the same time, 
or one who had simultaneously heard of the death of both, or of the 
death of two other relatives, should rend his garments once for his 
double loss. But for his father or mother and another relative (under 
like circumstances) he should first rend his garments for his father or 
mother, then leave a space of three fingers' breadth, and rend his gar- 
ment the length of a hand-breadth for the other relative. 


a*m /6p wan njfw m m ,rAife nn * aanpa in ,nW>* injn 
♦d^ idk w van fei ^avip "lNtt^ D^P Tin NV1 dm ^npS ?« 

ny^p •ft f jnpo /iwfc y^" 1 ^ ^^« / na ^ n] ^ PP ♦N"' 
jnnpf? mvo f -paTA jwi o«i .fean nwnfr ,pb3 n&ay dwd ,mp 

id« ik va« inD dn i« ,npim nintatpa i^bni jfcnwri Dna pa 
fein *\nxb ny ,D B mna yip< *6 { nr*\pn nmai torn ,ara era 
Am tin 1 ? ny BTnna prrp jw roiip ikp fei ^ifeNn Winara 
flptn win aita w twfo pinp njnatf D*mna yap on pa 

.a"mna jpp >"W3 

♦pit* *n 

ny pw m m /^ o^tcDon wnpo ina "6 not* ••& 4 K 
,feaai thb avw fe 1 ? nmni /wn n"Ap ara* k^» ,niiapn nn*6 
OKI /in* nm k*?n /ia mnv -nnrra tew nS .wnapi inn^a by 
rww ,w*n n^a i 1 ? pi Din ,*n*an n*aa tea* /rot inn "6 p* 
jams® 'a nvinn mna nwi *6i ^nsta n*w mw nwwO pixvid 
•wnD ,nrnD nwy^ tep law dki ,(rmn uaa may*? mun *nni 
TVi «•?« m^^ap frc few w* ,mn* Yjra *fi "fraw # tauii vaa 

•p nnw w*i /wa few wm Any 

,n&n wtt pioy 1 ? -p* law i^sni ,ntXDn fea Titaa pw 4 1 
law y*y TDnrA nxii Di< «|in ^wea D^po^n onnn A r»» paa 
o^nx dk i^bhi ; n3ia nw inaa uwi .nan niaa "»asD ;«t^*i 
m fen /nv^ h^ j«A n^ p]iiavD wm .jdn naiy iaw p^aiaa 
nv^i ok p^ A oa tom ,paTiD i^s« /wn w 1 ? nixe mnv 


10. If a sick person had lost a relative, and he is unable to rend 
his garment owing to the serious nature of his sickness, but his mind 
is clear (so as to realize his loss), he is afterwards (when he has re- 
covered) exempt from rending his garment, unless his recovery took 
place within the seven days of mourning, when it is natural for his 
grief to be intense. If, however, he could not rend his garments 
because his mind was not clear, he should rend his garments as soon 
as he regains his mental composure, for it is only when he realizes 
his loss that his sorrow is intense, he is therefore required to rend his 
garments for relatives if it be within the first thirty days of mourn- 
ing, but for his father or mother there is no time limit. 

11. If a child, under the age when he has to be trained in the 
precepts, had lost a relative, his garment should be slightly rent for 
him to manifest his grief and to mark his mourning. But if he had 
arrived at the age for training, it is a duty that he should rend his 
garment in the manner prescribed for an adult. 

12. On one of the Intermediate days of a Festival, whether the 
burial had occurred thereon, or whether one had learned of the death 
at that time, the garments should not be rent, except for a father or 
mother, for the latter one must rend his garments even if he were not 
informed thereof until thirty days after the day of death had elapsed. 
But if one's father or mother had died on a Holyday, inasmuch as 
rending the garment must be postponed, he should not rend it during 
the Intermediate days of the Festival, but should wait until the Festi- 
val is over when his mourning begins. For other relatives the gar- 
ments should not be rent during the Intermediate days of a Festival, 
unless one be informed of the death during the thirty days, and if by 
waiting until after the Holyday, the delay will cause that time to pass, 
he should rend his garment during the Intermediate days. 

Laws of a Mourner. 1 

1. One who had lost by death one of the relatives aforementioned 
is termed pw (Onan) until after the interment ; he must avoid levity 
and indicate by his conduct that he realizes his loss and that he is pre~ 
occupied in attending to the interment. He should not eat in tha 
room where the dead is lying, but in another room, and if he have no 
other room, he should eat at a friend's house, and if he have no friend 
at whose house he can eat, he should erect a partition (or screen) 
which should be ten hand-breadths high, without a space of 
three hand breadths below, and of sufficient solidarity to resist the 
wind. If he cannot make a partition, he should turn his face aside 
and eat. Even if he be in another city (at such a time) he should not 
partake of an elaborate meal, but only of a simple meal. He should 
neither eat meat nor drink wine. 

2. Ad Onan is exempt from the observance of all the precepts, 
even if he himself be not required to attend to the dead, having others 
who attend thereto in his stead. Even if he desire to be scrupulous 

l Lit :" One who feela grieved. " 


Ft) pi« vi m 

o*p nf?wa pi .o*p ;Ahm ^? -pa< *Ai ,w ^ -pix ,r,s haiA 

♦"paa law ,ni3 dwb ne6» i*n ^bu ,mnt* 

to?iu «S pny iapw nnx^n t r\m napjp crnp tew dn J 

•pnyi nana fiy ,p?an 

owp a^ t^ nan oipoan ,mriN to win pmn dk- 4 T 
baa ♦pw p lAy pa ,ti« oipaa «in» nt ^ mn AaNnr6 o\a"np 
•pin p n? f?y *?n ,nan oipaa ranp p* dk 

^ pa p ^sy .rwmp mann dj; vwena ranpw ir»6 # f| 
pap nviroj "j« ,man toai rAanai t*"pa nwm ,pw pi &ynpn 
\wt dx pa*6 Va* trnp ty'ai /rnapn ina 1 ? iy o^ana pjmn 

•D^a« *1N0 ^aj JPDa 

rwvb imai ,v6jw& pbnn ir« ,nan lapa «W jot to # *| 
,na«toa to*o ^"ni t a\bv n^«n ,nna&n ,swma tidm tox ,i;vao 
.am 1 ? ^kp* ^na iDanai ,naNn wa Awi ^annx *»y fran 

nay nan *opw t»6i ,ntonn t^"p njwa pi« nvw ^a J 
nto) rrma-cn v"p a: iaw a"a (s^p p? kw) avn jvran 
uto v n p *iaiN ,btti trA» DJ •toy dk to« ,avn pA» ly (p^an 
t^xn pjdidi ,avn nwi iy f?tonrn nma rwy ™d» ntom jnran 
•»a»y *6p 5iwf?» pi tdk* nS -ron nanaai ,0m to ma? ,t*in 
•»:ea /ia*o minn nana a:n ,rwx wy xbv ,Tay wy xbv /u 
pirn wai dim whv onip non napa dni ,owi to aja? Ak» 
w aia ,dwi 0A0 top *wab p» -nya» l nvrapn opoo 
p?a Vmrin v'p *vpb t rmapn n^b tod n^a hpm^ di:d^ 
^ isy fVrn 1 ? j^'nnDBfa tdi . s p: oipoa ,pna i^sh i« /ixm 
An tiv pny n^annB? ^ ^anrfri »"p n^ yo^ ,ncn 


(f.nd fulfil the precepts) he must not do so, hecause of the honour due 
to the dead, lie inould not say any benediction, nor even respond 
{DM after the benedictions said by others, nor should he be included 
among those who make an appointment to say Grace, nor to a Minyan 
of ten male adults. Also a negative precept, even according to the 
Rabbis, is applicable to him, thus, if he desire to partake of bread, he 
must wash his hands, but he should not say the benediction n^w hv 
D*n*, likewise on arising in the morning he should wash each hand 
three times according to the law, but he should not say the benediction. 

3. If he had eaten prior to the burial of the dead, and after the 
interment the food was not yet digested, he should say the Grace after 

4. If the Onan be in another city and there are also relatives in 
the place where the dead lies who are required to mourn, the former is 
exempt from the obligations devolving upon an Onan. But if there be 
no relatives at the place where the dead lies, he is subject to all the 
laws relating to an Onan. 

5. After the relatives had come to terms with the Holy Broth- 
erhood they are not legally subject to the laws of an Onan and are 
obliged to observe the duty of reading the Shema' and saying the She- 
moneh 'Esreh and all the other precepts, still it is customary for an 
Onan not to pray until after the interment, nevertheless he may say 
Kaddish if he does not encroach thereby upon the rights of other 

6. As long as the dead is not buried the mourner should not 
take off his boots, for he may leave his house, but to bathe, or to par- 
ticipate in a joyous celebration, friendly greeting, and the study of the 
Torah all are prohibited. He is also forbidden to work, or even to allow 
others to work for him, even where a loss is entailed, but where the 
loss would be very great, he should consult the ecclesiastical author- 

7. One who is an Onan at the time when the Shema' and She- 
moneh 'Esreh should be read, and when the interment was over a 
quarter of the day had passed, (which was the time for reading the 
Shema') he should, nevertheless, read it and its benedictions (without 
wearing Tephillin) until the third of the day, but if a third of the day 
had passed, he should read the Shema' without the benedictions. Until 
the hour of noon it is still permissible to say the Shemoneh 'Esreh and 
the additional service (Musaph) for New Moon can be said all day. 
Of the benedictions in the early morning service only the following 
three should be said : rwM »ar» nhv ,*iap »3tfp *hv ,n :;iry xbv also the 
benediction of the Torah, as the entire day is the proper time for saying 
the same, if, however, the interment took place before a third of the 
day had passed, and if he should wait until he returns home, he would 
delay later than that time, his house being far from the cemetery, it is 
best for him to enter a house near the cemetery to read the Shema' and 
to pray at the proper time or even to do so in the open air where the 


■p* wh ,rfcsnn p? *in*6 13; sr^im i^d:p pw ,n 
*Dat* irw 1 ? pi« ntw dm .dvw mnxp ntana ^snr6 ;nttten 
•ps on Dan 1 ? ^an f mwR3 nbsnn pi wi # n^snn pr iron 

,mran vSp ^m xb ,dy» inwa viapb iid«» pa ww ♦ID 
,•6 7idnp ntaon t^o^no pn ^nivnn S33 a^rri ,p -1^33 Wfltt 
,Nin Wbjv n 1 ? frbtfffh tik en dn ,p"tp «m cxi n"D3 iidk d* 

.ton ^*?arp tin Na^ *n 

/paip Wsn^ n^i ,m3ia n*?3 ff p Nip'' piy 1 ? "poo natso # * 
,riDn napai* tin^i ^nan N^a ^dn 1 ? -6 wtoi ^"rm ^la^ n^ 
«Di3n by b^irh bm t imb iy iapj n 1 ? i^bni ,Dian ty i ?na , » 
,na^a 'j dy> ny b+arb Tntn r [on5»an Sy kVi w ty n^i] 
nnN, now WN ,ruDi *iay *6»a Wsno irro nnrw nbsnai 
ra w /rtapn w*a SnwrA 3iy nyS mtso -pit dni ."urium 
.hu^k vby *?n ,/iBn wsa piDj^i nsbb ^nnrwa 

,ri3P onp viapf? *ipbn vw pya ,m:m inn w"n no # jp 

T to ovn iiap 1 ? nm dn ,31a bf bv piwn ova na # y 
^aw ,31a Di"» ^ \w ova a ff paai ,ra nu^y vto ^n ,mT wn 
rap 1 ? nsn wn Nin i^bni ,td nu^ii rbp bm ^avya n; viapb 
.pin p ia jw ,ton bbsin^ wip* aia dv ■•Wa Sax ,DY»n 

ban ^'•inx^ ova b^y ,y\& dv ^Yiaa {tm nvw ^d ^^ 

.dw «jid w xbx mo? p« y a^ ov W nbnan ^ p'nH nb 

i»r» dtp nan n« lapf? ws« dn ^iDf? ja b »"» piK „T 
^id^ ,nDn n« rop^i .n^nn p ff nn Aten" 1 ^n ,nnn» noaan n s ar 



place is clean. As soon as they have begun to throw earth over the 
dead, he is permitted to read the Shema' and to say the Shemoneh 
'Esreh although his period of mourning had not commenced then. 

8. An Onan who continued in that condition of mourning until 
the proper time for praying had passed, need not make amends by 
saying the Shemoneh 'Esreh twice in the next service. If, however, 
he became an Onan after the time for prayer had begun, and he con- 
tinued in that state of mourning until that time had passed, he should 
consult the ecclesiastical authorities. 

9. If the dead were not buried because of the Sabbath, the 
mourner is not subject to the laws of an Onan. He is permitted to 
partake of meat and wine, he is also obliged to observe all the pre- 
cepts, but cohabitation is prohibited, he is also forbidden to study the 
Torah. If he be a Reader in a Synagogue, and if there be another 
person to read the service he should not officiate, but if there be no 
other person he may officiate. 

10. On the Sabbath, shortly before evening, he should read the 
Shema' without the benedictions, he should neither read the Evening 
Service nor perform the Habdallah ceremony at the termination of 
the Sabbath, and he is permitted to eat without having performed the 
Habdallah. After the interment he should perform the Habdallah 
over a cup (of wine). Even if the burial should take place on the 
morrow he can perform the Habdallah over a cup (of wine) [without 
candle and the spices] as he is permitted to perform the Habdallah 
until Tuesday. If he say the morning prayer before the time for (the 
Habdalah) had passed he should not say lantttfi nn«. If it be necessary 
for him to attend to matters concerning the funeral on Sabbath 
towards evening, he becomes an Onan as soon as he begins to attend 
to the arrangements for the burial of the dead. 

11. If one died on Friday afternoon at such a time as to make 
it impossible to bury before Sabbath, the mourner is permitted to say 
the Afternoon Service on that day. 

12. If one died on the first day of a Festival, and the mourner 
desires to have the burial carried out on that day by a gentile, he 
is immediately subject to the laws relating to an Onan. This is more 
especially the case on the second day of a Festival when he is 
permitted to bury the dead on that day. And even if he should not 
desire to bury the dead on that day, nevertheless on the nights of the 
Festival, he should say the Sanctification (Kiddush) and all prayers, 
and he is not subject to the laws of an Onan. 

13. One who had been an Onan at the termination of a Festival, 
should perform the Habdallah on the following day but not thereafter, 
as the proper time for Habdallah after a Festival, is only until the end 
of that day (following the Festival). 

14. An Onan who has a son to be circumcised, if it be possible 
for him to bury the dead before the worshippers leave the Synagogue 
in the morning, the Holy Brotherhood should pray first and then bury 


nma pi«n dji ,nnnp pwm na i^d 1 a"a ,**« dw jpwm n« 
dwd r iowii nana -pa< pwn /pa* *6 pn n^an n^an ntrt 

.nanip n^a ,r6<Di nan 

mw to ,pann na pnA rrttp rwjn #i ff ^ T*a pw ,10 

.1DVJD natO *01 

on^ nwn ,nana *Aa wa w ,iBvn frtw Mp- # TB 
•nana *Aa && nat* n:ia ,nWai ova pw n\n bni .nanaa 

,n#a tem irtn /inwa n^raan na'np yet** on* Wa pw # p 
n^aa n*or nn*6 avai ,nnpaa a^n ijw nWa *a ,}" nnw xb) 
vw w ntaon nx «np*i Wsjv a^rod nan na pnaip nawn 
mpi nvrnt* paj # nn>apn bmp n^an na*np yap axi pnaa 
p»m av kvw |V3 ,nmapn nrnt \bt* n\r n 1 ? p^wn iirona *Aa 
•p nt?aa nma ,dto a^msa pun ;6ai6 

pa bn ,inv wk Kim ,Wann a 1 ? pnjn na A nap '•a ,IT 
,onn« a*pDpna tsn dm Sax ,tb iS vsnh dws ,ia pbjnvp ^a 
X^ainpa nnn) na n*? na intPKP *n ,^snnp ny *6 t*A p* 
.nay pbb6 iA» t ymrh h$srh *b «n ,njnv ruw «w 

hpk i^an 1 ? awaia nao nw "osai ,na •& nap ••a ^ 
•rnra* pna runn'? -p« asn 1 ? ^n«h •>?« inmap*? nn^a pa b^ 

♦nan mm w»n pnanro mnan *an 

tfpasi ;nwtm ntoij ba a^an a^aa dw«5 innnen nno ,tf 
ppjat /inn n« a^ssim ,cnp& baai /rtofi vv nwavw pa aavi 
,pna -pi mw f tui ^j; nan n« -ofiiT k^ .xhn vt »n«t 


the dead, and thereafter the child should bo circumcised. If that bo 
impossible, the circumcision should, nevertheless, take place in the 
morning, and it is perm>,sible for the Onan to be present at the cir- 
cumcision but he should not pronounce any benediction, but the God- 
father should say the benediction WJant inasmuch as where both duties, 
the interment of the dead and a circumcision have to be performed, the 
circumcision takes precedence. 

15. On the eve of the 14th of Nisan, an Onan should employ an 
agent to search for the unleavened bread, but he should say 
Kvcn bs. 

16. During the counting of the 'Omer (one who was an Onan at 
night) should count the 'Omer on the following day without a bene- 
diction, but the rest of the nights he can say a benediction on counting 
the 'Omer. If he were an Onan by day and by night, he should count 
the rest of the 'Omer nights without reciting the benediction. 

17. On the night of Purim an Onan should hear the Megillah 
(Book of Esther) read by another, and he should neither eat meat nor 
drink wine as he is not obliged to partake of a Feast (in honour of 
Purim) in the evening, and the interment should take place during the 
day after the worshippers had left the Synagogue. After the burial 
he should read the prayers and recite the Megillah or hear it read by 
another. If he had heard the reading of the Megillah before the inter- 
ment, it is proper for him to read it again (after the interment) with- 
out the benediction, but he should not put on Tephillin even after the 
interment had taken place, inasmuch as it is the first day of his mourn- 
ing. On Purim day an Onan is allowed to partake of meat and wine. 

18. One, who had not yet prayed, m whose family a death had 
occurred, if he be unaware of the death and there is no one else to 
attend to the burial, it is necessary that he should be informed at once, 
but if there be other people who are attending to the funeral arrange- 
ments, he should not be told until he had said his prayers. If a wife 
had lost a relative, but she is not aware of her loss, then her husband 
must abstain from cohabitation. 

19. One who had lost a relative whose interment is unavoidably 
postponed for several days, should consult the ecclesiastical authorities 
as to the proper course to pursue regarding the laws relating to an 
Onan (in his case). 

Laws Relating to Purification (Taharah) and the Shrouds 

also the Prohibition to Enjoy Anything Belonging 

to the Dead. 

1. The purification is as follows : The entire body, including 
the head, should be washed with warm water. The fingers and toes 
should be thoroughly cleansed, also everywhere else, and the (hair of 
the) head should be combed, the nails of the hands and feet should be 
cleaned, the body should not be placed face downwards, as that is a 
degrading posture, but it should be inclined, first on one side and then 


^7) pnanm mnan *n DT 

,ypipn Sy nan n« a^raya^ wvn ,a^a mp njwn vby a^asw 
,ibvi ^ ty viTtr ,iffm ty a^an na B*awn ,pp *aj fy in 
pin y aiwip n*a -py np^ cranw ,kvi a^ap 'id w # S 

D^D 'JD IN D^a '3D DJ N^N /1TW ^aa «pi1 1\T0 DW* 

■p^Dsn »W iiya , nwn ^ana p^ 1 ? Aww pi , a^snava 
nnya a* on ,n^t*na ip'tosn «W -nya /ts^pna pi ,n:w*nna 
aysa D^asw i^bn ,a^a *i -pnai ,m^pn piDB* 1 nS ,1dm *f?aa 

♦awava pa ,nn« 

,wm \a prniai /irna p ay nns^pa nra psTia a"n« J| 
,nan na mat* in*6i ,w myavN nan pap* *A» nwr6 pansi 
d^b 1 ? ,nnsn naa no*a«n n^n ,vmna» oipa inixa im« fc .iw >6 
♦wa ruaa t^* 1 *a ,vty inma# s\m nn pasna pm ^an p 

,n? iaia «r» ruao s a # via» rfr na din paw nS /j 
trtr«MMn /\ay ima^in* iam ,na ^ ma rnio «^ a^aai 
apaynan -ja # p»m din n^ n^p w*> e» ,n*an ja nan na 

♦ntbp p« /w«nA na javmn rpan ja -|W> dww 
*b bin ,pa*TarA awi D^a 1 ? jn^s noa nn« pinna 4 fi 
inffs ^ a"j vm ,ana ansinp pennm /ma w anp* w 
pwia p ,*wp aw n^ maw n 1 ? panana m»^ pm ,Hpn 
ia tw ia* ^ n^aa rwn anaip .nr»a^a pi ,ana ansintr 
iD^a ,) m ,-iapa n:iat^a^ ,paj invm ^nnx nr» d^dib» i« ^xnc 
ia Wenrw ; nw n^a i 1 ? n\n dn .o^sa n^an c]3aa nn« nra 
•cmy ^a ; n«: uw ihk n sl ?aa pma mN 1 ? is^nn 1 ? wi pic ^tia 
nan n« a^^at^a .i^na ia Wenn» n^aa iapnS anxn 1 ? n^ 
a^u'raa inat^j pa^nn -ja flm nx, ova^a ant? atra^ ; ijiia> 
vcw Din pmn jd a^nan nt^a^a m:^ 1 ? ate nn^i .y»aa a^nn 

.pn«n ^ ini« in , »^ ,vn;aa lan nra nan n« «ha^r6 



on the other. After the body has been thoroughly cleansed, it should 
}>e washed with nine Kabbin (measures) of water 1 , this should be done 
as follows : the corpse should be placed in a standing position on the 
ground or upon straw, and the water should be poured over the head 
and it thould run down over the entire body. 

2. The capacity of nine Kabbin (measures) is about twenty- 
four quarts, and it is not necessary for it to be poured out of one vessel, 
as two or even three vessels may be combined to make up that 
quantity, they should however, begin to pour out of the second vessel 
before they had finished pouring out the contents of the first vessel, 
also from the third vessel before they had finished with the second 
vessel, even when pouring all out of one vessel the flow of water 
should be uninterrupted ; four vessels, however, cannot be combined to 
count as one, even if the water be poured out simultaneously. 

3. Then they beat an egg in its shell with some wine, and wash 
the head of the dead therewith. Care must be taken that the fingers 
of the dead man's hands are not shut. After being cleansed, the corpse 
should not be allowed to remain in the place where the rites of purifi- 
cation took place, he should be placed towards the door, inside tie 
house. The board upon which he was placed during the purification, 
should not be turned over, as it is improper so to do. 

4. One must not kiss one's children who died as it is unhealthy 
to do so, and one is warned not to grasp the hand of the dead saying 
that the dead should take him along. When the dead is being carried 
from the house nobody should go out before the body. The bearers, 
however, who are obliged to leave the house first in order to carry 
the body, need not be particular in this matter. 

5. We must be careful that the shrouds should be prepared fr mi 
fine white linen, but they should not be too costly, they should a so be 
sewed with linen thread only. Neither a hem nor a knot of any sort 
should be made in the shrouds, neither in the thread with which it is 
sewed, nor when dressing (the dead) therein. A dead male should be 
wrapped in a woollen Tallis with fringes, one of which, however, 
should be made unfit for religious use, but it would be more proper 
when the body is in the grave to put one fringe in the corner of the 
Tallis. If the deceased had a beautiful Tallis in which he had prayed 
during his life, it is not proper to wrap him, at his death, in an inferior 
Tallis instead, as it is becoming for one to be buried in the Tallis in 
which he had prayed during his life. When dressing the dead, they 
should devoutly think that just as they are dressing his body so may 
his soul be adorned in spiritual garments in the Garden of Eden. They 
should be careful not to alter the prevalent custom in the manner of 
dressing the dead. If they had forgotten to put on anything 
belonging to the shrouds, they should place it upon the coffin. 

l See next paragraph. 


pT) im^m nan nuwin w m 

P« ,D1 UDD K^l IBU yVBJ DN ,TO DD1 V^ND f?S3» 'B , c f 

mao nbyo^ pi ,v6jttDai vnaa mix onaip x*?x /mm pnnao 
,d? ^d:^ ypipa iisn 1 ? mtui ,aaio irthfw pD3 mix paha 
,di ia enp isyn ^ n« ioy paipi .i 1 ? avipa pi ,D1 DP Bn DX 
ty mn p *]tu dm ^ax ,ib? Dnaip ona na^ http ma Kpm 
,ninoai ona ^ wn dx pi ,ona wnte uw D'na mta 
*6# iy aa\n oioaa* x*?x ,n*iiap Dan* d^x ,xsv Din pnjn 

,D1 UDD xr> X 1 ? DX1 /nap "pn^ aSP* D^DiTI ,D1 Dm D."tt IKttn 

pi .dvid ix^a panan mix Dwatei ,mix pnwn via papis 

♦dvid ixtpa uh ,ona yztoM *n 

,ma nx ide>bi ,pos na::^ x^x ,di ijdd xr dm «]x # f 
*\xi,pa*ian A Dnenjn ;niK pinaD ,nn a*n«i ,d^ hpm fnx vn 
m^ pin 1 ? pi a ,mix pnao n"sx /god art? did -£aite kvw 
♦nnna njwa vim xw nib x*?x ,wa u6b xw 

V11K piaip ,DT UDD MX'' X^P C]M jDVHm >V h? WW1 4 PI 

jnatea jrrom .Dan 1 ? town ,m^ nana nnw rrAw ,k¥&:p ids 

♦Dan 1 ? tow* a":i # niD^ 

•mora d^idk ,wam ^iw pa ^mr> wi pa ,r\zn 4 jd 
rw dm pi ,(p^mb) nnaa rme pa ,isia onainan nan m pi 
,nx:na inia isiA nama wxp *u tea /iay nap* ,nanvi \w & 
.py ^aa onniD jonam povann pa f ieia ir«^ «u pi 

♦fin pnan iiir^ nan nwsm ^t 

man r dki ,na«tea dhom wn '•a to ^w na 4 i< 
,ia pDjrnrA trant w»m» i^« f norA D^Djrna tfj&&n ,i^a 

♦na«^Da d^viid 



6. One who fell and died instantly, if his body were bruised and 
blood flowed from the wound, he should not be cleansed, but they 
should inter him in his garments and boots, but above his garments 
they should wrap a sheet which is called 221c. It is customary to dig 
the earth at the spot where he fell, if blood be there or near by, and 
all that earth upon which there is blood should be buried with him. 
He should be buried in those garments only which he wore when he 
fell, but if there were blood-stains on other garments which he was 
not wearing, likewise if he were placed upon pillows and sheets whilst 
the blood was flowing these need not be buried, but they should be 
thoroughly washed until no trace of blood remains, and the water 
should be poured into his grave. If, however, the one who fell and 
died did not bleed, they should remove his garments and cleanse him, 
and dress him in shrouds, as in the case of other dead people. He who 
was drowned should (if his corpse were recovered) also be treated like 
other dead people. 

7. Even if blood flowed from his body but it had ceased, and 
they had undressed him, after which he revived and lived for a few 
days and then died, whereupon he should be cleansed and shrouds 
should be prepared for him, although he be stained by his blood still 
he should be cleansed, for the blood which he had lost in his life-time 
does not matter as we are only concerned with the blood which one 
loses at death. 

8. One who was assassinated, although he did not bleed, should 
be buried in the clothes which he then wore. In the case of a woman 
who died while giving birth to a child, the ecclesiastical authorities 
should be consulted, this also applies in the case of one who had been 
executed by the government authorities. 

9. It is forbidden to enjoy anything belonging to the dead, 
whether he be a Jew or non-Jew, neither his shrouds nor such things, 
which are attached to his body, e.g., his wig or artificial teeth, these 
should be buried with him. But such articles which are not attached 
to his body one is permitted to use, i.e., such things which are not 
reckoned as part of the body, such as ornaments and garments. 

Laws Concerning the Removal of the Dead, The Funeral, 
and the Burial Service. 

1. If there be a death in the city, all the inhabitants are forbid- 
den to work, if, however, the city have a society who appoint atten- 
dants for the funeral, then all those whose services are not required 
are permitted to work. 


Laws 2—8 

TH1 wwn.nDTi rmrm *n m 

t n6 nr Ditoa d^jw pt ,no nw w on ,]tap i&aa # 1 
Vtsn ,nD dp rro ,nvi3pn n\aa Ditea d^nip p*» 3"p:bi 
jtwdk 1 pima d^hw ,fiD d» p*wa p'n^aa bz* *r\bn: i^a 

•anapn p 

no 1 ? n?D /w "p^n n*? f mnn ova inapn -nap % avia J 

K<anS /ni33 DWD irtD DN ^« ,nDfl D« jtofc TlDNtf ,WVQ1 

h-idn N*n ,iniD ,dtj£d in ^avip waw in ,pnwvi pin ^ 

f Hin na waa jnu n*?i ,no nvdj dn pi ,pa -pi n*?n nwi 

•rrart int^K in ,D*nr wan* ny \rtrft imo 

*?3N ,nawo m *vi ,onnutA dkwA wan dtohi ^a 4 T 
nap any rwi a"NN ,puud nr m ,'Diwrt moan iD»a in Y»a«a 
,nDDn *?y psbto v*bm mv in ,aia dv any in 

*in«^i ^nn iw« \wm nbnn nb» nr ,dhmk 'a ino ,n 
mop aay*? vbv *ia jrrwd vty pw r« ipwrvi nx nap» 
wn an j-aayD pa ,11133 \isd p»mn nx j^n 1 ? mrn dn .\mwi 

.td ini« paip n^n ,nr ^ara 

on i^sn ,rAnn n"nn hn jwriD ^ '«i n"n inN dn 4 l 
ox i^sn ,rf?nn nt^Nn n« jwmD ,ntwo t^N .rf?nn na n^n 

♦n^nn hd tthun 

|n^Di psno n"apn ,n&p ntra din fy mytn mian *?3 J 

.n^epn wa vnD"> n*?p ,^yu rror ma m t vtn n^aa 

^ru nTay «in naij; ^inw ni^D ]w non n« nxiin # n 
np« dwd ^nan nnW bia^ uw ^d hki ^idn j;aix vn^ ninsbi 
^3 ,y»ib*? onav fian "»«w nxn Nint^a ^w 1 ? a^ino d"d ^djin 
niDj; 1 ? inv ,mvDa oyo^n d^jn i^s 1 ? D>iai^ Di«n n«ii»a T'Dn 




2. Tf there be a death in a small village there should be no 

ween the inhabitants, this is especially to be avoided on a 
c metery If the dead be there, even if it be in a large city, but when 
there is no dead person (awaiting burial) on the cemetery, one may 
greet other people at a distance of four paces from the graves. 

3. It is written : " His body shall not remain all night . . . but 
thou shalt in any wise bury him that day * (Deut. xxi. 23). hence our 
Uabbis have inferred that it is forbidden to let the body of the dead 
remain (unburied) over night. If, however, one let the body remain 
over night for the sake of honouring the dead, e.g. to procure a coffin, 
shrouds, or to await the arrival of relatives or others who will deliver 
the funeral orations, in these circumstances it is permitted, as the 
Torah forbade only that delay in burial which leads to contempt of the 
dead. If a dead man were found whose identity is not established, 
it is permitted to let him remain unburied all night until witnesses 
can make their appearance to identify the corpse or until his wife can 
come to identify him. 

4. As far as dead relatives are concerned one who hastens to 
have them brought to their rest is praiseworthy, but when one'3 
parents are dead, he who hastens to have them buried is despicable, 
unless it were on the Eve of Sabbath or a Holy-day, or if the rain 
descended upon the bier. 

5. If two individuals died, he who died first should be taken out 
first [(for burial). After the interment of the first deceased, those 
present at the burial should not stand by the grave in a line, so as not 
to delay the burial of the second deceased. If they desire to let the 
first deceased remain (unburied) over night in order to honour him, 
they should not delay the burial of the second deceased on that 
account, but they should bury him at once. 

6. If one of them were a learned man and the other an ignorant 
person, the former should be taken out first, even if the latter had died 
first. If one of them be a man and the other a woman, the woman 
should be taken out first, even if the man had died first. 

7. If one weep on account of the death of a virtuous man, the 
Holy One, blessed be He, counts tho.^e tears and stores them up in His 
treasury. The merit of such conduct is great, for the children of this, 
person will not die young. 

8. He who beholds a funeral and does not accompany it is guilty 
of a great transgression, he should accompany the dead at least the 
distance of four cubits. Although he be prevented by some accident 
from accompanying the dead, he is nevertheless obliged to stand when 
he sees those who carry the dead pass by, for whenever a man seea 
others passing by who are engaged in the performance of a precept, he 
must stand up before them. 


]*H1 nropn rtei rrropn vi m 

p*n ,rwai *rpa nab bxwn wk te ndddd n?n p?a 4 2 
«pwi ik ,rwtA -|m /mix nib 1 ? *T3 ,n"n i^bn pbeao ,naso 
^tp nipum flnxbn bwz mm nnAn ban 1 ? xbw t bpnb dwu 

Ate pteaa p* dSij; 1 ? ,pn n*o 

l^vwa ,tftwKn Dy wwi lm/v ^ /wa tuhS d'om* / 

jpmna d^ddi r p*;wA 

papn p roaa xwhv ywb &n& nan ay daubed ^ 

V18P rtTDJf tell ,&£VZ '» Y1D1W *HD HID* *1 fe lay Yiay* 

♦may 1 ? *"k ,]unn is n"kp avai t aya 

w Dnrtt* mapn n« run «^» '•a ,p*it:A mava ♦2'* 
*o tvm una anew p nnai 'id pa tona tr nt?K -pa 1 ? -ps 

•ovta nvnn 1 ? iy 

/id itys awi nun /pin pns onom napn dtimbo # jp 
^nna onat? Vrtin ,*?aK dp pt dhi /?Mna Dtatfi ja inai 
mn nnN 1 ? p"ya n"k p 1 ? f pn pm n"k ,[unn n"kp awn 
f DMiB mjn nai^i w n ff n aipa ^ax pia dv aiya pi ,dim 
paw yte DJ D^naia n»n ^jn ,dym nnrn via 1 ? DJ d^din 
♦dim nwn onp n'hyai a"aai myia^ ny ]vd n"i nna^ o^ai 
4 nv tpvbwz mns pirn *?y ,p ff iTaa ismp xbi jnn pm k"k nV6a 

•pn pm anaiK pa 

♦rvrapn tvm rnopn *xn 

yp-ipz nan ipa n« uw km ,nwia rmowi miap ,tf 

f Dna3» ^yn paa nan epj n« ivrt pjima niaipa h^to ,pbd 
d^omi /ana w pt*a D^pa v,-r» *6» i^sn w ; in^ pa^ pi 



9. In our days it is assumed that every Israelite has studied the 
jlible and the Mishnah, therefore if one die, even the study of the 
Torah should be discontinued, in order to follow his funeral. For the 
sake, however, of a woman or a child this custom is not so strictly en- 
forced, therefore one need not interrupt his study of the Torah in 
order to follow them. Children who attend school should at no time 
be forced to interrupt their studies. 

10. On the way to the cemetery and also on returning there- 
from, the men should keep apart from the women. 

11. When those who accompany the dead have arrived 
within thirty paces from the grave, they should halt with the dead 
every four cubits, so that they will halt seven times. They should 
tarry awhile each time. On a day when Prayers of Supplications 
(Tachanun) are not said they need not halt. 

12. On reaching the cemetery, one who had not seen any graves 
for thirty days is required to say the benediction *\s\ ,pa c:n« w nsrn 
then naa nnn up to c^na nvnn 1 ?. 

13. When the grave is filled pn prw i.e., ibvt D^an Wfl is said. 
This prayer should be commenced by one of the mourners, but if no 
mourner be present, the most important among those present should 
recite same. On the days when Tachanun is not said ;nn pnx should 
not be said, therefore it should not be said on Friday afternoon, 
nor on the eve of a Festival, but on the eve of a New Moon, and on 
the eve of Chanukah, and on the eve of Purim, it should be said 
even in the afternoon. If the deceased were a learned man it should 
be said even on imra 3fb, On the days after the New Moon of Sivan 
until Pentecost, on the Ninth of Ab, and on the Eve of New Year, it 
should be said before noon. At night neither pin prn nor rnp should 
be said at the cemetery ; pn pro should not be said for a deceased 
infant less than 30 days old. 

Laws Concerning the Interment and the Cemetery. 

1. The burial mentioned in the Torah is the interment of the 
body of the dead in the earth itself. In many places, however, it is 
customary to place the dead in a coffin made of boards and to inter 
him thus, and as it is unlikely that there should not be a hole in the 
coffin, this suffices. The pious bore holes in the coffin. In some 


pTi nmpn nmi rrwpn *h rn 

vti« prroe n^x ,pix *Aa pnaipttf mo-po ^i .pKa Mpa onr*? 
,o*sn mp d^dij Dmvn ]d m^m ,vnnn cp K*?a ,»d ppipn L ? 
,d\dh bw mw in /wit *p iiy D\3rm i^« fyi ,D*:aa nm# w 
,tw niDipb p^ /6 pna irw ,nDn sp by wn Sisn k^p na 
D^wn one? omaai D'unaf? pii ,rnn a^a "P dvid inp pimpy 
dhd nwy^ nW ^loan •nywa int^ »•» ,piN onenjwa .pn« p»iy 
,rmtf> can n« D^ansp ^an nnn Dna p^r6 pti ,t^£Pn hpk 
4 ]rf?t*n ]D p™ onS m^ «p ^rAw by n"w i^aKW na^ wa 

."ipi* -pasf? T^m fl p"£a 

•pn nto dind 4 p6?d*> rosi vaj by nan *ju na prrjo # 2i 
,rty mpi vnnn mrp one prsD , L /NW pan is? )b w nr 
f?jn ,vs ty d:V ,tjnp nnan ^ nnb np^m /'ini; wDTit isa^ w n y 

.vsa ^i w? 

jsnn srn ant* 4 ntf? nt d^idd onapn nx Dn&np pit J 
w» /WDnrrt an ipsn dm ,rwa¥N nw mns 1 ? ,Drrra p^dsbh 
,on:n Daa Dy onapa rwitn in wnn bm ,nA n? pa nra 
lapa /t*na nojr jtrw pp ba Wan n? .onai o:a na in p ny i« 
d^n 4 pjdn oy nkru na in /pan ny bm p ba« 4 imDa vy 
dn *?aN ,nnit naa dtto» ntap*> npn ,D^tspa i^sw /im mapa 
♦TiNn n« Avn 'nap'? tidn y nnN iapa iaa 

pi .dp -6 D s «Tpi ^ap b*x \nw pte .hdp pirn 4 T 

.dp n^ nnpS o^a'nx a w a npirnS 

■»? dtpm P" 1 dm n^k ,nr b^ nr nuvw 'a d^dij pn 4 n 

D'^Dn d^ Bjiaxn Sn« idx:p ,pnx f?^« jwn Dna*p p« 4 1 
pnic jnaip p« pi .jnaip j^ ^p ysi b?x tidh 5?»i i^axi /tfw 


places the dead are buried without a coffiD, the corpse being placed in 
the ground without any board underneath, only one board on each 
side, or instead thereof, two rows of stones, and above these another 
board is placed or a heap of stones to prevent the earth falling down 
upon the dead body which would be a degradation. In other places 
the dead are generally buried in this way without being placed in a 
coffin, but the priests (fi'jna) and the first-born, who are esteemed, are 
placed in coffins. One should be careful not to use the remnants of 
the wood whereof the coffin was made, they may be used only as fuel 
to heat the water to be used for the purification of the corpse. The 
generous people who had fed the poor at their table should be buried 
in a coffin made of the boards of that table, as it is said " And thy 
charity shall go before thee " (Is. lviii. 8). 

2. The corpse is laid upon its back, with face upward, like one 
who is asleep. He who has earth from Palestine, should have some of 
it spread under him, and some of it upon him, as it is said : " And his 
land will atone for his people " (Deut. xxxii. 43). It is right to place 
some of it where the holy covenant is marked, also on his mouth, eyes 
and hands. 

3. The graves should not be made close to each other, but 
they must be separated by a partition of at least six fingers' width, and 
if possible care must be taken of having a space of six hand- 
breadths between them. A man or woman, however, may be buried 
together with their son or daughter, or with their grandson or grand- 
daughter. As a [rule, a child who had slept with the deceased in 
life, may be buried with the deceased at death, but an adult son should 
not be buried with his father, nor an adult daughter with her 
mother. Even the burial of children with their parents is only per- 
mitted when they are both buried at the same time, but if one had 
already been buried, it is forbidden to inter the other in the same 

4. If a male uncircumcised infant died, he should be circumcised 
at his grave, and a name given to him ; a female infant should also be 
given a name. 

5. One coffin should not be placed upon another unless six 
hand-brea<lths of earth intervene between them. 

6. A wicked man should not be buried next to a righteous man, 
forjt is said, " Gather not thy soul with sinners" (Ps. xxvi. 9). One 
should not even inter an extremely wicked man next to one who was 
less wicked nor should a righteous man and more especially a man 


p*tt nrqan n^i rrnapn *n fil 

p« n# ro dww rm aw .Abid Ton fcr« itpai *wa a"ctf 

•ttp onap^ 

ny#a rren td wvn in mo np*f? n 1 ^ rsppA ^ J 
,napa nan n« wan* ina^ /frm mi in^a n? nSn ,prropn 
t riK» n^y^ *"n ,pnn k*kp avai ,&":> naon nx pana 

ou tin p-^ai Mew p^vi ^viapn mrb pnrira 4 n 
•nron. lawp ,jrnan nnnb ran km an /wait nay s a tci* a'naw 
uprri ^mr trxnwi ,D*mna *|« p m»^ b^ot /pan atpya -pya 
,iVot mi rpaya m n^n ,pm» *o td "6an r.N ^ L ; ]\n .^aa 
o:n /o dim m d*tdwi Onion ^) s^ in 'i o^aw a^nai 
ow nSp Tfippft pmxi Avia 1123 -p aen ana ova nan nap:tra 

♦asn vt pm» mip wsb din 
nSn ,nnn« t? 1 ? nnap na tw tj» nan nN p^ia p« 4 a 
m* Nin d.x pi ,vman nnap npnb iniN p^iow in /»* , hA b'vio 

♦inia ,apab tnpDfi la^vA 

una *iaa$ lwn ,Win onbaw tin 1 ? *op mns 1 ? iidk V» 
n« mns 1 ? nma pay una n^ pi ^2 taic ,p*n *idd ^y lap 
# *opn n« mnsb pmt nnan nPN nana dni .*cn nrx dwd pan 
♦pnaia a^ •bat^ vopo nan nx nusS w 

,wa naao w ■•a ,nWa mns trims* n 1 ? pap vian on ,^ 

.iaya iapn n« iNba , > nna*? ny nan n« niapS o^ia* pc d«i 
^ni nan nn«*? yvt dn a f 'a^ ,D"»nap ^a^ ty im 1 ? ^idn # 2'» 

•"iniD ,onap ^u ^ Ti^i" 3' 7 nn yn iS 

•nnn ^aa pi ,na bv niax 'i iina in p"naa ^ n 1 ? ^ 
D^Diaa on dni y ii:aa n^int in irma p^cnra ,d^ nih nnrw 

♦nan niaa 1 ? a^nn moio laN 1 ? inia ^ax ^d^ b^sn^ «*? pi nma 


of average piety be buried next to a man who was esteemed tor his 
piety. Two who were enemies, should not be buried next to one 

7. One should be careful not to take a hoe or pick-axe from the 
hand of one's neighbour at a burial, but one should lay it down and 
tlie other should take it up. After the deceased had been placed in 
the grave, the bier should be turned over three times, but this need 
not be done on a day when Tachanun is not said. 

8. When about to return from the cemetery they should pluck 
up some grass and throw it behind their back saying, " He remem- 
bereth that we are dust " (ibid. ciii. 14). This custom is symbolical of 
the resurrection of the dead, as it is said, u And they of the city shall 
flourish like grass of the earth " (ibid, lxxii. 1G). This is 'also per- 
mitted during the Intermediate days of a Festival. They should then 
wash their bauds, for this ablution the use of a vessel is required. One 
should not take the vessel from one who had washed his hands, but 
the latter should put it down and then the former should take it. They 
should then sit down seven or three times (according to the custom) 
-and say '121 Dim Wt 1 Likewise if the burial took place on a Holyday 
they should sit down in the same manner as on a week day. It is 
usual to insist on the observance of the customs of washing the hands 
and sitting down in the case of a person (who had been with the dead) 
prior to entering the house. 

9. The dead should not be removed (for burial) from a city 
where there is a cemetery to another city, unless it be from any 
country to Palestine, or if he had to be removed to the burial ground 
of his fathers, likewise if he had commanded that his remains should 
be conveyed from one place to another, it is permitted. 

10. It is forbidden to open a grave after it had been closed, that 
is after the earth had been heaped upon the lid of the coffin, but as 
long as the earth had not been piled thereon, it is permitted to open 
the coffin, if there were occasion for it. If, because of a very urgent 
reason, a grave be required to be opened or the body of the dead to be 
removed therefrom, an eminent Rabbi should be consulted. 

11. A grave that was dug should not be left open over night, as 
it is a dangerous practice, and if the dead could not be buried until 
the following day, the grave should be failed up with earth. 

12. It is forbidden to tread upon the graves, nevertheless if one 
have occasion to visit a certain grave, and he had no other way of 
reaching it except by treading upon the graves, he is permitted to do 


13. One should neither visit a cemetery nor go within four 
cubits of the dead, nor in a room where the dead is lying, when 
wearing ^bin upon his head or having the firs on his garment. If, 
however, they were covered, he may wear them. One should not 
pray there, but he may say the Psalms in honour of the dead. 

•Se« Authorised Daily Prayer Book, pp. 220. 23f. 


("HI fc'vs trtapn *n m 

iaaa aip^ *6i , rw nSi ^m «S nn-cpn mra # T 
ima ,o*i3pn ty ]aw irnapn m#3 awan ma^« bn« p*m 

,enn 3"'' imb i? mva proja pw o^ama niBipa ten # ita 

.nra ppnpiD pat* mapa t^i 

♦msa Di^n mopn w 

DX1 ^aW 13 lpDJW N*? 31B DV to ptfKVl DV3 f)B 4 tf 

wjp in ,f*y to pain n« isnm napn an m*r hut WMnv tosn 
it^rfc toto^ inia m ,0^3^* dn pa^iann nN ns/r aai jrN 
**2 2' ; j ipy ism '•losm l napa iBitrti i*onr6i nna^i d^d aarAT 
*rt new Nto .na3 n^3 inna^? inrnf? p> ,i#sn dm .mm iav«. 
ina*? iy vrnpr6 pbw ]-trxi 31a dv3 no Kin dn p« .hbtid 
,b*p to wn dv ny imnt^ 31a nnv ,rma* afn 

win i»s« dn n*n to i^sni sib dv to *a# ai^ ,S 
onmn inpi ^'n ^y w ^yb anstan onan /k *"y i\tp ••to 
,awai ana3 *y aa nna^ d^id^ ,^ 3ifl3& ibs ^to^en nt^y» 
13 ipoyrp ••"n '•t "?y n"n bni ,8^3 naTia w Nto mpp p> 
^ra no ^r6 w b*p *a ,ton asms ,"P*» no W ^n»* 
war Nto 3ia w ,amsn jwcn nisd 1 ? *,psn bni ,p3i viw 
b3N ,dv3 in rop 1 ? prwa *pr\ ,13 paynnb annian atm ♦Tisn^ 

I^SKI /im DW ^ DW ]"N ; DV3 13 113p^ D^n ]^k DK- 

•7IDK ^Bto3 

k 1 ? dn ,pnann to npon nn 3ib dv3 3ivpb iidk J| 
CN1 pia dv3 niaiap 13^ np^ Dmo« D^ai3pm ,in« ]si«3 n*«^3 



14. One should neither eat nor drink in a cemetery nor should 
one gather the vegetation that grows there. It is permitted, however, 
to pick the fruits from trees, which, although planted in the cemetery, 
do not grow over the graves. 

15. It is the custom in some places not to erect a tombstone until 
t-vclve months after death, but there are other places where the 
people are not particular in this matter. 

Laws Concerning Burial on a Festival. 

1. On the first day of a Festival 1 an Israelite should not be 
engaged in the buna 1 of the dead, but if it be possible for a non-Jew 
to dig the grave and cut the boards, or make a coffin, and also sew the 
shrouds if necessary, then an Israelite is permitted to dress the body, 
also to warm water and cleanse the body, also to carry it out and place 
it in the grave, but filling in the grave with earth should be done by a 
non-Jew. If possible care should be taken to cleanse the dead 
without the use of a garment, in order that they should not violate 
the law by wringing the water out of the garment. If, however, one 
died on the first day of a Festival and it is possible to keep the body 
until the following day without injury to health, it is far preferable to 
let it remain unburied until the second day of the Festival. 

2. On the second day of a Festival or even of Rosh Ha^hanah 
if it be possible to have all the aforementioned duties performed by a 
non Jew without causing any delay, a non-Jew should carry out the 
same, while all the other preparations aforementioned can be performed 
by Israelites. It is also permitted to use garments and sheets in per- 
forming the purification, care should, however, be taken not to wring 
out the water with the hands. If it be impossible to have the 
aforementioned duties done by a non-Jew, an Israelite is permitted to 
make all the preparations for the burial, as though it were a week-day, 
inasmuch as the Rabbis have compared the second day of a Festival 
with a week-day in the matter of preparing the dead for burial. If, 
however, it be possible to obtain ready-made shrouds, it is preferable 
(to use them) in order to avoid the necessity of sewing the same. It is 
permissible to attend to all matters relating to the dead only if the 
burial take place that day, but if not, it is forbidden to make the 
slightest preparation for the burial. It is even forbidden to handle 
the body. 

3. On a Festival it is forbidden to fix the price of the shrouds, 
unless it be impossible to obtain them otherwise. Grave-diggers are 
forbidden to take any remuneration for their work on a Festival, but 
if they refuse to work without pay, they should be paid, but they will 

»The text might be rendered : •• An Israelite should not be engaged with one who died on the 
tlrbt day cf a Festival." 


,pn nx ;n^ pmp ani t n^v nnb u/r ,a:na rw^ aw arx 
,aw wrap ^a rvoapa pi ,m?a inp^ xS ntsmp nnanm 

nt bp map*? a^iaw «]« ^xntjn nriap at? p# aipaa 4 T 
w a ff vai r *w irx ^ p>xn aia ava ia^vA nma d"d ,nDn 
,avn wop* *6 bx *?ax t h*n»* mapn inap^ ,tor«p *jf n: 
♦a^ 1 nnx*? nap 1 ? a"va la^vA fcnanb wh 

*?ax ^amn 1 ? pn iW anicx pawn aia ava nsn *6a ,n 
in an"»a*? mmb a - i D*iniDi ,ainn^ pn nM nma w aia ai^a 
ib^sa ,aia ai'o nan mSS na ,nana ^ *?y aian 1 ? max *?ax ,ava 
iW urb nt^sx ^ dx DTOpn bzx .a^axn i^sxi w aia ova 
♦Yyn -pna iaan"» x<? a"ai /a aia ova man 5 ? annia ,an^:na 

anaipi anx ^a n*w a^aira ,a"va na anapa dk ♦! 
p*w a^aitr ,ai#n dix am dxi ,dwb naix ;rnn# njrco mix 
fan 1 ? n^sx "w DNi /i^aid amp n*?snn nnxb mix anaip /iffiW 
.n^axn nnxb mix paip ,Kinn ptn ny nmapn wt *?a 

nanai nar xm ax "ja ,na nx#a in ,av wte p n^ 4 T 
aia ava mix paip f x ,wiwn :"yx tx ,pry *?ia: »*? nao nnte 
irx *r ^ nxr nwj^ pxi /irAnp Tan*? a^anst* bipb ,]'t?xn 
vV?ny p™ 'a a"vai /a aia av ny rrf? jrrwD x^x pvi* 

.mix anapn 

mix a'naip px \nntrx xS ••x # nas? a^ an?^ anp n^ 4 n 
mix ana^pi ; a a"v ny n^ p%i»b ,w wx ^ i^sx 'x a' ; va 
*$ \®#r\ aia ai^a mix a^aip /nn^'x "'xi ^xn^^ ^y vh\ '•"x ^y 
Airw^ ^3? xbi ^ava *a ^'x ^ mix anaip /a a w va na axi / w x 
a"va i^sx mix anaip ]^x \nntrx i^bx ^idj x? pw na? xm ax' 


have to render an account of their conduct in the future. The Holy 
Brotherhood should not take any money, but they can accept pledges 
without stipulating any amount. 

4. Where there is no Jewish cemetery, although there is a place 
where that dead person may be buried, it is nevertheless permitted to 
convey him on the first day of a Festival, through a non-Jew, and on 
the second day of a Festival even through a Jew, to a place where he 
can be buried in a Jewish cemetery, but if it were not intended tc. 
bury him that day, an Israelite is forbidden to convey the body on a 
Festival in order to have it buried after the Festival. 

5. On the first day of a Festival all who attend the funeral are 
forbidden to go beyond the Techum 1 but on the second day of a 
Festival they are permitted to go even beyond the Techum, they may 
also return to their homes on the same day. But it is forbidden to 
ride on an animal in order to accompany the dead on a Festival, even 
on the second day of a Festival. This rule also applies to the mourn- 
ers. The gravediggers, however, are permitted to ride on the second 
day of a Festival, if it be impossible for them to walk, nevertheless 
they should not ride in the city. 

6. If one is to be buried on a Festival, ten men should rise at an 
early hour and bury him whilst the Reader is reciting the (b^bvb) 
hymns, but if the deceased were a distinguished man so that a 
multitude would follow his funeral, he should be buried after the ser- 
vice is concluded but before the meal is eaten. If it be impossible to- 
make all the necessary preparations for the burial by that time, he 
should be buried after the meal had been taken. 

7. With regard to a dead child of thirty days old the same laws 
apply as to any other dead person, but if it be a male child whose 
circumcision had for some reason been postponed, he should not be 
buried on the first day of a Festival, even in spite of the decay, for it 
is necessary to remove his foreskin, which should not be done by a 
non-Jew, the body should therefore be kept until the second day of a 
Festival, when his foreskin should be removed and he should be buried. 

8. A child who died before it was thirty days old should not 
be buried on the first day of a Festival even by a non-Jew, but 
should be kept until the second day of the Festival when it should be 
buried by a non-Jew but not by an Israelite, the foregoing applies if 
the body were not decaying, but otherwise it should be buried by a 
non-Jew on the first day of the Festival. If the child died on the 
second day of the Festival, it should be buried that very day by a 
non-Jew but not by an Israelite, but if it were a male child not yet 
circumcised, in spite of decay setting in he should not be buried, even. 

»i.«. Two thousand cubita beyond the marked-off area around the town or glace*. 


■vAiy p<ddi ,aia dv vtxb ny rib pwo *6« /'n *r ^ 'a 

♦im« onaipi 

/»« *y i^s« W?a naa ipoyn* *6 & ff ani\ai na#a ,B 

"napnp ny ,rmapn rrab non n» nwrb pi »".-nna /■ 

.ntopn n« Tsynb lanar kSp ,pwD 

♦nap pen nxen ,njrfr idsj? nnsan nn 

*iaw» ,ttsfl ntya 1 ? p*» ytn win pyib iDtjr naxon tf 
byi ,ubvjn inaa w ^a&ai ,'pmx DaviwaA d:di nx 1*1, 
V^y i^awno *6i prop *6 p^i kSd okv na«o nn« rw naxon 
paipi pnan ww protai win pnoo Sax /mix d^tbdd pai 

.Dan*? i^ 411 ,i^ wnp nTDH pybi /ima 

.,rw? ib ;w -mat* nibnb ipbkp ba ,^-in inn kvdj dk # 2 

.n-a p^n k^ 

Tima dk Jrm pi ,njr6 *te awn ,io*y lamai pp J 
Kin m pwp D^:y» mwo nvw ix ,pw nana nam npjw 

♦no nxtpa 

,pvyS spin *jaa oni orrtyD rm»n bv ipw tnMWi ♦! 
paxnn pn o^nn pi ito ba ,OTrrpwm mmem tnowi pi 

mi *w ,tm JW P iKmatei wa p nru dm Ji 
*n ;p*n ba "pia na i6p jwi ,vty ]^axnDi pam ,idid 

jnrM* rvb 

mi Jan .,ro jouvA pi Aw jjwajr mwh fcw rww "d .1 


on the second day of the Festival by a non-Jew, but he should be kept 
until after the Festival when his foreskin should be removed and he 
should then be buried. 

9. On Sabbaths and the Day of Atonement no one should be 
occupied in attending to the dead even through the agency of a non- 

10. On Intermediate days of Festivals the dead should not be 
conveyed to the cemetery before the grave was prepared, so that it 
should not be necessary to let the bier remain standing. 

Laws Concerning a Suicide and a Wicked Person's Death. 

1. There is none more wicked than one who has committed' 
suicide, as it is said : " And surely your blood of your lives will I 
require " (Gen. ix. 5). Also for the sake of an individual was the 
world created, thus he who destroys one soul is as though he had 
destroyed the whole world, therefore one should neither rend the 
garment nor mourn for him who had destroyed himself, nor should a 
funeral oration be pronounced on his behalf. He should, however be 
cleansed, dressed in shrouds and buried, and with regard to the saying 
of Kaddish the ecclesiastical authorities should be consulted. 

2. When one who had been killed was discovered, as far as pos- 
sible the act of killing should be regarded as the deed of another 
person and not as his own deed. 

3. If a child committed suicide, it is considered that he had done 
the deed unwittingly. Likewise if an adult had killed himself and it 
is evident that the act was prompted by madness or through fear of 
terrible torture, he should be treated as an ordinary deceased person. 

4. People who had cast off the yoke of the precepts and had led 
a life of libertinage also apostates, informers and heretics should 
not be mourned for (Onan) immediately after their demise before 
burial, nor should a period of mourning thereafter be observed for 

5. One who had been executed, whether by the sentence of the 
Government or otherwise, even if he had been an apostate, should be 
mourned for as Onan and a period of mourning should be kept for 
him, inasmuch as he had suffered an unusual death, it is an atone- 
ment for his sins. 

6. One who was an inveterate sinner, even if his transgressions 
were the result of his passions, still if he died without confession, hot 


;rt>y i^aNna ,mmn dn tea /t^y j^attna j-n /rnia Dip mm 

<pu in a:: n*n i^sn 

/lai ^D« ay in va« ay wv ,dw» in mp p pp ,T 

Ywpna nS pnjw i^sni ,naS NDBrt nW wb pan 4 X 
n^n awi w 1 ? ,av 'a fin tfrsn dn -p) ,na a^n pua ina« 

iaa ,UDD Density B^ai 1 ? I^SN N^N ,oSp JIB*? KpYl 1N*>1 (N">Da 

■^a y^y w ok /nn p nuv naab mdd^ to* pi nanai dt 
^» -onS Awi ,navi* mbprrti «i*n rm ^aina n\n dnb> ,a*a 
^cym ,001: nv trtf bmb mah jroS to*i »*ba*b "6 ton ,i&iry 

to»? inna *mp ^Wm n*?,, by pan naiy b"b ,nbbb ir* BDunp 

♦*pvi m nia^ nbpi ,^nrp n^p 

mi iV»a* .ivinn na tw f?n« nnn aua^ pa 1 ? ton ,2 
wi ,na tf s iriN -nna ipn omn W i^ i^sni ,nain bns bnx 
*nnS bj D^a 2 ? pa 2 ? ton ^nsa ^y nsa la #np *??n p^aaan ^maa 
btjw toiaai /b^p nn my en wn mnn ^n bn pi ,wn 
pi /enb&M mnnf? dj aua^ pa 1 ? ton ,nsa ^y nsa Wn a w j w 
.n* N^aa /inb pp Kin i^bn irmA ">ipy Wnn dni ,abiyb 


ra^a'ao aviam nsa anna pnS crefro avian nin a* ^ 
.tfbn in nns -pi nNBian naf?m ,ana -irma na en on ,nrt nr 
«nn*n avian -jin 1 ? a: no:a:i #mb j^abia^ j\pn p fcuen nnn 
^j % -mn a^nan ivi 1 ? dj auaS ]nab ma«i ^ms nns in ji^n -|n 



should not be mourned for, but if he had confessed he should be 
mourned for, even if he had been a thief or a robber. 

7. One should not mourn for a child of one or two years who 
had been converted with his father or mother, and had died. 

Laws Concerning the Defilement of a Priest. 

1. The priest is warned against defiling himself by (coming into) 
Contact with the dead. This includes an abortive whose limbs are 
Undeveloped, if, however, the abortion occurred within forty days from 
Conception, it is considered as only a fluid. The contact that defiles 
need not necessarily be with the dead body in its entirety, for there is 
pollution even in the touch of that which is separated therefrom, such 
as its blood and the like. He is likewise forbidden to defile himself by 
contact with the severed limb of a living person if there be much flesh 
thereon, so that it would be proper to have it healed if it were still 
connected with the body, even if that be his own limb he is forbidden 
to defile himself therewith. He is forbidden to enter the house of a 
dying person, although one in that state does not defile him, neverthe- 
less he violates the precept " Neither shall he profane " (Lev. xxi. 12), 
for he is warned to preserve his priesthood so as not to profane it, and 
here he exposes it to profanation as death may occur at any moment. 

2. A priest is forbidden to enter a house if a dead body bo 
therein, even if the house be large, and even if there be two rooms in 
one of which the body is lying, and there is a wall that separates them 
but there is an aperture in that wall the size of a square hand-breadth, 
he is forbidden to enter the adjoining room, and even if there be a 
third room adjoining, but the wall separating it contains also an 
aperture as large as a square hand-breadth, he is forbidden to enter the 
chird room also and thus ad infinitum. If the aperture were made to 
vdmit light even if it be very small, it still transmits the impurity. 

3. Houses which are close together, with roofs projecting with the 
space of a hand-breadth, are conductors of the pollution of the corpse, 
which may be in any of them by means of the window or door of that 
house, which transmits it to the other houses through their open win- 
dows or doors, all counting as one on account of the roofs which 
project over them all, the priest is therefore forbidden to enter into 
any of the other houses, even if the roofs be not level, but one is higher 


fwaranp jjn i^sxi ,nra ntort m n^>k ,d^p dm awn frwn 
posn pK dn /pro ik ,wn an p nam nia:i km ,n*aa ap 

I^BK r QtTra pDBH P s DN ^aN ,rp^ n^D HMDIBn na^Vl ,Dn\ra 

ami ^ nroia nrp p^pa pi .numon na^n nrw sip ,kvip ^a 
rrtjr p^vwa pirn /ibb nam n\t ,aiTj^ owiyp iaa ,naan 
nnn ^n an nnn p nKaian nxa :j"n ,]N2a nstan , jmso nsa 
napanai ,^pn "ivap ,n*an nnn *?n riKDUsn nN nwaa nvn rnpn 
.posn wv Dipon njr ,nsa ^nN pw oipa taa 

■pn kotiS XFvr\y *ipn nnsnp ,ntj *roa npaS nato ,1 
^hnh man nw nam ^yp ,dp Kin ipk hnxn p nan nN dp 
tok pbi ,mna rm i u nd pro a"a ,oina'Kin n?n nnsnp b'pn 
ex pi f D^Bab nbw n'nnp b"j?n *pppan nnn dp marp pA 
,-ipskp Dipa bzh n«aian n« waa /insn n^ ,nsa aSia :u dp p* 
nvip ]^n in nns ,nnK isa nnsj dk -jn jnna nnsn mn tfwa 
vnai ,mna svn v?n:> Dinon nnsn apro n 5 ? tn ,a*i ^ ansa 'i 
ik nnsn -pi rb* psnb row rntewn pK dk ,dp niayS pab 

♦ninsn jftm 

Pnp ]BiKa ,puo mrfcnm nvfrirw mna hvw pa # n 

*nna na p*p yapi ,pp ap: i^bk ia pK p^nai ,nsD mna nnsa 

manv nKaia 1 ? Dipa Nnn ,pfmn in ,nnsn nns^ dkp piKa ,wn 

.nan n»x ik^vp ny # Nmp laa dp ikp* 1 k^k ^insb ton yby 

pab tdk p dj ^nK dip nnn iapn ik nan ^npd i^bk 4 T 
Dipca mia nanpa Kpni ,irp ^p in na *?p k"t -pro mp? 
pNi mrap nr )^k ,nv7a>?an nya b|ni nnbn nj?pa ^n /nr^ap 

♦D^nsa nyaiK dk <a p^rnr6 fa^w 
no:^: nxaianp *?nKa ik ,na ia p^p toma p^ Kinp pa J 
*irp trpr6 pa^rt ^nKaiDn nx yunb nya iud 1 ? ^pbk ••ki /d 


than the other, even if the roof of the house containing the corpse be 
much higher than the other roofs, or vice-versa, so long as there is no 
intervention between them, be it ever so slight, the impurity spreads 
from one house to another, but if there be a barrier between them, be 
it ever so slight, the impurity is not transmitted. Likewise if a 
beam lie across a court entrance, which is (sometimes) done for an 
'Erub 1 , which is a hand-breadth wide, and is covered by the roofs 
which project above it a hand-breadth from each side, the impurity is 
transmitted from beneath the roof to the space beneath the beam, 
and penetrates to the house on the opposite side, it also spreads in 
every direction where there is a portion of a house of the size of a 
hand-breadth^until it is stopped by some barrier. 

4. It is a Sinaitic tradition from Moses that the door through 
which the dead is to be carried from the house (inasmuch as the re- 
moval of the corpse makes that house clean again) should be con- 
sidered (with regard to ritual impurity) as open even when closed, and 
a priest is forbidden to stand there under the lintel even if the door 
be locked from within. Likewise if there were a roof above which 
projected a hand-breadth over the door, it communicates the impurity 
to every place possible as though the door were open, but if there were 
another open door or window of four square hand-breadths on another 
side, the closed door is considered as open and a priest is permitted to 
stand there provided the impurity cannot reach him through the open 
door or window. 

5. A priest who is in a room where the door and windows are 
closed in such a manner that there is neither an opening in the door of 
even a hand-breadth's space nor even a small aperture in the window, 
if he hear that there is a corpse lying in another room which is situated 
so that the opening of a door or window will cause the impurity to 
reach him it is forbidden to open either, but he should remain where 
he is until the corpse has been removed. 

6. The priest is forbidden to approach within four cubits of a 
corpse, even though it be neither in a house nor in a grave, provided 
the body lie in a permanent place, if, however, it lie in a temporary 
place during the funeral procession or during the halts that are made 
at the cemetery, then he need not keep aloof more than four hand- 

7. A priest who is asleep in a house containing a corpse, or in a 
house to which the impurity of the dead penetrates, and it is impos- 
sible to shut it in order to prevent the access of the impurity, must be 
awakened so that he should go out, but if he be undressed, he should 

»On the M 'Erub ■ tee Jewish Encyclopedia v. pp. 203 ff. 


,nw ana ft imp< a 1 ?** /6 tjh^ pa ,aviy aaip ain t»n ,a^a 
jnw inN 1 ? a"ai ♦ nman iiaa ^vm /-6nn iavy na Bhafrw ■naa 
-p* *An ,iavy n« r*:An» ny ne» nvia6 tibk ,nNBian ja "6 

♦ra nav 1 ? 

p V?ni ♦anb xaa 1 ? i 1 ? nivai p'avipS kdd^ pan ima 4 fl 
vn«i ,inai i:a /laxi vaa (-6 nSias nrNP) i 1 ? *i*hn intra : Mnpn 
iron .Naaa wn b^sj psa 1 ? ^ax ,av an^p vn ax ,vONa ininai 
,DW0 nnwb m*ai inim an n^ ,t^>6 ntnpn^ minx 1 ? xaaa 
natra p^i ,nanai p*pm jyih i 1 ? ^an 1 ? in /map -pi* 1 ? «pn 
Yannb paji /natrt na i^sn "6 niNaa 1 ? -iidn ,ai^a la nap 1 ? x u kw 
p"n w i^sni ,on^ aaa^ m*a *kti ,n*YQp wtb "tiro ,p 
aa^ ,n*aa dw nwA i 1 ? w© ,Wa payna ttk aim ^poynan 
•Wui amaw ny n^n ,wartp^ aaaa iron ,*m nr« war 

ira p^i /6 Naa s a pan p« ,vby Jeanne fw ns f?a 4 a 
px pi /?m«n \D-na w&w <nb in ^njn 1 ? laxy toww na*? *aa*a 
^Tana aw ,ian wntpa «Si ,a^ avwa n*?n ,avipb Naa^a pan 

•jtlwp *h jnan Naa* n^p 

ar^ 1 ? a^ra a^apn nN Naa^ nSp annua a^mn owon ♦•> 
N"ia /ipnsrA p^s pa ia*ya Naa^a japn ax *?aN ,na naaia 
pa fwh\ iW^nb w ^rt jfJin ax *?aN /p»A pun nbv japa 

♦nan ^rwa aaa^ mrw niaiya 

*?j; nann ^n^aa nxv 1 ? Sia> "d^k^ n^in xin parwa 4 K n 
t m^wn iwh rrt n^inn xa 11 n 1 ?^ na ,non nx «^n^ nan ^aiip 
.iiimA DWipn ijr nain ^sj Kin nan dhi .k 1 ? Nna Kin on ^a« 
n^ ^ rarA tsvhy nam na^a i^sni ^na «m pan i^sx 


not be told of the impurity, but merely told to go out, so that he may 
first dress himself, for " great is the honour of humanity " ; neveithe- 
less, having become aware of the impurity, he is forbidden to stay 
there until he has dressed himself, but he must go out immediately. 

8. A priest is permitted to become defiled in the case of the 
following relatives and to do so is a religious duty, namely : his wife 
whom he rightfully married (not one whom he is forbidden to 
marry), his father and mother, son and daughter, brother and sister 
from the father's side, if they had lived thirty days, but he should not 
defile himself for an abortion nor should he defile himself for his 
married sister. There are some authorities who say that the priest being 
allowed to defile himself by contact with relatives refers only to the 
needs of burial, or to the bringing of a coffin, shrouds, and the like, 
and that consequently on the Sabbath when burial is impossible on 
that day, he is forbidden to defile himself for the sake of guarding the 
corpse. It is right to be scrupulous in accordance with that opinion. 
But concerning all things necessary for burial he is in duty bound to 
defile himself for their sake. Even if all the burial preparations were 
made by the Holy Brotherhood and he does not attend to it at all, he 
is permitted to be in the room, for perchance he may be wanted to 
obtain something that they may need. He can defile himself by con- 
tact with these relatives only until the grave is closed. 

9. The priest is not permitted to defile himself for any relative, 
for whom it is forbidden to mourn, such as one who had committed 
suicide, or one who had separated himself from the ways of Israel, nor 
should he defile himself by contact with a dead relative who lacked 
any of his limbs, and there are some authorities who are stringent and 
do not allow a priest to defile himself by coming into contact with one 
who was killed. 

10. The elder priests are warned against deliberately defiling 
the young priests by putting them in contact with a dead body, but if 
one of the latter defiled himself, it is not obligatory upon them to 
remove him from being in contact with the corpse, this, however, is. 
only applicable to a child who had not yet arrived at the proper age 
for practising the precepts, but if he had arrived at that age he should 
be removed from defilement. The wife of a priest, even though she 
be in pregnancy, is permitted to enter the house of the dead. 

11. If the priest were sick and unable to leave the house, it is 
incumbent upon the relatives of the dead to remove the corpse in order 
that they should not cause the invalid to transgress a prohibition of 
the Law, but if he be well, it is not incumbent upon them to do so. 
If, however, the dead were an abortion, it is obligatory upon the 
relatives to remove it, even if the priest were well, and even on tha 
Sabbath, through a non-Jew. 


•oa /udni van mrvby hmnrh wa^rw canpn nan rf?« ,N 

nnvi i^ski ,dxh ja pa ,a«n p nm rrmrw pa ,imnKi win ;na> 
a«n i^n *?aa ,ntya ^ ntsroni intra ty awn ,t^NS nNitw inina 
pvpa m^aN mp pma tranp ik» ^aN nyat* bz ni^aa «iA 
mp p:tra p«i pana psnn piw # na#n nn« ny n:wmn map 
/u»a W vn dn ,nta pw ranpn *?a pai ,nap *wa iaa ^onvua 
von tyi ,p^yn Tiaa pin ,nat* *ua ^a wrft via p in /ua p in 
,n*aN ^aNi ,nniam 'nan ^ nt^xn pi ,iaN •oni van ^aN in ,miam 
i^bk jroan pi ^iA D^aiaon on^an pi* D^na p« ,naN •on in 
pn na t^m na *pn^ 1A1 pmbq JraS -fib *bv iSn o^axa 
in« iy dtid miyoa «f?i mva mii?oa n*? ,wab pm bia«S 

■rowiinn nap 

*tj i^sni f Bra^v ova i^sni jo* 'b -pna nw pwi ,3 
,vby p^awna p«i t rby pr* p«i ,vfyy pjnip p« war njw 
,nnNi nwbw ova i^dni ,ot6» nn«S na dni /?d:j pso *vn dipd 
a"NN vty p*?aNnai i^y paiiNi vty pjmp ,ia ■Aw npiwi amp 
yiT dni (Kin KD^p na u&i) own n:na» p pi nvw waa yra 
own nj/twi 1 ? m -61:1 pwi byzv pja ,an&nn 'a p mvtv waa 
,iAy pbaanai v^jy ]^:ini rtj? py"p ia n^i:^ ova na i^s« ,Dnia^ 

^k^^ /b invb *n ^»m ,{ ? "pn ona '« natr D-aiwn # i 
o^ iT^nav rwi ik ^ .pwnn ^ n^a« 5inA "pn* dn .oanS 
o^arm mvi /Aw ppa n^n:^ nn iffi by m i^axna ]^k ^on^a 

•nrt nr owip my 



Laws Concerning those for whom One Must Mourn. 

1. The following are the relatives for whom one must mourn : 
one's father, mother, son, daughter, brother and sister, whether from 
the father's or mother's side, even for a married sister. A husband must 
mourn for his wife, a wife for her husband. For all the aforemen- 
tioned mourning must be kept the entire seven days, for other rela- 
tives, however, it is the custom to keep only partial mourning, during 
the first week of the death until after the Sabbath. Thus they do not 
bathe in hot water nor do they change all their clothes for that Sab- 
bath as on other Sabbaths. There are degress in mourning relative to 
the closeness of relationship, thus for the demise of a relation in the 
second degree, e.g., a grandson, whether descended from a son or a 
daughter, one should manifest his grief by not wearing his outer gar- 
ments for the Sabbath, (he is, however, permitted to change his under 
garments.) For a father-in-law, or a mother-in law, whether from the 
father's or mother's side, one must manifest sorrow by not chang- 
ing one's clothes, with the exception of the under garments. All who 
mourn for the above should also observe the custom of neither bathing, 
nor combing their hair, nor eating out of their house, neither at a 
religious feast, nor at any festive gathering, until after the first Sab- 
bath following the death. 

2. For a child who had died within thirty days from its birth, 
even on the thirtieth day, even if its hair and nails were grown, one 
need neither rend one's garments, nor mourn as an Onan, nor 
keep a period of mourning, for it is regarded as an abortion. 
If, however, it died after the 30th day, (say) on the 31st day, even at 
an earlier hour than that on which it was born, the garment should be 
rent, and one should mourn as an Onan, and also keep a period 
of mourning, unless it were clearly known, that the child was born 
in the eighth month (as such a child cannot survive), but if it were 
clearly known that it was born in the ninth month, as for instance, the 
father had separated after cohabitation for nine full months when the 
child was born, even if it died on the day it was born, the garment 
should be rent, and one should mourn as an Onan, and a period 
of mourning should be kept. 

3. If one of twin children had died within thirty days from birth 
whilst the other survived after thirty days, the ecclesiastical authori- 
ties should be consulted as to the necessity of observing mourning for 
the former. Male and female proselytes who were converted together 
with their children, should not mourn for one another, for every 
proselyte when converted is considered as a new born babe, and they 
are no longer considered as being related to one another. 



♦nr^ixn Snna maw w 

p^im jfttaiin ^nno td /is?a ispn tovid idjj»d 4 tf 
l^b if? tobk vti ,wa^ "jW "pv dki ,nviapn n*aa oaf D^on 

♦isy nvp ona \w physa Kta 

k*?k ,nfi» i^n k*? ^aKm i^ avip km nviapn jva dn ,2 
ona:» ^ d^ibikp ny»D k^k ,wtaM ^nno wk # w^ mSno nrn 
nj?2t^ %aa n? ov "6 a»n"» rrevii nWS ainp Kin dk d"di ,napn 
,jvtaK *nA ^av /iapn enow wo hto ny^a ik ,m^aK w 
oki .om nr i 1 ? awia .nWn dtp iapn onow ,a*riK iS rot* dm 
•nyap ^ ro^aKn dk fcnn teas ,*?m n^jr Kin 

o^in wki ,n"inK Tya napb nan dn prfriw niaipaa J 
,fr6n p viirwa Ta ,oi^a D'nNt^n o^axn vk # vrn^p^ "Tia 
iy nan ny o^inm pWiw nx\ nyat? mo piDi r f?aKJvA p^nno 
i:w w ,nan -jVin nw toru dki papwo D\na /m-nap oipa 
•onibaK i^rw vidi ,;vaa EFWin utp -p* ,oarf> 

/■r,iK ikvd *6i vnnK wsm f 3in» ik >md passjp ^ 4 1 
nrra ,m^D« kSi awim kS *?n wk ,irpa^D wkvij k'tp pi Sa 
Kva: ^Kn ^ inK 1 ? dki frs&ftnb p^nna /ny wpate nwtvw 
in tok Km dnp k^k ,my m^3M «rt pan* ]^K ,.Tiiap*> lovn 
f iioj waa a'a liana k<? wwi wk *b w dki ,ynpb -pi* idk 
vnnK d^dik pki f m^aK vby prro pK ,«wrt uwk yivA toisw 
gitmn ^ o*pis^ bbsmh t , m»A n ff J ni^j; 1 ? i^inan b'di ^np 
na tcirt ik s'ncb'yi /tpm jrrti ^lona to^i ,moan nr.p^ 

•majf iio^t? 
f onibaK ^a^ niia 1 ? o^nno # oainp nDt5> lyattw raifh »fl 



Laws Governing the Time when Mourning Should Begin-. 

1. Mourning begins as soon as the grave bas been filled up with 
earth when the mourner should remove his boots at the cemetery, but 
if he be obliged to go home, and it is not possible for him to go with- 
out boots, he should place a little earth in them. 

2. If the cemetery be near the city and the mourner did not go 
there, but after having accompanied the dead, he returned to his home, 
his period of mourning does not begin until he is told that the grave 
haa been filled up. Nevertheless if night were approaching and he 
desired that day to count in the total of the seven days of mourning, 
he may begin to mourn from the time when he assumes that the grave 
had been filled up, and if he be afterwards told that the grave had been 
filled up before night-fall, he may count that day (as one of the days 
of mourning.) If the mourning began on the eve of a Festival, the 
latter abrogrates the observance of the seven days of mourning. 

3. In places where the dead are conveyed to another city for 
burial, and consequently such mourners who are left in the city do 
not know when the burial takes place, they should therefore begin 
to mourn immediately when the people return from the funeral, and 
from that time they may also count the period of seven days and 
thirty days, but the people who accompany the dead to the place of 
his interment, should count from the time when the burial took place. 
If the head of a family accompany the dead, the members of the family 
who remain at home should consult the ecclesiastical authorities as to 
how they should act, also as to the time when their mourning begins. 

4. One who was drowned or killed, and they searched for 
him but did not find him, as long as they did not abandon the search, 
the relatives are neither amenable to the laws of mourning as Onan, 
nor do they need to begin a period of mourning. As soon as they 
have abandoned the search, they should begin to mourn, and if after 
the days of mourning are over, the corpse were found and buried, they 
do not need to niuum for him again, but if the deceased were a father 
or mother, one is required to rend one's garments. If the lost person 
had a wife and the proof of his death is not so clearly established that 
she can be permitted to marry again, no mourning should be kept for 
him, nor should Kaddish be said for him, they should nevertheless give 
pleasure to his soul by occasionally reading the prayers in public, by 
re tding the Hnphtorah, by uniting with others to say Grace, by giving 
charity, and by learning or hiring somebody to stu.iy in his memory. 

5. If rejatives had learned of the death of a kinsman, each should 
begin to couui the seven days of mourning from the day whereon each 


tywn ova nn« to psrbzt* w d^dsdi /btw dvd tik to 
bp dn wm) jjron ^ru nn« to«n ina trwA djen .into^S 
wi ,nan jiatya opov im dkp ,no*6 tow wk in b^k awa 
inn i^bki ,vray inn ca^m dSis vm /ra to pann: onain to 
,]Kaa too^kw paa env itk iS^bni jvan Sn: Kipa ,owa pp 
o-iopj nan /marc nnoi von toa m «nn» ^d ix ^an mud kw 
nrn *6 toanty (« Jiton own to m rm dn Kpw ,(man ton 
ton ny D^to«n» (a ;fliKDis n-wyD w rrropn njwa pirn 
inu k^p napai* ffpDa ik ,Daiip not* aipoa Kpvi im rvon 
to itosa m ,itotn owsn to wi dk jron ton to tot? -ly A 
,mtoaK mp onoy ffiu ^nitoxD nDyt* dtp ^a» ova cnb 
omnK -ma ,p t»k wa^ *nn itosKi f on*ton nyap onoy toidi 
MZTjb hjid f Dmrawi D^annD nn« ion dn pa ,onDy miDi 

.onpton ,nya^ 

mi pnyi ^any iiavn itosnn iaai /anp nia^ ysp dk ,1 
viiki ,70*1 tik yuj iph ^any tosnn n 1 ? pny Kin dn ,ov 
dim vm i 1 ? ntoy wi aw ,n«o-iy tosnn dk toa /6 ntoy wti 
ato /»an jj^dk KiDin^ Kpvn ,nviDn dvd ,onptoi ,nya» n:iDi 
*iaa» pnDKiA ^any tosnnp tin 1 ? ,Dnrto ovayDP dnjp ^topS 
y.ii ,ov6 rvh pw'n ato ,vto ^prA npim nyiB» ^m r nf?^ mn 
*wpa j^^sn pybi .nj;a» isoaa if? n^iy m dvi ,naiip nyw 
*\r\nb bw ,dv irm pijn n^anj; *?tonn^ ^nx^ ya» dn f p^em 
on^to 1*130^ ^nD 1 ? n^:D ; /£ ? ova p # m dki # DniK noa^i natia «^a 
; n^a^ iiaxn itosnn ^asi ^na nb nat^ nv^^t^ n»«i .-|^sj ncrrn 
^ia»n ^nx nii:: ^^^ toannb nam |^x dn ,dv «m pnrty jA« 

•nf? n^iy itk dim iniKi ^iDirt 
oni ^nin^a oira j^aKno pw pjnia ^ ff i nann nv^a 4 J 



had heard thereof, and they should cease mourning on the seventh day 
iiora the day on which each one had begun. Still there are occasions 
when the mourning may be uniformly ohserved by them all following 
the lead of the head of the family, (that is to say if they have in their 
midst a man or a woman, whom they respect in such a degree that 
were it a question of dividing the estate of the deceased, all matters 
would be left to his or her decision, and they would all follow his 
or her advice, even should such a one be young in years, that one is 
called the head of the family, and even if the same one be not the heir, 
e.g. if a widow be the manageress of the house, or one who lives with 
hia father-in-law, and his wife had died, all these are termed the head 
of the family). This custom is only applicable under the following 
conditions : (1) that when the burial took place the mourners were not 
more than thirty miles therefrom ; (2) that the relatives with the head 
of the family were in the place where their relative had died or had 
been buried ; (3) if they did not know of the death until they came 
to the head of the family. Ifc all these conditions obtain, even if he 1 
a- rived on the seventh day before they arose from their mourning, he 
should observe with them a partial mourning and he should count that 
in lieu of the seven days, and he keeps the thirty days with them, and 
even if he afterwards returned to his home, he should follow their lead 
and count with them. If, however, any of the above conditions be 
lacking, he should observe for himself seven days and thirty days. 

6. If, when one heard of the death of one's relative, the congre- 
gation had already recited the evening prayers but it was yet day, 
and he had not yet prayed, he does not follow the congregation inas- 
much as he can count that as one day, but if he had said the evening 
prayers, he cannot reckon that as one day, and he should count the seven 
days and the thirty days from the following day. This interpretation 
of the law is for the rigid observance thereof, and not to exempt 
thereby, thus if he had heard of the death on the thirtieth day after 
having said the evening prayers, we do not say that it is already night, 
and that the news was received after the time (of the thirty days) had 
passed, thereby exempting him in some measure, but we consider it as 
day and consequently he heard of the death in due time, so that he 
can count that day in the total of seven days. With regard to 
Tephil'in, if he had heard of the death of a relative on any day except 
the thirtieth, after he had said the evening prayers but whilst it was 
yet day, he should lay them on the following day without saying a 
benediction, and he should keep them covered, but if that had occurred 
on the thirtieth day, he should put them on on the following day and 
say a benediction over them. If a woman had heard of the death of a 
relative after the congregation had already said the evening prayers 
though it be still day, if she be not accustomed to say the evening 
prayers, she 'is governed by the action of the congregation, and it 
enforces the law (requiring her to mourn), but that day she cannot 
count as one of the days of mourning. 

7. When a plague breaks out, it is customary not to mourn, for 

l i.e The mourner. 


/b tin 1 ? ny *iay n 1 ? dm baN ,m *?aNnr6 *p» Jb -p/ia own w 
•p nn« baNnr6 -pv wn jO^rua f?m pvftrw in 

♦n*nnn mij?D *n 

^sn 1 ? fe«nS A iidk jWKin ov*a .wa HKian miyo 4 K 
,ruieNnn nnjfri "ft ir6tw wat* fy mvai ,ifwa ruitwnn miyo 
tini ,owy in o^aa «nn miyon rAnni •hm-dpi m^o DNipai 
Tina p mp flints imai ,-wa A<sni /?2nd ^>a ^n 5 ? tub dmi 
if? Tim ,ov»n iaiw p^a ,nWn ny f>iaN^ mm itm dni ,nTpon 
r\:yrw paa ,rmnan miyo if? r&wv v ■& paw ^d pSi .if?pa biaN*? 
f iavy n« ny* 1 ? jwna itn ,nujmrA f?i3'' wk on a ff ai ^iWn ny 

•itea ^dn 1 ? i 1 ? mini 
m-iaa onw n*?n ,nnm rvnar6 onwaf? pa ,fAa* new 4 i 
ntya bt^D rawmn miyo Siaaf? r6 iidk r6an nm mwn ,njrw 
^>aw ok ,^at* if? t*n* '•a pi ♦km n*?t? ,nn?f? a*.na Mint* pw 
*?aN /ftp a"nya tea ruwmn rm?D ^ n*? ^a« ijrpw viawa 
ojrwi ,rbv nuua am Aa jnbrun mai uaf? in ,duv j? m "a 

/6ra ^laa^ oAia< ,^a« 

^ia«f? i 1 ? yidn /Wa ^idn 1 ? mm dn ,nW>a nan ^apa on ^ 
era b*avb TDK ,nWa ^ira 1 ? mm wh dni /ima piaa nSn ,Apo 
♦pawi ov trt mm ,nWn tin i^nn own Apb naitwnn rrnyo 

pN ,rmyD yiapb ton tnp /Aj/bSi rojw 'aa na» aiya # T 
pa ,/ia^a nai*ip nyiai* yBP dni ,naff maa <j&a ^a«n n« pnan 
^a3^ *:bd .iniN i^'ud p« innN^tr ova oai /^tya teuo in^N paa 
^;-n tin o^f?»i nj?a» mth ^w ^a*n pi nj;io^n ov nm: 

.nAaNH jira^ ^nn^ ova miN pnaa ; k « 


all are in panic, but when the visitation has passed, and it is yet 
within thirty days from the demise of one's relative, he is required to 
mourn, if, however, it were not over until the thirty days had passed, 
or if a Festival had intervened in the meantime, one is not required to 
mourn thereafter. 

Laws Concerning the Meax, of Condolence. 

1. What is the rule concerning the meal of condolence ? On the 
first day of mourning the mourner is forbidden to eat the first meal of 
own food, therefore it is a religious duty for his neighbours to send 
him the first meal, this is called nx^zn n*npo (the meal of condolenee), 
which should begin with the eating of eggs or lentils, but these can be 
followed by all maDner of food even meat. The mourner is also per- 
mitted to drink a little wine during that meal, if, however, he should 
not desire to eat until nightfall inasmuch as the first day has passed, 
he is permitted to eat of nil own food. It is therefore proper for one 
who has no one who will 6end him the meal of condolence to fast until 
nightfall, nevertheless if he cannot fast, since he is not obliged to distress 
himself, he is permitted to eat of his own food. 

2. To a woman in mourning the meal of condolence should not 
be supplied by men but by women. It is forbidden for a married 
woman to take the first meal of her husbandVfood, for inasmuch as it 
devolves upon him to support her it is her own food. Likewise a hired 
man who has also board as part of his hire, who became a mourner, 
should not eat the first meal of his employer's food. He who sup- 
ports an orphan or his grown-up son or daughter whom he need not 
support, if the latter become mourners they may eat the first meal of 
his food. 

3. If the burial took place at night and the mourner desired to 
eat at night, he is forbidden to eat of his own food, but he should be 
provided with a meal of condolence, and if he should not desire to eat 
at night, he is forbidden to eat the first meal of his own food in the 
day-time, for the day is counted with the preceding night, and it ia 
therefore his first day of mourning. 

4. On a Friday afternoon after 3 p.m. when it is forbidden to 
partake of a regular meal, the mourner should not be served with a 
meal of condolence out of honour for the Sabbath, and if on the Sab- 
bath he had heard of the death within thirty days of its occurrence, 
the meal of condolence should not be served to him but he should eat 
of his own food nor should he be provided with that meal on the day 
following, inasmuch as the day when he heard the news had passed. 
Likewise one who must count seven days and thirty days after a 
Festival should not be provided with the meal of condolence on the 
day when he begins to observe mourning. 


I'm tsbsM mm w m 

]w ,Di'' onrtt* Tin yaw wm ,nnnp njna^ Sy pas ♦!! 

♦D'p '*? tinS yaw wn ,npim nyiap ty paa 

♦ D^ax mira W 

^>n n^D fex n^ ^ n^S 1 ? ma /idik tnd "i nv? man 4 K 
^ D^ai laS Sn jn* 1 mi ,Dian fe cpo nih i^ns ,nntPD n^ 
nmi ,D"nn ny non nany Nin mm ,d^:in Dn:S nbmj rmtoi .nn^D 
nrro 1 ? jw ,non d^b» o /n wi ta«n^ nrrrt msai .dyidpA mi 
.nanus dw p fepb vtyi ,*nn *«w p*w ^ ,wno inn 

•vm na 1 ? ran ^>n /"A vron bw r\bb ran . Sn„ wo 4 2 
nya» ,rab d^ rwbv *6x /nrt&oa *mv *6 man ^ni ,wd 
en* ^n t n"ipn idk /fton jnud jft-nBom pwA d^p /wort 

nruD nwS n"n ,rwyb -j 1 ? hd ,feNr6 din now n 1 ? J 

HV7 nwS 1PSK HM DNP yBPDn ; B)H^ pjtt HI "0 /n> ICtCH 

\3 ,n6 nanm ,D^nn ^d ra vimsJ n 1 ? din tow n^i .nj&«a 
tmyb inWp D^pnrf? D^yaf? nWn few D^nst? 1 ? nrnro n^a 
^bnn fe«n nnaw ny ,ofto mns 1 ? owi onsroen p« 4 T 

/6*n s^ 1 ? dwi p*« ,oni« toia feanp ,n^njan dwtodi 
^mtww ^m \jsd n^BK ,toj^ ran* d^n ,n*?in in ^n ,n 
ib toin /wao a^p^n irrart isiA mm nriN dnp ,*m pa -pi 

iff yD^DT ,330 IN ,30 TON"> N*? Tlbrh IN fe«S fex p» WW1 

•1^ ^ina ^d^ in ,ni^ja 
uaai^p ^ v«w n«r» upas fennrA on^ ^ irta'Kn 4 i 
nivD ,fe« d»^ T'N Dxi ,nw n^n» n*i^a d» ^tanrA nwoi 
,D{y t\dWi tdw mnp\ nnn» d^ *?fenn^ .v^ivdi tuar ^ nVru 



5. The meal of condolence should be given to one who had 
heard of the death (of a near relative) within thirty days of its 
occurrence, but not to one who had heard of it thereafter. 

Laws Concerning the Comforting of Mourners. 

1. It is taught in a Baraitha that Rabbi Meir said : " It is better 
to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting for 
that is the end of all men ; and the living will lay it to his heart" 
(Eccl. vii. 2). The text refers to death. It is an important religious 
duty to comfort the mourners, for by the fulfilment of this duty 
we perform an act of love toward the living and also give joy of spirit 
to the dead. It is a religious duty to teach the mourner that the ways 
of the Lord are upright, and that he should not question His dispen- 
sation, for He is just and righteous, and that he should accept in love 
Heaven's judgment. 

2. It is written : " Weep ye not for the dead, neither bemoan 
him" (Jer. xxii. 10) this means M weep ye not for the dead " excessively, 
"neither bemoan him " inordinately, but three days should be allowed 
for weeping, seven days for bemoaning, and thirty days for wearing 
unwashed garments and abstaining from cutting the hair, thereafter, 
says the Holy One, blessed be He, " Ye do not feel more compassion 
for him than I do." 

3. One must not say to the mourner : " What canst thou do. it 
is impossible to alter the decree of the Creator, blessed be He ? " for 
that is akin to blasphemy, inferring that were it possible for him to 
change it, he would have done so. One must not say : " I was not 
punished as much as I deserve for my evil deeds," nor other words of a 
similar kind, for " a covenant is made with the lips " and the curse he 
has thus invoked upon himself might, Heaven forfend, be fulfilled ! 

4. The comforters are not permitted to say anything until the 
mourner had first commenced to speak, and if the comforters perceive 
that the mourner wishes them to withdraw, it is not permitted to sit 
by him (any longer). 

5. A mourner or a sick person is not required to rise even before 
a man who is eminent in Israel. Although it is polite to say to 
one who desires to confer an honour upon the other by rising, " Keep 
your seat " ; one should not say to a mourner : " Sit " or to a sick 
person, " Lie down " for it suggests " sit and remain in your mourn- 
ing," or, " lie down and continue in your sickness." 

6. The mourners should mourn in the place where the relative 
died. It is a religious duty to pray there with ten male adults (Minyan) 
both in the morning and in the evening, and if there be no mourner 
present, it is incumbent upon the neighbours and friends of the 
deceased to constitute a Minyan who should hold morning and evening 
service, and also study (the Torah) there. 


I'm npvn njneBn ronp njne» % n m 

T»n ^3M DP t^ DM ^H DV ddp mw Wn d^dim pt *T 
fan now w*m irw mr6 ^axn -]^ ,ina *nn dp «n dm ,np» 
vibm* naunai faz ^n ribM' m 1 ? n ?/ -a tm .nn« Yin dp r« omi 
,t^N dp nap rroa p^snD om ,toN dp bwa s^m # Wn Tosn 
na m 1 ? nan bix fax dp »n* in ,dp pi baa ^a« /lyat* "pi 
nn pmi ,Wn id*o m 1 ? ^nh pi ,Wn n"-n dj vidio w ,ni maa 
napa rrbaM pin ^a«n maa dj iiasa Wn d^dim ,na#a Snp 

♦npim njnwn mnp rrj/tm *m 

yDP DM ,vty *?aMfir6 a'rtfl M1i1# /QYlp DD# tfDPP V J£ 

nwbw ova i^smi ,?TTiapn dvd i^smi ,m"Opn dvd owto "pna 
dvd vAaM ^ nyap jinA a«m .jrnpi ,na*np njnw »*n ,wy 
njnapn dw ,njnDPn dvd swid onrtffa xvw tvbzx nx\ ,?£»» 

Ziyi ^a*? ,miapn ova in 

npim nyw mt ,mopn dvd dv d^p inM 1 ? yap dmi 4 2 
yap m:p m*?i ,ova yap m:p m 5 ? ,'k nyp pi mfca* JinA vVi 
dmhw onan "jm ,ibk ^sn ran ty i^ski ,ih 'm nyp jrui ,rb^2 
miai jiTpim njnapa dj Jimi ,pin ipy dw *?a idm bjn van L v 
a" s timS ibmi vaMD nyi&pn "6 nan cm ,nrpan ova pin a** 
dw *?a pnup onana d^ 'm ny» m^m ni^aM rru t:^ f «nn 

kSm .d^dm p te wrt "p* wm /iptn n^iDt^ j«wn Jj 
naon v^etrni na^ot mrrrn nsn^ba iniDi r naS ^o nv^na in 

ni^j; 1 ? i^x y nj?iD^ nyt^a vbro d^^:d ^m dmi ; nmn vtibm 
by $0*® pa jAv^m dwd n»v mrw ia s J nrw t mn» niryo 

♦nnM njw ypnpn 


7. Hallel should not be said in a house where one had died during 
the seven days if a mourner be there. If, however, there be another 
room, the mourner may go to that room while the worshippers say 
Hallel, but if there be no other room the worshippers should not say 
Hallel on a New Moon, but on Chanucah they should say it, even if 
the mourner be there. If they pray within the seven days in a house 
where one had died, but if the mourner be not there, or if he 
be there but the death did not occur in that house, then they should 
say Hallel even on a New Moon, but the mourner should not say Hallel. 
On a New Moon, which fell on the Sabbath, Hallel should be said by 
the congregation even in the mourner's house, for mourning is not 
observed on the Sabbath. 

Laws Concerning the "Timely" and "Delated" News 
of a Relative's Death. 

1. If one had heard of the death of his relative, for whom he is 
required to mourn, within thirty days of his burial, even on the 
thirtieth day the tidings are "timely " and he should rend his garments, 
and he is obliged to observe the seven days of mourning, counting them 
from the day on which he heard the news, he should also observe the 
thirty days of mourning counting them from the same day. The day 
when the news reached him is governed by the same laws as obtain on 
the day of burial. 

2. If the news reached him after thirty days had elapsed from 
the day of burial, the tidings are " delayed " and he need not observe 
mourning for more than one hour, and it makes no difference whether 
he received the tidings by day or by night, one hour's mourning is 
sufficient even for one's parents, with the exception that it is his duty 
to observe the usual mourning of twelve months for one's parents, even 
if the tidings of the death were "delayed." The twelve months of 
mournicg should be counted from the day of the death, and if the 
tidings reached him after the twelve months had passed, he should not 
observe mourning for more than one hour, even with reference to the 
observance relating to the entire twelve months. 

3. One who receives " delayed " tidings need not observe the 
entire laws of mourning, it being sufficient for him to take off his boots, 
and he is permitted to work, to bathe, to anoint himself, to cohabit, 
and to study the Torah, if, however, he did nut wear boots when the 
news reached him, he must do something else whereby it will be 
recognized that he mourns, e.g, to sit on the ground for one hour. 


Laws 2 — 9 

*m nbm trs ro«te ton *n rn 

inn nvft * rftty nat*n on* ,na&>a ronp wep pot* /l 

,on^ n«w tw "ft ruiei ,yTp nap wnobi 

two i« nap *nAi ,ftro <a natw rump njnDt? yap # n 
njttsap onan /mn n^a i« na^n ova tidh # npim ntw fcnn 
•npvn njno^a tea ,ntem nna njw rw fcnm nap wnta 

maip p»a ,aia dy» aiy mm ,napa rorp njn&p y&P #1 

•nyavn na fcnn teaa /o :mj xymv 

Awn flbs* xru wm ,*?:na in napa npvn nr»» ytwn # T 

♦v*n nna ny» anu b:m nap nwD^i pnio Kjmap c^aia 

pvwAn j"]m ,f?nn omp nn A nap torn w 1 ? yapp * ♦!! 
jru xbv pa /rrA o ft D ,p*DS>rri *?m aa r b«i Dip nAaa urw 
Axk m ,miapn ma A o^a Aw j>bpp *?a /win cmp *Aa 

.trefttn nyap xsvh "pn jnsnp njnDP 

too iuan Sjn /ft "rtrt pa /ft rm *Ai # no * nap na t B 
# jw itkp p»a ••a ,nriDP W nanairA pmni /^oa mn nan kwd, 

♦nAaa iAy ^n uw 

* pit ,vi *on dn (not*) iavip ty wk ^tw iiinp ^ # i 
yanprn p«Aa top *b* /pmn npp ianD„ toxjp /n toAi to .peA 

•piM ^na 
via ,dbn in btom n&pa ,ona? mab mrft prro «# 

♦PHp mw 

♦n£a« w nj?n^n yidd im ru»6a tbk *an 

rftw ,na<Da /mra ,naiAM tok nya» to bann ,K 
g oft» nbwa wki l mvia rn^A iidni /nsDn rtiwai ^iion 



4. One who heard " timely * tidings on Sabbath, should count 
the Sabbath as one day, and at the termination of Sabbath he 
should rend his garments and count six more days of mourning there- 

5. If one had heard " timely " tidings on a Sabbath or Festival, but 
which at the termination of the Sabbath or Festival become "delayed,"' 
tidings, he is forbidden to transact thereon the private matters (from 
which a mourner must abstain) but at the termination of the Sabbath 
or the Festival, he should observe one hour's mourning as though the 
tidings were 'delayed." 

6. If one heard " timely " tidings on a Sabbath which is the eve of 
a Festival, inasmuch as he must then abstain from those private mat- 
ters that are forbidden, the Festival annuls the seven days of mourning. 

7. One who receives "delayed " tidings on a Sabbath or Festival 
should not observe mourning even with regard to private matters, but 
at the termination of the Sabbath or Festival he should observe one 
hour's mourning and that is sufficient. 

8. If after a Festival one heard that his relative had died before 
the Festival, although the intervention of the Festival served to annul 
the mourning for those who had observed mourning prior thereto, 
nevertheless it does not affect his case, inasmuch as he did not observe 
any mourning at all before the Festival. Therefore if it were on the 
thirtieth day after the burial when the tidings reached him, they are 
" timely " and he is required to observe the seven days and also the 
thirty days of mourning. 

9. One whose relative had died and he is not aware of it, should 
not be informed thereof, and concerning him who informs him 
thereof it is said : " He that uttereth a report is a fool " (Prov. x. 18). 
It is allowed to invite him to any joyful gathering, for so long as he is 
ignorant of his loss, he is not subject to the laws of mourning. 

10. If a person be asked by a relative of one who had died if the 
latter be alive, he should not lie and tell him that he is alive, for it is 
said : " Keep thee far from a false matter " (Ex. xxiii. 7) but he should 
answer him ambiguously. 

11. It is customary to inform sons of the death of their parents 
in order that they should say Kaddish. 

Laws Prohibiting Work or Business During the Seven 
Days of Mourning. 

1. During the seven days of mourning the mourner is forbidden 
to do any work, to bathe or anoint himself, to wear boots, to cohabit, 
to read the Torah, to greet friends, to wear freshly washed garments, 


yton mart Tiom , nnct? wo ten nmsonai prwa toki 

,p»mn ova 

^:y mn r w t n2vht& mot* w rwbv hi /ira h^nSd ,2 
no ib tni \:y mn dx ,itoi <ravi cnna .npiirn p Dnsnon 
ma linn nroxte npiy nvicn pi ,wa "pna Mjwsa rwnp ,fe*H* 
vronsnp rca&A hind ion ,Man ran ^a« groans na ,Kjw*a 
;6an w »*3Di ,wi ijr nwA bona mby *a /p^> 

t *W wx *"y itom tiDK onnx ^y inrxSa nwj^ ito« J 
.D3nS b*w iiDin *ri x:A tot ,iica pro w naictan dni 

onp /nino i 1 ? ^ dhi /rem* jnAi wnb teanb tidx /i 
niTnsnxa Dm »Q2nS Sx«n # ppn p iDsn A f vr /way nxianx* xb 
TT3 mn dn pi jtw x 1 ? a"nxi ,toi nny D*iaiD0 jwed ix 
V? «n dx pi .onnx n* *?y mapfn tqdS to 11 ,nyr\p wqw ycspi 
jb vnrft »* ,onnx ^x dw Vw ate kyddi ,oyiap ffoip 
er6 vw wain nnA rrfcrt "6 nniD pi ♦D'nnx n* *?y tcdS 

•ibpt>pn< xw »pn 

tosh ^x ox f fcuA dj rnmo /ijnDn toa mmon na*na ,n 

.nnx ^ A 

«(raiS in whvb vrm) roo*"»xa onnx ra imw ten # 1 
i« ,(r™n mTSD ai*p oiao rrwn ^yaS bzpnn pror) nHoria •« 
^axn ^a ,p*na fiaijf Ax m Xvrowa niyD A ]nw) ,niAapa 
Tovh nab p« ,onW ;AjnrA «\n rmajrrw pw ,m»n Sj;a bv 
i? % b» P^n # nm^a ^*w^ ,dv» Ya» Sa«^ »^ dk ^k ^an tora 
•H^Tiea itvn ^aan nbywb nxr miajrnv po ,mn« yya mm dn 
*d vsvb A hdk ^vik ^ nwa d" 1 ^ Kin ba«n dn 4 T 
naxbD n«ipa nw pm di^d # nnia D^m« n* 1 ^ ^x /,D^a 


to cut his hair, or to be present at any festivity. On the first day he 
is also forbidden to lay Tephillin. 

2. What is the law concerning work 1 During the first three days 
he is forbidden to work, even if he be so poor as to live through charity, 
but on and after the fourth day, if he be poor and have nothing to eat, 
he may work privately in his home, a woman also may work privately 
in her own home to earn enough for her sustenance. The Sages say : 
"May poverty overtake his neighbours, who force him to work," for 
it is their duty to provide for the poor, especially in his days of 

3. He is even forbidden to have his work done by others, even 
through a non-Jew. If, however, the work be very urgent, and he 
might sustain a loss (by not doing it) he should consult the ecclesi- 
astical authorities. 

4. The mourner is forbidden to buy and sell, if, however, he 
possess merchandise, which will cause him to sustain a loss in his 
capital if not sold now, he should consult the ecclesiastical authorities 
in regard thereto. Likewise if merchandise had [arrived by road or 
water, which is now to be sold cheaply, but which he will not be able 
to obtain later, likewise if he be at a market-place (or exchange) when 
he received timely tidings of the death of a relative he may buy and 
sell through others. If he have regular customers, and he is afraid 
they will accustom themselves to trade elsewhere, he may be permitted 
to sell to them through others. He is likewise permitted jto send to 
collect money due to him, when he has cause to fear that the delay may 
spoil the recovery of the same. 

5. Such writing that is allowed during the Intermediate days of 
a Festival is also permitted to a mourner, if it be impossible for him to 
have it done through another. 

6. A mourner whose field is in other hands, either through a 
tenant (whereby the latter obtains a third or fourth of the produce) or 
through a holder (so that the latter pays the owner of the field a fixed 
amount of the produce), or on a lease (for which he is paid a certain sum 
of money), these tenants can attend to their work in the field as usual, 
when the owner is in mourning, for inasmuch as they derive tlie profit of 
their labour, they need not suffer a loss on account of his mourning. 
But if the mourner hire a day labourer to work in his field, he is for- 
bidden to let him work, even if the field be in another city, since the 
work is done for the benefit of the mourner and is done publicly. 

7. If the mourner be a tenant of the field of another person, he 
is forbidden to work in it himself but he is permitted to employ others 
to work therein, for it is not called the woik of the mourner, but the 


^a«n T»a onn« ^ iai ikp t^ dki ,rron Sya na^a *Ak ^a*n 
rwy* tqkti iai awa -ja ^ina -t ty i^s« ner *b ,mvyb 

♦anna *p ^ 

cm rrw 1 ? lawn ima ^na 1 ? outran bzxn bv mana # n 
# iawn ^ pm ,iwp mYatsn t bzn rwyw Diip Diatew pa ,na*6a 

•iidn mTwn ^ rrfta ina^t 

ia^ai /baa n^ 11 in* r\rwyb ,.ia«*?a Sapb tenb ima 4 a 

♦D^aya i*wa nny «nnty -pia /ma^ *6i ^pt^ «W 

f?api jWAnpa nto pa ,iroe to route np« fe«n^ n\i / 
^yan te waa kjwm Kin ns\ ,teie rwyw dtp nsrtten na 

♦nmtryS -6 ima pb jnaitte 

aipaai m^apai D*iap *fr '••sk tean te pa naxte # jp 
,mAapa onnie ra vhv naNtei ,tidh dp Dm d^niw jw pini 
nahin ,niBM mw te nya aixp ia» by^rh jjtu inrra u^ni 
•Tonnb eh itrsa dm ,naiiai nrxpi nynn 

rw«S nrwi ,te*6 naate dips ana pa rpan na«te ^ 
tea ,n^> T'nvt^ na n^an *ais te nw^i topato riiwA nten wa 
kvw *fijra ^a« n 1 ? yinw nnit^a pi .iidn rf? "pi wn0 na 
na nt^yn x 1 ? ^a« ,n % an snx ^a nwj^ nS ima /wa nnipa 
♦baa inp iaa man ja «xn ate p"ai jTWrt »b« man »aix la^xtBf 

,onun &byu ,anc inxS tea prow own dwiw w ^ 
/ima -pna itjwva nwyS to te« ,joDniaa *|m»n rwp ate 
by «ipa nwnrm awn din inn fcwn dni ,msnwn pow A^bm 
Dipaai .in^a -pna i^fix rr«w ^ i«*t ,^ p^n VaarA »n» id» 

♦Dan 1 ? i:n^*^ bv& loan 


work of the owner of the field. If, however, there he different work 
for others which he has to do, he should not do it even by employing 
other people to do same, unless it be something that must be done or 
there will be a loss, this he may do through others. 

8. If a mourner had let out animals on hire to another, the latter 
is permitted to do work therewith, inasmuch as he hired them before 
the former became a mourner, for he who hires anything acquires (for 
the time being) a proprietary right therein, but at the end of the time 
for which they were hired he is forbidden to use them. 

9. It is permissible for a mourner to accept work to do after his 
period of mourning will expire, provided he neither weigh nor measure 
the same (then) as he would do at other times. 

10. If a mourner had given out work to another on a contract 
and the latter had received it before the former became a mourner, and 
the work is done privataly at the house of the worker, it is permitted 
to be done by him. 

11. A mourner is forbidden to carry on the construction of his 
building on a contract, even through heathens, and in a distant 
locality where no Israelites reside. If he had contracted with others 
to work on his farm and he pays them a stipulated amount for all the 
field-work, such as ploughing, sowing and reaping and the like, if 
possible he should be strict and prevent them working thereon. 

12. Domestic occupations are not included in the work which a 
mourner is forbidden to do, thus it is permissible for a woman in 
mourning to bake and cook, and to attend to all her domestic duties, 
she is, however, forbidden to do work that is not necessary. A domes- 
tic servant in mourning is also permitted to do all the necessary house 
work, although she gets paid for it, but she should not do unnecessary 
work merely for the sake of gain ; moreover she should not leave the 
house, as she is like other mourners in this respect. 

13. If two kept a store in partnership and one of them became a 
mourner, the shop should be closed in order that the other should not 
do business publicly. He is permitted, however, to do business pri- 
vately in his house, even to engage in such matters in which both 
partners are involved, this is, however, forbidden where the mourner is 
an eminent man, and the business is carried on in his name, except 
where a great loss may be entailed, in which case the ecclesiastical 
authorities should be consulted. 


pll bzKrb firm w*t *m m 

^uon n^jw «rm rravn tent *jm 
♦-nasi er»Btfni 

,Y>toii vt ws tox ,pi*a i^bk i&u to prrt t©n to«n ,tf 

nrm bji ,o^to to nan pana nrnii pnia pirai tdm pana 

ns s sn ttixS rwwi wto to tdm ,:njyn*? Kin dk .pwa *fun ^a 

♦nya^ "ma 1 ? pana pn-fr ninia nfpaa aiip» 

■jinn BJ ninia ,pnnb na^ir nmi toa tf? prow mbv 4 l 
•>a pi /p to -pis ,-6 pi bk ,TOnrA r* prm ava -n ,nya» 
I s ? nnia ^ima n^ na*i nann n^av firm *6 nm # bwdh Hint* 
hm .pana i^bki wm ^in 1 ? i 1 ? nma wi nvpa owe pi »pvn t ? 
jiob itbki # pro prrft "6 wia ,1? inn it nitox w i 1 ? rrw 
naniin *vwA pan «m bk ton ,;wn^ paa bn «m» to i^bn 

.vnaw nmiji awa ja» toai ,*ima 

ix /ua to toa ,my toa Kpn «\n Sn;sn rby: *na^c 4 3 
.mp to «to to^a "npa «to ,vna py to ik py» to ik ,naa to 

too ; toJon rfryja nia« to«nt» sjni ,tibn my nsinai py to to^a 

.*an* to ^ new*, npiaa -paa aipa 

pi ,itona naa i 1 ? »n* nbin pi ,nnTto bi> 'b to mto /I 
*\zy rwp Ian** pa ,to:an n^a anma , "pia "jbwi tox 

Aiawi Tin 

w *w toa jpw^ri piaro an f naan pwna tok 4 pj 
nm m^axa pa nnta ,nanai naan njrem Dian wna paa ,namp 

jm mtaio pa 



Laws Concerning the Prohibition to Bathe, to Anoint, 
to Weak Boots and to Cohabit. 

1. The mourner is forbidden to bathe his entire body, even in cold 
water, moreover "washing the face, hands and feet with warm water is 
prohibited, but with cold water it is permitted. Bathing in warm water 
is forbidden the entire thirty days. Bathing the entire body even in 
cold water is forbidden in the thirty days, if done (only) for the sake 
of pleasure. A woman who must bathe before immersion (n^2ta) is per- 
mitted to bathe in warm water after her seven days of mourning. 

2. If a woman who gave birth to a child became a mourner, if it 
be necessary for her to bathe, it is permissible for her to do so even 
during the seven days of mourning, but on the first day (of mourning) 
she should not bathe unless it be absolutely necessary. A person of 
delicate constitution who would be very distressed and indisposed by 
abstaining from bathing, is permitted to bathe. To preserve bodily 
cleanliness one is also permitted to cleanse one's hair even with warm 
water. One who went into mourning immediately after he had 
finished a period of mourning, is permitted to bathe in cold water. One 
is forbidden to anoint oneself in the slightest degree for the sake of 
pleasure, to do so, however, for hygienic purposes is permitted and it 
is certainly permitted to use ointment as a remedy. 

3. The prohibition concerning the wealing of boots is applicable 
only to boots made of leather, as it is permissible to wear shoes made 
of cloth, rubber, hair, or wood, the terms " boots " refers only to those 
made of leather. A wooden shoe covered with leather is also for- 
bidden to be worn. Although the mourner is forbidden to wear boots, 
he should nevertheless say the benediction ^Vi bz >b nv;v in the morn- 
ing service. 

4. A woman within thirty days of giving birth to a child, also 
one who is suffering with sore feet, and a mourner who walks out of 
doors, are permitted to wear boots, they should, however, sprinkle a 
litle earth therein. 

5. Cohabitation and kissing are forbidden, but other acts of 
attention, such as offering drink or making the bed and the like, are 
permitted to the husband and wife when either is in mourning. 


ptl bznrb nb& rhxBn n'n wit w m 

ima f?a« ,nn:iMi mabn ,T>&bn .rroa ,f ana iidm tejtn ♦X 

hSW D^D ^aai ,fT»D!V ISDattf D^jnn Dnaiai ftt^pai aVMa flllp^ 

tid?S into d^dis nsbai .own sb dm d^oth way nop 
«wip py 1 ? tdm /noW miD mto D^nana dji — ,rr&Mt rrchn 

.pw ir 

nipwnn cy toW A vno 4 tw 'J vwh ,f>an Mint* note # 3 
iD^ap D^a if? tw *?aM pi ♦DT.o^a Aisam mVi ,pa*nw rsnarm bs 
•mVoio ca^n o^m •nnp ,dtd^d teari* mS 

* tidm ,tim pa roan fpaa pMi ,pa Min town dm ;J 

♦mm*? mW> 
nt^ n^ dj r nniapn oid^s idm^ m*? ,nya» bz ,vAena 4 T 
/an "vianpn Y?Ma f n»j idm 1 * m 1 ? pipa ihpm pnaai ,nrrE5j;D tib 
D-npp ,nnw <pios -iem 1 ' m 1 ? ,bian ty nap \xnaa rfrian rwiy»a\ 

♦niaian p Win* n^« ,n> 

pM dm m^m ,rAfirtj to* rrtw nvr» m 1 ? ,nya&> -pn SaM ,n 
pjrru ,idm ik ran by *?3M Min dm -jm ,p*» nvn*? tow tim op 
o^aitan ow rnna&oi /inn dp r»& ^jrn navm vsh pWanot*-' 
DMi nnM Ma^na mSm ,rwn to ravin ^ Stona imw pjnu 
nwfr en ,toM nvpjv oiip oj ,navin vsh hbttvf} wi rwi 

•pv toa 
to Di^a tow uw wwHin mp 'j itw di^p nbw # l 
Mint* djw Mto firbv Daw m*? /icitoa itoff onnx dmi ,dim 
♦on 1 ? a^D /w&M Am» onnM dmi Airw w* ; r ny 'j inM^i t bM 
p mi ,Di^a pn» tmcn w l tnnk oi^a ^mw mih /l ? n^ 'id. 



Laws Prohibiting the Siudy of the Torah and Greeting. 

1. The mourner is forbidden to study the Bible, the Mishnah, 
tie Talmud, the Halakhoth and Haggadoth, but he is permitted to 
read Job, Lamentations, the mournful parts of Jeremiah, and all the 
distressing themes found in the Bible. One is permitted to study the 
laws of mourning in the Jewish codes. One is forbidden to consider 
too critically the aforementioned subjects which are permitted to be read. 

2. A teacher who is in mourning is allowed after three days to 
teach his pupils all their lessons, their studies should not be discon- 
tinued. Likewise the young children of a mourner should not cease 
their studies, as mourning is not incumbent upon them. 

3. Even if the mourner be the only priest in the Synagogue, he 
is forbidden to go to the reading of the Law. 

4. During the seven days of mourning, the mourner should not 
say mepn DWfe nor the nvm&D "no, nor <naipn ihno pn W in pipe inr« 
and when saying the Habdallah benediction, he should omit the verses 
of joy that precede it, and begin only with the benedictions. 

5. A mourner within the seven days of mourning should not 
officiate as Reader of the prayers for the Congregation unless there be 
no other person present capable of acting as such, if he, however, be a 
mourner for his parents, we are accustomed to permit him to act as 
Reader, even though another person, who is capable, is present. It is 
customary that a mourner should not act as Reader on Sabbaths and 
Festivals during the entire year, unless there be no other Reader or if 
he were accustomed to act as Reader before he became a mourner, in 
which event it is permissible for him to continue to do so under all 

6. What is the rule concerning greetings t During the first 
three days of mourning, he should neither salute any one, nor respond 
to another's salutation ; but, he should inform them that he is a 
mourner ; after three days until the seventh day he should not 
salute, but he may respond to another's salutation. From the seventh 
•until the thirtieth day, he may salute another, inasmuch as the other 
*nay receive greetings of peace but others should not salute him, as he 


ipr n 1 ? dm pb&z m» wk Kin nnt? ,iaitea d^ki» D^na 
,Vina K"ia ,dik ^ iKPa Kin m &vbw ^mb .dpi"? awa /Akpi 
nya^a e\x pbv anwwi ,D^pa ^n^ ^xn ima na^a Saa 

,pr\v n^ u^a* «^ na ,ira pwn row xb 'r ba te«n ♦? 

,dw iiaaS npiy dm -|K ,nman dj; b^ot main 1 ? if? iidk pi 
niaah ,0^26 Davia^ "ob ,ar6 imb ima ,iaru*> awn o^mp juia 

•*w D^ai 

^aunajua /ps Kinpa'nin "fc^* l ww i paS nniD 4 n 

.nanai tsnn via ^y im 


,nmD2i ana ^jj ^ ik ^dbd « fw nyat? ^a atrt man ♦& 
,V?TP y? na^a ,iyv on 1 ? r»» ,pn n^in -ja t yp*\p *m ^ K*a 
■p* iwn /naySi i^ frta* ltd ,Dnvinn pp "id ownS pma 

•aanS "pit 6»m paroana?a pi ,%a a»^ 

nrva dy» klip p j^an marA tidm pwrn Di*»a bz* 4 2 
mr6 iidk ,nM>a iapa dki /iin 1 ? ntiap dv Kin# pa ^iiapi 
nyiatf dvi y nDnn pn ii-ik 1 ? praa wn ovai /mnKte Di^a pb'afl 
\b ntot? ik # ^ia no 1 1 ? no» ^d ^k .w miapi rrnn ova nanp 
.p^an rpjo frm tik^ ptPKin ova n« ,^ro navip nyio» 

iV»bki ,nysv -jina nama i^aKi ,oaiaa naa ana^S tipk # 3 
rvn 1 ? tidk ,a*r nmaaa naan mpirai dtid i^bki ,na» maaS 
moaiaa ninaDD jn^wn ^ jmrnb *uno nap maa 1 ? in j^aiaan 



is not in a state of contentment, if, however, they saluted him, he should 
lespond to their greeting. After thirty days (of mourning) he is like 
other people in regard to salutation. All the foregoing is applicable 
only to week-days, on the Sabbath, however, the mourner is permitted 
to salute others, and to respond to the salutations of others even 
during the (first) seven days of mourning. 

7. In the seven days a mourner should not take a child in his. 
arms, in order that it may not lead him to levity. He is likewise 
forbidden to hold much conversation with people, unless he should do 
so to honour them, e.g., he is permitted to say on the departure of 
many yeople who came to comfort him, "Go to your homes and fare 
ye well," this being permissible in honour of the majority. 

8. It is permissible for him to say irnntr even during the seven 
days, when the occasion requires it, e.g., on Chanucah or on partaking 
of a new fruit and the like. 

Laws Concerning Things Which are Forbidden to a Mourner.. 

1. He is forbidden to sit upon cushions and pillows during the 
seven days, he should sit only on the ground ; in the case, however, of 
an invalid or of an old man, to whom sitting on the ground is painful,. 
it is permissible for them to sit on a'smal^cushion. The mourner may 
walk and stand, and he is not required t» sit, except in the presence of 
comforters, when it is obligatory to sit. 

2. On the first day of mourning, the mourner is forbidden to- 
wear Tephillin, it matters not whether it be the day of death and 
burial, or of burial only. If the burial took place at night, it is for- 
bidden to wear Tephillin the following day, and it is only permitted to 
wear them the day thereafter, after day-break. The day one receives 
11 timely " tidings of a death of a relative is counted as the day of death 
and burial in regard to wearing Tephillin. But if the death occurred: 
on a Festival, or if he heard " timely ,% tidings on that day, he may 
wear Tephillin on the first day after the Festival. 

3. One is forbidden to wear a washed garment, even a shirt, 
during the seven days of mourning even in honour of the Sabbath. It; 
is even prohibited to use freshly washed sheets or bed-spreads or 
(freshly washed) towels. In honour of the Sabbath, however, it is 
permissible to use the table-cloths that had been washed prior to* 
the period of mourning. 


fH 1 ) era ^ fcucra pnnn w m 

*iidk ,nj/aff ma 1 ? ny irwrA ft** ,twpa vroa caab 4 T 
*w» iaa ,paa^ jnnio ,onn* *r& imaa vn dki ,na*So dwd 
Da vnoa oaa 1 ? wia ,m m« m nfta* vnaanw nw mAapa na«bo 
•mta (nonai n*nai nsaa *6 *?aK) naS 

•fta ft** joaiaa nja «na^ n 1 ? ,tfaft» ny ,npatp itikS # fl 
*to oaiaD it* dm i« ,nn p? n^nn *ra oik waft a*** ,proi 

jftnn inn m&<v "pi ]"« ^a 1 ? onsa 

iftjn* nnnant* pa ,i^ ^ ,wrft «i^no tr* dn ♦! 
pa 1 ? ok >rtn njfa» Tin ft** *wa jmyi* dwd ia rfarta 

,,-ftnn in* 

1* # D^Bf inift o^a 1 ? 1 ? ji-qnv in*S pnfti oaa 1 ? nniD J 

.in* dboVw nn*ft ,mftv im ft s B« opaW 

tf'ani ,natra ft*£* nap *wa ,mftv T n whb w *H 
■win on:a pia 1 ? 1 ? w* una tdhi van hn «mnn una «naW 
■^ dw **ftnn o^a 1 ? 1 ? SruA wn* .on 1 ? -p* dh i« ,«nn a"* ^>a 

♦on^ naft» 

Tuts rxw 'jrh&h np» -pna ft**i ,t»^ Tina n»* ja 
^ca nb mn natr iwkw n;mn ,nmft *\mb® na#a D^a.Ta*? na 1 ? 1 ? 
./\2v *ua n» natra traSS mmo pnr *un *p< rua una 1 ? 1 ? ,b*^ 
•naipD mrcft nans nra ,&*v *us *ft ^a* 

*?yv *w® fa ,iwii *w ra ,omft& ^a np» nM> iid* ^ 
pa ITfflA »ft dk ,mn a** *?a pftjD p* mn van tyi ,opo to 
,WTnpra bnva b^nai moiim pa i^irw ix ,nj?w vbj; raarw 
tn ,jn .mwD naa ^jr mrt ^h-w di« ^a *ik^d rtnro rnf 

•o^b» nnx 1 ? WW na^a^ ,rAA *mia 


4. One is forbidden to wash his garments, or even to put them 
aside, until after the seven days because it is work. If, however, his 
garments were in the hands of others, they are permitted to wash them, 
just as though it were any other work which they had contracted to. 
do for him. One who became a mourner immediately after having 
finished a period of mourning, is permitted to wash his garment (but 
with water only, not with soap or the like) and to wear it. 

5. After the first seven day6 until the thirtieth day, he should 
not wear a washed garment even if it be unbleached, unless another 
person had previously worn it for a short time, if, however, it were 
merely washed with water, it is unnecessary for another person to have 
worn it first. 

6. If he did not change his garments for pleasure, but out of 
necessity, e.g., if the garments which he wears be soiled, or if it be 
necessary for the sake of cleanliness, he is permitted to do so even 
dining the first seven days and on a week-day, provided the clean 
garments were first worn by another. 

7. One is permitted to wash and bleach a garment after seven 
days, and to wear the same after thirty days and even within the 
thirty days, if another had worn it first. 

8. During the thirty days of mourning one is forbidden to wear 
his Sabbath garments even on the Sabbath. It is forbidden likewise 
to wear new garments. One who mourns for a parent is forbidden to* 
wear new garments the entire twelve months. If, however, he be 
in need of them, he should let another person wear them first, for two 
or three days. 

9. A woman who had given birth to a child, and who wished to 
go to the Synagogue on a Sabbath during the thirty days of mourning, 
or even during the first seven days of her mourning, as it is customary 
for her to consider that Sabbath as a day of rejoicing and to wear her 
best garments and jewels, she is permitted on the Sabbathalso to wear 
her Sabbath-garments, but not the best ones reserved for a Festival 
It is not necessary for her to change her place (in the Synagogue). 

10. One is forbidden to cut his hair during the thirty days of 
mourning this refers not only to the hair on the head. If he mourn 
for a parent he is forbidden to cut. his hair the entire twelve months, 
unless it be necessary, e.g., if his hair were a burden to him, or if he go 
amongst people of different beliefs, and he would be looked upon with' 
disdain on account of his hair, which alters his appearance so that he is. 
unlike other people to such an extent as to arouse comment, under 
such circumstances he is allowed to cut his hair, but only after the 
thirty days of mourning. 


pi 1 ) bwnb miDxn tman \n m 

i^bn /mia wra ik to ^aa /6aa wnw prcp^ t©k 4tfi 
,nynsn ynrt mtmti an ipn*? A tdn ,bma mn dni ,nj?a» Tin 
jrw» ifw .nya# -pn i^s« wia w ,tin ^ma ]*o pw d"«« 
^Ti-isv ppn» nnn*A lean ,Dnrttf T n ,nyap tin 1 ? nn^aa 
♦nyap Tin t^wi ,piDsa it^Nn prth nmti 

■nrnfti ,an0*n* ^a D*asraa ia'pa nwa fbicriv pnfij ^ 

,/aipDD n"i pirn s ff nab irvi aipa *wi ,enn a"* bz iam van 

•«npn jvwfi pun w mto d^d^i 

•njn» Ttt6na ,nna^ awa iBhexpi nnm lan 

*naoa dvdi ,pn pns w ,n^o n^a nwoa Von 1 ? tidm ,X 
*fy tsnn a** tei /panp nxtr ty avte ^3 ,]\wj mwa #"ai 
v dn ,wa -pnai ,(«nn a"< md nnaiya rwa ">bni) ibni van 
^iVsn fmvb v* pnw htom in teiA *6 ima ,nrca mvo 
,dp *?a^ n 1 ? dnp ,naw in dw Mwa avwa ab dn /m*a -p^a 
■*ua tfia 1 ? 1 ? a:n ,waa nm '"•sn .VdiA A -iniD ?n 4 nvyzn tean* 
if^fin o^anp iwtrtn ,10X1 van ^ '*wn ,avV«j -hin 1 ? nat? 

tfcsn xb jsrm ay jwA in ,a*irwA pwrt wn vie 4 2 
■«nn a^ *?a n*m w6» to A vA«n n 1 ? annm jervwh ma 

•tarn van ^ 

,/iaal va« ty iVbn ,owto iriN 1 ? Vma in p-wo ww bzx J 

•rjnyoa dj VaN 1 ? Va*i ,nVan nr^ n^ na» n;a enaV* 
«a^ iDWip *in^ by mfot bz Ymm mb oua^ Tidic ^T 
*nj;»a ^a« »d» pnaa» rronan n« yiDt^^ ^sn ^icni vax ^ t^nn 



11. One is forbidden to pare his nails with an instrument it is, 
however, permissible to do so with one's hands or teeth even during 
the first seven days of mourning. Even aMohel is forbidden to shape 
his nails as is required for uncovering the foreskin, unless there be no 
other Mohel available to perform the circumcision, he is then permitted 
to do so even during the first seven days of his mourning. A woman 
who requires a ritual bath after the first seven days of mourning and 
during the thirty days of mourning, should ask another person to pare 
her nails. Combing the hair is allowed even during the first seven 
days of mourning. 

12. It is customary for a mourner to change his place in the 
Synagogue during the entire thirty days. If he mourn for his parents 
he should change his place during the entire year. The changed place 
should be at least four cubits from his accustomed seat, and further 
removed from the Holy Ark. 

Law Concerning Rejoicing Fordidden to a Mourner 
Even After the First Seven Days of Mourning. 

1. A mourner is forbidden to join in the circumcision feast or in 
the feast to celebrate the redemption of the first-born, or on the occa- 
sion of the conclusion of the reading of a tractate of Mishnah or 
Talmud, and more especially a wedding feast, during the thirty days of 
his mourning for one's relatives, and during the year for one's parents 
(even in a leap-year twelve months are sufficient). If a religious 
feast take place at his house, he is permitted to partake thereof, he 
should abstain from joining in a wedding feast, even if it take place 
at his house, unless one of the couple be an orphan whom he has given 
in marriage, and his abstaining from eating might cause the match to 
break off, he is then permitted to eat even if the feast be in another 
house ; he is also permitted to wear the Sabbath garments (if it 
occurred) after thirty days even if he were in mourning for his parents, 
and for other relatives even during the thirty days. 

2. He is not permitted to join with others to say Grace, or to say 
Grace with those who have united to do so. He should neither send 
gifts to others, nor should others send gifts to him during the thirty 
days of mourning, nor during the twelve months of mourning for 
one's parents. 

3. If after thirty days a mourner (even for one's parents) officiate 
as Godfather or circumciser he is permitted to wear his Sabbath gar- 
ments until after the circumcision and he may also join in the feast. 

4. During the thirty days of mourning for other relatives, or 
during the twelve months of mourning for one's parents, the mourner is 
forbidden to enter a house where a wedding feast is being celebrated, 
even to hear only the benedictions that are recited on that occasion. 


r^ Wffl nart iw k#n t,d *n nT 

nK yiDts^i tdj^ into ,ptuwi piYK nana dp pisE^ nsmn 
■jts^ te 1 iD?m Kin dji ,idki V3K by '"'sk cwte ina 1 ? nuw 
^Binn nnn jnnn rot d^dtA patw ni\"6 te^ dji ,mnan nx 
n:^ ^xb vnai .owto "irixS k.w natei ,mp nJQ tra 1 ? 1 ? ten 
•mvcn p iS ]t6ibw no wan ^oiki ,pdb^ swan ^ 

•nm »«nfc tidx tosner ^n 

nta* mn» hpk pi t nm xwb iidk dv twto ny ,teit ♦& 
sn by Ana* nnniD anrt» tikVi ,wte ihk 1 ? ijr ,itwfA .-iiidk 
•nysp Tin "•sk imo rmyo *bs\ jwwwj wpnrA ^k ,oki 

n*n ,0^*1 rwte tikS iy mriK kp* k 1 ? vwk nna 4 2 
nwa d^p k 1 ? pny dki ,n» pijft p^ro dwwi d^k y"pi s^nn 
■ps wit ,WDtw ^d 1 1 ? j*»kw i« ,ot&p D\n i 1 ? »np ik /i*ia 
ntoa nD» rwm .6 triA iy ynznb nmno d*di ,o^:n m pnanS 

•wao n»«6 9iy 9a«n vie Tn 

bVK '^K IK ,nD "ft fiD OK "JK ,W3D K¥V> WK HJttP bl & 

dki ,p#KVi ova iteK w #mnaipi naa *q dp ]w hVk ,tik 
jnn ^k^ i*? ima /roan nai n\T /^ k 1 ? dkv ,py hpk ^ en 

.vSyjcn is? 

,n:m pi ,nyap tv^ n*v ^k Wsnnf? D*taro^ ite« ,n 
jflnwa Wsnr6 rroib nnn ,nw ^dk^ 1 1 ? -wax <k dk -jit 
bmznrb k^p ,d» WsnrA n:^ 1 ? hkv 1 ? ^12^ ,]>:d p^ viicrsi 


During the ceremony of marriage, however, when the benedictions of 
tae uiamage service are being Baid, he is allowed to stay and to listen 
to the benedictions, if it be after the thirty days of mourning even for 
a parent He is even permitted to say the benedictions, and to act as 
man escorting the bridegroom under the nuptial canopy, he is then 
also permittee! to wear his Sabbath garments, but only if it be after the 
thirty days. A mourner is permitted to attend a wedding feast if he 
act as waiter, and he may eat in his own home what is sent to him 
from the feast. 

Laws Prohibiting a Mourner to Marry During the 
Thirty Days of Mourning. 

1. A mourner is forbidden to marry during the thirty days of 
mourning. A woman in mourning is likewise forbidden to be married 
until after the thirty days, thereafter, however, it is permissible, 
even if one mourn for a parent. It is, however, permitted to arrange 
a betrothal without a feast, even during the seven days of mourning. 

2. If one's wife died he should not marry again until three 
Festivals have elapsed. Rosh-Hashanah, Yom-Kippur, and Shemini 
'Azereth are not reckoned as Festivals in that respect. If, however, he 
had not yet fulfilled the precept " be fruitful and multiply " (Gen.i. 28) 
or if he had young children, or if he had no one to look after him, 
he need not wait until the three Festivals have passed. Neverthe- 
less it is proper to wait until after thirty days. A woman whose hus- 
band died must wait ninety days before being married again. 

Laws Concerning the Time When a Mourner 
May Leave His House. 

1. A mourner is forbidden to leave his house during the entire 
seven days of mourning, unless a death that required his attention had 
occurred in the meantime, or even if it occurred somewhere else where 
the people are destitute of the means wherewith to provide what is 
required for burial, he is then permitted to leave his house even on 
the first day, also if there be a matter, which, if he should not go out 
to attend to, will entail a great loss, he is permitted to go out, but he 
should put earth in his boots. 

2. He is forbidden to leave the house even to go to the Syna- 
gogue to pray during the first seven days except on the Sabbath, if it 
be not possible for him to gather ten adults at his house, and he would 
be compelled to pray privately, while there is a Minyan in his neigh- 
bourhood, he may go there to pray rather than be prevented from 
participation in public worship. 


p-fl tmbv dv mpDi t^ dv mpD ot m 

n^fiK /ia j^dp ma 1 ? i^in ,ua m ^id 1 ? *p* ^xn Ds< J 
/ib^p Tin nv N? /?mD in pi:o «in teim dni .nw nwbv -\\n 
•d fin® n^b "]b>b to* nbvn njwai ,waa Wen* rwto initfn 
.jwm ova i^fiH ■tfm ,*wa inn bnin pa om ^id 1 ? 

♦\nhb imp nan ?j; nwpnn? rw *n 

nson*? 'r /33 1 ? w ') xb# /mo wp nan ty jwpno pa ,& 
/mosn ^ fwn ,n"n *?3k t uyn ik«o N'na l nrYittDffi pmA onrtn 

.ffP DH*fn*D WP V^ pM p* D*D1 

rniann *?a ukt ,n&ff rmanna 

mr *6k P?dh I'n ,D^3n ypvp iaa ^3«na w» ^0 4 i 
tannD ^ •ton ^awna nwi f w?Da vtvsn ,JKcm Tniro ,i;wd 

*nw» dp raptn yattf dp nxpa ti 
♦em y* pi 

iroA wn ,Ka^ mruan f&vw ,jE>?n in*6 /rawi ova # K 
,nyatp -yin tdk rprw o^ann ^33 ^axn inia p'xxvs* rww* 
dwi S3 tidiw /won tropno pn ,1^133 dwi nvpo pnoin 
p'ja.Tao row nn*6 <*m ,naP3 '* dv ^n om ^sk JV33 i^sx) 

♦n"na wo 
prwa *pvn /6133 nwi mpn 3^ p>io« onrttf 0^3 ,2 
p Tin 1 ? 1 1 ? wid ,na^3 vwbv dv bn ,Dnrt» htu ws Aaa i nonn 


3. If the mourner have to circumcise his son he ma}' so to the 
house where the circumcision takes place, even during the first three 
days (of mourning). If a mourner be a Godfather or circumciser he 
is forbidden on that account to leave his house during the first three 
days (of mourning) ; and after these three days he should pray at home 
although he is allowed to go and attend the circumcision wherever 
it takes place. If, however, there be no other operator in the 
city, he is allowed to leave his house to attend the circumcision even 
on the first day of mourning. 

Law Forbidding Excessive Grief. 

1. One should not grieve over much. Three days suffice for 
weeping, seven for lamenting and thirty for abstaining from wearing 
fully washed garments, and cutting the hair. The foregoing, however, 
apply only to an ordinary deceased person, but in the case of a scholar, 
his death should be deplored in proportion to his wisdom. Neverthe- 
less he should not be mourned for more than thirty days. 

2. If one of a family had died the entire family should evince 
sorrow, likewise when a member of a society dies the members of the 
society should evince grief. 

3. He who does not mourn in accordance with the regulations 
laid down by our Sages is cruel, for it is his duty to bestir himself, 
and examine his deeds with fear and anxiety and to repent, per- 
chance he may escape the sword of the Angel of Death. 

Law Concerning " Part " of the Seventh Day and " Part * 

of the Thirtieth Day, also the Law Concerning 

The Twelve Months. 

1. On the seventh day, after the time when the comforters were 
wont to come, that is after the departure of the worshippers from the 
Synagogue, the mourner is permitted to do all those things, that were 
forbidden during the seven days, for, the Rabbis say : " part of a day 
is reckoned as the entire day." This applies to all things except to 
cohabitation which is forbidden the entire day (even in a dark room). 
If the seventh day of mourning occurred on the Sabbath, it is per- 
missible for the mourner to study the Torah, immediately after he 
leaves the Synagogue. 

2. With reference to the thirtieth day, the Sages also say, "part 
of the day is reckoned as an entire day," and immediately at daybreak, 
the mourner is relieved from the observance of the laws pertaining to 
the thirty days of mourning. If the thirtieth day fall on the Sabbath, 
he is permitted to bathe in warm water on Friday in honour of the 


jtm iDipo*? mm ,n3P nja rafti ,n3P T33 1 ? ,pana ,n3itf yijft 

.m^:a tick Sax ,nw:3n 

,V7i3D om nvpo 'no* *6 /i&ni yok bm* enn s"^ ♦} 
bn "»ski ; ttnn n'^ p to 13 :nnA ,wni dv ipcnrA pma nmai 
va« Toate # nA^«a pjrru pa ,n*i3i]/D rwrn nn\i dn i« ,n3P3 
dvo m ,s"ion DTip tnn 3"\n 1S3 wt* intei ,«nn a'" 1 n"3 ,idki 

♦hi^n 1 ? ni7 inn wm ,B«mnipn 

•nflau am ubv ^ *m 

,ytb3 pa ,j:rrca p ,ny3t? -pn rote* jnj «S» Ssk 4 K 
,ny3P -jina jAn yitp trw ,ny*Tpn p pn ,cr^ty b3 mix d^pd 

•aSny 1 ? jnip ibni V2« bys 

J* p mwr) nyap Tin ^"wn i^sn ,na ■ft dd» pp v 2 
,ni^« p ^3 ijdd bto3 /ros '\n rwa ny&ot? )V3 (inx d^i rw» 

JWjS 1^ BP ,D1133 DlffD KV1# ,1DK1 YQM ty ttHH 3"H m"?3K3 -|K 

khtj dx /6 jnw /i^y ^dRnrA % a^nv ,na A nap nWi # j 
,anKtwn onsvi -iDia ,0^0 *pn pi ,D*wtwn dtopi idiji ,njttp -pin 
n:\s 3"jj ,n-AiTi pi /rinro i-djw dto.i ^tm 1 ? -pro imc ^3n 
•onw^n DTOn n*iDU pn /im^a rrty royp dtoh wb^nb nynfc 

♦iDin *sS moo *nsfc ,"# ^sa isn /in* ny *"siv pte«nD 4 tf 
iK ,d^» "pn Kin dk 1a inud p*o /anp nw rn« topw to 
,ni nptra Dinr6 p'opiD ^ttci Sy3 iw anian dk ; d^^ tw^ 


Sabbath, and to wear Sabbath garments, also to resume his original 
6eat in the Synagogue, ho is, however, forbidden to cut his hair. 

3. With reference to the twelve months of mourning for one's 
father or mother, the rule stating, " part of a day is reckoned as an 
entire day " does not hold good, on the contrary, it is customary to 
add the Jahrzeit day (even if it occur on the Sabbath) to observe 
thereon all the laws relating to the twelve months. During a leap- 
year, however, it is not customary to be in mourning for one's 
parent longer than twelve months, and inasmuch as the twelve 
months had expired prior to the Jahrzeit day, he is not required 
to resume mourning on the day of Jahrzeit. 

Law Concerning One Who Did Not Observe Mourning. 

1. A mourner who did not keep mourning during the first seven 
days, whether inadvertently or intentionally, may make amends for 
this neglect during the entire thirty days, except with reference to 
rending the garment, which only applies during the first seven days, 
but for one's parents one should rend the garments at any time. 

2. A child whose relative had died while he was yet a minor 
need not observe any of the laws of mourning, even if he became an 
adult, i.e., thirteen years and one day, during the seven days of mourn- 
ing, inasmuch as he was exempt therefrom when death had occurred. 
Dut with reference to the twelve months of mourning for his father or 
mother, he should observe all the laws of mourning since it is in their 

3. An invalid whose relative had died for whom he is required 
to mourn, if he became aware of it and recovered during the first seven 
days, he should keep mourning during the remainder of those days, 
likewise during the thirty days he should keep mourning during the 
remainder of the thirty days, but he need not make up for the days 
that had passed while he was ill. This law is also applicable to a 
woman who had given birth to a child, who is also not required to 
make up for the days that had passed while she was in child-birth, 
but she merely keeps mourning during the remaining days. 

Laws Concerning Testimony That Makes 
Mourning Obligatory. 

1. One is obliged to mourn on being informed of a death by one 

witness, or by the disinterested statement of a non-Jew. One who 
received a letter notifying him of the death of a relative, but it failed 
to mention whether it be within thirty days or after thirty days of 
mourning, (should be guided by the kind of man the writer is) if the 
latter be not versed in the Torah, he may take it for granted that his 
relative was alive shortly before the letter was written, and he is 


dk ^n ^aKnn 1 ? a«m t r)^m naviaf? iidd iy na |A* p*n&Ki 

kh^k dki ,onrtp *\mb Kin xanDD j^idk ,mw by* «in anian 

Ik ,Dr,Da ania nvi k 1 ? ,d^p "]in rrt mjKn y*w ,ipsk 'tip 

Aaxnnb a^n ,td rnnf? «m mmw p*a ,idk ik i\:k Kin dx 

♦ am toed nfioK w 

•now* wn ,Kyrvap onan ia am: ,nyarn -pnat* nap ,K 
DTP pfri pma irit kwiem* D'nan ^ax /mm naon pwna 
ak ^noi ,KDa by Wijahyvua nx tyu /"nam art w more, 
dw npisn nx nimb ^>ax ,xjw¥a» nai m n"m firnpn -wan 
V'm /r>nvms d^bwA oik a*rw pw ,iniD ,Di:nn "inxi vnpo 

xrn yidd nonai pdp nx KY-pa 

mn K»a ,mW> inv jrnnfr nity^ fcwn n« imp dx ,2 
,na» ^aa ntmfr ni^j; 1 ? wwr na pi jtwiwr w '•in t ym 
mrrn ,na» *?aa rrtvA mfyb fcrnn« jva *a ,n natra dj i 1 ? nrqp 
pan ox pi .x^onisa «im ni^ax ncnn mnv yr ,Dvn rAiy mam 
hw aia w Sax /mnp^ pan* jD'aarroa inx jna j*i ^a« xm 
Kin n&m frzb p baxnb r« ox pi ,n*D mmi amp D*tor>ao 
invi |KW» *si ,mi*np^ x 1 ? dkt /imxip* ,nnvA niSy 1 ? am kip.p 
jmnn nwip nywz D'aamaa Kn* «to aia 

ib jrwn ,napa o'jan^aa nw6 niipb Snpna wean «2 
** pa 'w x"a ,nxr D"iamb ,nyattf iinaw fla&>a i^ kS ^an 

♦K 1 ? IK Kip^ DK pSiDDnb 

^aty ova naiip nyw yw iVbki .1 pa 1 ? V? n 1 ?^ nar 4 T 

# ^Tp ty ff iDai ,a^ 1 1 ? rtoy .ni^aKa bba pmr ^nnn nbv 


obliged to mourn. If, however, the writer were a man learned in the 
Torah, it may be assumed that it is after the thirty days, for if there 
were a possibility of the letter reaching (its destination) during thirty 
days, the former would not haye written to him regarding a relative, 
except in the case of a parent, of whose death it is the custom to 
inform the son immediately, and for whom he is bound to mourn. 

Law Concerning Mourning on a Sabbath or Festival. 

1. The Sabbath that occurs in the first seven days of mourning 
is subject to all the rules regulating the private life a mourner, thus, 
he is forbidden to cohabit and bathe, he is, however, exempt from the 
observance of mourning in public, therefore before the recital of mem 
roEM nvb V0 he is permitted to put on his boots, to sit on a chair, and 
to put on another garment in place of the one he had rent, but the 
study of the Torah is accounted as a private matter and is not allowed, 
but he is permitted to read the weekly portion of the Torah twice, and 
the Targum (Aramaic translation) once, for inasmuch as it is the duty 
of every one to complete the Torah uniformly with the congregation, 
he may regard it as the obligation of reading the Shema', or like the 
reading of another portion of the services of the day. 

2. If the mourner were called to the reading of the Torah 
he must go, as his refusal would indicate public observance of mour- 
ning. Likewise one who was accustomed to be called up to the 
reading of the Torah every Sabbath, should also be called up on the 
Sabbath during mourning, for inasmuch as he was accustomed to go 
to the reading of the Torah every Sabbath, his failure to do so on 
the Sabbath during mourning will arouse the attention of those present, 
and they will know that he is in mourning, thereby will he infringe 
the law forbidding the public observance of mourning on the Sabbath. 
A priest who is in mourning, if there be no other priest in the Syna- 
gogue, should be called up to the reading of the Torah, but it would 
be better for him to leave the Synagogue before the Scroll is 
taken out of the Ark. Likewise if a mourner have a son who is to be 
circumcised and it is customary for the former to be called up to the 
reading of the Torah, as that is his duty, then he should be called up, 
as the failure to do so will make people aware that he is in mourning, 
and it will thus be a sign of mourning in public. It were best, how- 
ever, for him to absent himself from the Synagogue during the reading 
of the Torah. 

3. If the official reader of the Torah on Sabbaths became a 
mourner, he should not go to that Synagogue on the Sabbath during 
the first seven days of mourning, as his presence would raise a question 
of law as to whether he should read or not. 

4. The Sabbath day is included in the total of the first seven 
days, thus, even if he received timely tidings of the death of a relative 
on Sabbath when he did not begin mourning, it is yet counted as one 
of the seven days, and he should rend his garment at the termination 
of the Sabbath. 


pT inn *$ trtw '^ 'tntf w ^^ 

,b»to pa ,ina ,namp njnc» yap ik /tna n« naipn ♦!"! 
anana tyo wi ,Snn tin 1 ? ny n^aa vip nin *6 a'mna pa 
,vi« *pim «Si .Sna dj nu K^rvw a^iai Sax ,im*n9 ^» 
jw«in ai*a dj mr ,a*mna piwi nuat* w ,*wis in rm 

.miapn *in«^ 

&*pi& pinan am ,mSa« na* '» nuai iwia ^nn nn«^ ,1 
St? w av i^wn t uw new mnxa njiai ,paai ii n^iy (S'ma) 
♦B3rf? Sw ,wa napji pp ma n"ia na aw .paab ii nSv a ff J n*i 

pa onrtp n^n Awi ,B»mm a'va miaa p«p •'"eya 4 T 
/nfi^ia ana niam jra a"a ,D*mtt aroa roii A nmai ,ana 
,n*ropn ava dh^2? nrai ,D^t? pjai a^iy pi /ijnan nana 
niiaaa pny innn «ip fie a"a ,y"sa in hvw '■"epa y*atf dw) 
♦('« avi pn roaj wh tfwiw paaa wi ,iaaa wk 

<a* nyiv -pn inn aai inn pip hpn «w» jnn 4 n 
ii pity p* *» nntpa w 'i ia na ,inn Tina na A noi ,nn#a 

tiwbw paai 

Sim in«^ /taroi ia ppoyna ,ina nita»e pat* ipt 4 a 
,miaitn ^ nyat? ^3 x 1 ? pnyt* ^sim ,n*ropn av»a npat* tianw 
,wa Tina ajwra A pen? vi^w iBrwiaa anna ^y nwyj viania 
.ina vneru» a^vi paa im in» iaroi pa*w pw 

f V^n «ar jna .ni^aN art» inn dtp vjd n« naipn 4 K 

vby bm )^:^a ^13^ nr 1 ? a^a lapa i^fiio ,m*?a«n nn p"D£a 
n« ptsso ^"v dtp nayiD nj?» pn v^:d p?nty ixw ,n^a« 


5. One who buried his dead relative or received " timely " tidings 
of the death OD a Festival itself, or during the Intermediate days of 
the Festival is not subject to the laws of mourning until after the 
! -tival. The foregoing refers only to the observance of mourning in 
public, it is customary, however, to observe it in private matters, but 
one need not change his garments on the Festival, as that would con- 
stitute a public observance of mourning, and if he be accustomed to 
wearTephillin during the Intermediate days of a Festival, he should 
wear them on the first day after the funeral. 

6. After the Festival is concluded, the mourner should begin to 
count seven days of mourning, the last day of the Festival (in all 
countries but Palestine) counting as one of the seven days, after which 
he should count six days, even the second day of Rosh Hashanah 
is included in the total of seven days, and if the death occurred on the 
first day of Bosh Hashanah and the burial took place on the second 
day, the ecclesiastical authorities should be consulted. 

7. Although the period of mourning does not begin on a Festi- 
val or during the Intermediate days thereof, nor do the laws pertain- 
ing to the thirty days of mourning apply to them, and it is allowed to 
wear washed garments, they are, nevertheless, included in the total 
of thirty days mourning, inasmuch as cutting the hair is then forbidden 
because of the Festival. One should count the thirty days from the day 
of burial. With reference to Shemini 'Azereth, although it is a Festi- 
val by itself, inasmuch as he did not yet begin to mourn thereon, it 
does not annul the period of mourning and counts but as one day in 
the total of thirty days. 

8. If a bridegroom married before a Festival and celebrated his 
seven days of rejoicing during the Festival, during which time one of 
his relatives died, he cannot include these seven days of rejoicing in 
the total of the thirty days of mourning. 

9. Although mourning is not observed during a Festival, still it 
is right to give to the one who has suffered the loss the attention 
usual in comforting a mourner, and after the Festival, at the expir- 
ation of seven days from the burial, although the seven days of 
mourning did not yet expire, he may employ others to do his work in 
their homes, and his workpeople may do his work privately in his 
home, and after the Festival it is not necessary to comfort him for 
as many days as he was comforted during the Festival. 

Law Concerning the Seven and the Thirty Days of 
Mourning that are Annulled by a Festival. 

1. One who buried his dead relative before a Festival and 
mourned for him, should cease mourning immediately the Festival 
begins, and even if the burial took place on the eve of the Festival 
toward the close of the day, in a manner that makes mourning obli- 
gatory upon him, even if he had taken off his boots only for a short 


pTl bsm *y &bm 'b*\ w w rn 

dv Nin |wion a*™ /? *?a mSa* jrw Tar •Aaa *6 affrw ,rrf?3xn 

njnaw yaan na# ova a"vy "»n dx '"ski ,mto ny o^ai /n 

aruw p*a ^jmap anan n^n ana p« narap ^k ,aii^ tied narip 

.nyaffn rw baaa f?jnn p dj ,n?a pi ^sie 

nan lapaw in ,^nn dtp mbax :inj h^ ,T?n in uv 4 1 
pa urn /?aaa fcnn pN ,n\b*H «iA Vo* mn rfh ;iawnb -paa 

Aana wid iaip 

*ihn m ,knn aiya (yawn ja pn) rrfcarci nra 'n to J 

irm inia pm^i ,n^f?n ny uao^ nSi ,vtra odd 1 ? -6 nma nwn 
,(tidn r&A te«) nawnb -pao nruan n^sn 

# itea am nspa "na*n p'o £:m a-iya wn av ^n /i 
/f? mina Kin nvn inpi ,nya#n ia^M D'aarpaa mrp tin 5 ? *in 
■paa hm aura ,rAAi pmto aaa^ widi ^osai fcnn Nai 
awi /S ims baaa ^inm /tt-in -naaf? wip nvw p<a ,nawA 

vmb c]D*n mnma mia ,b*p iaa mp a^m msn inafn pa /ids 
,vnM Bfaw tin*? tdx nivn ton^ *a ,nwi trvp r6:6i ,mn 

oaa 1 ? into p*\y 'W na»n aw ,» ff ya At* yaw ^n # n 

•t*"ya r&Ai prrfri 
^•mna rAA "6 ton # a ff ^a in tf"ya y"N rfo n^ dn ,1 

^n dki ,a"v> iruA nW> A nma ^aa ,a-npa n^S ^ 'vw pa 

n^n ,rA:6 ^la' 1 'vi nAaNn n^a^ p"»a # a ff Y«v amp na^a yaw 

,a"ntia iavj? n« n^A iniai p^N ^m a"« ^aaj; ^arrw 

^ ^aK ^na in» Sj; Kpn ,o^w p ^>aaa Wti nh J 

jnm ^aaa Snn j^k ^nan *a nj;:^ n^ n^aS wnw ibni yqn 
/iKj ^b 1 ? (mns ;, »sk nSn nyw Npn in^) nn« ny^ ana # n 
a^e'ai .dv i"a -fr nn ,ncs n^ niawi ,njraw iaa naiwn ;w nni« 


time before the Festival, he should cease mourning, and it is con- 
sidered as if he had kept the entire seven days of mourning, and the 
first day of the Festival is counted as the eighth day of mourning, and 
thus it is reckoned in the sum of the thirty days. Even if the eve 
of the Festival occurred on a Sabbath, and he received " timely n 
tidings towards the evening, although only mourning in private mat- 
ters is customary on that day, being Sabbath, inasmuch as he had 
observed even that, the Festival annuls the seven days of mourning. 

2. One who inadvertently or intentionally did not observe 
mourning before the Festival, or who could not observe mourning 
owing to the fact that the burial took place at the approach of night, 
if not exempt from observing the first seven days of mourning, as the 
Festival does not annul them, and he is subject to the same law as 
applies to one who buries his dead on a Festival. 

3. If one of the days of mourning (except the seventh day) 
occurred on the eve of a Festival, he is permitted to wash his garments 
after noon, but he should not wear them before night, and he is per- 
mitted to bathe after the afternoon service towards nightfall (but to 
cut the hair is forbidden). 

4. If the seventh day of mourning fell on the eve of a Festival, 
inasmuch as we hold that a portion of a day counts as an entire day, 
the seven days of mourning expire as soon as he had left the Syna- 
gogue, and the rest of the day is counted as belonging to the thirty 
days of mourning, which are annulled owing to the intervention of 
the Festival, and he is permitted to wash his garments, bathe himself 
and cut his hair on the eve of the Festival towards night-fall, inasmuch 
as he does so in honour of the Festival. On the eve of Passover, the 
mourner is permitted to bathe immediately after noon, as it is 
partially regarded as a Festival, but he should cut his hair in the fore- 
noon, as another person is forbidden to cut his hair for him in the 

5. If the seventh day of mourning occurred on the eve of a 
Sabbath, and this Sabbath was the eve of a Festival, the mourner is 
permitted to wash, to bathe, and to cut his hair on the eve of the 

6. One who had neglected to cut his hair on the eve of the Sab- 
bath or on the eve of a Festival, is forbidden to cut it during the 
Intermediate days of the Festival, inasmuch as he was able to cut it 
prior thereto, but he is permitted to cut it after the Festival. If, 
however, his seventh day of mourning occurred on a Sabbath that was 
the eve of a Festival, inasmuch as he could have cut his hair as far as 
the rules of mourning are concerned, but he was only prevented by 
the intervention of the Sabbath, and was thus compelled to abstain 
therefrom, he is therefore permitted t© cut his hair during the 
Intermediate days of the Festival. 

7. All the foregoing laws referring to the annulment of the 
thirty days of mourning by reason of the intervention of a Festival 


iwi ny&> nm« ,myw ^ nn« njw jn: ,d^p paS v»b tj; 
bv w dvi ,onr '? 3*:i 3t*ro wdp *?» jwtnn dw ,ny3P idd 
njw 5H3 .on^ i*a my d"j s^rw D^PDl ,fa DV "6 Nin niJTDP 
,dv i 7 '"* nn ,ni3iD n^ njban ,ny:)tt> m ,ni3iDn jn vsh nm 
oy» rron nnap dw ,dv» n"3 to nya^ 1 ? a^ 3t?m mvy TDsn 

W/n tij^d^bdi ,3*3 

•on^n row ^m py 1 ? irtna 3"ji owro 3*w n*n f JD 
riYU ^3D s"3nvn ,ny3P nYU n*i ^3 ,n*n ^s 1 ? nn« nyp ru 
ni3Dn ;ni ,ny3ff s^rm ^3 ,a*3iTP ^a 1 ? dak njw jihj .on^p 

oipD3 tJ pbinb pnii» -d &"& ,ny3W ^3D ^-n yya / 

P'^TA W 310 DipO L 3D ^3 DJ ip^T ,nDtftn Tt33b ,1130 

♦nom n^33 
•wia 0^ mW nam ,a^& te too won tflrb* 'n nnoi nxri man yk 



are applicable only in the case of the death of any relative except a 
parent, as one who mourns for the latter is forbidden to cut his hair 
until his friends reproach him for abstaining therefrom, such mourning 
(in this case) is not annulled by a Festival. 

8. If one had observed one hour of mourning (not necessarily a 
complete hour, as less also suffices) before tho Passover, that hour (or 
part of the hour) is reckoned as though he had mourned for seven days, 
which together with the eight days of Passover are reckoned as fifteen 
days and he need only mourn for fifteen days thereafter to complete 
the thirty days of mourning. If one had observed mourning for one 
hour before Pentecost, that hour is reckoned as seven days, and the 
first day of Pentecost is also reckoned as seven days, whilst the second 
day of Pentecost constitutes the fifteenth day of mourning, and the 
observance of fifteen days more completes the thirty days. If he had 
observed one hour's mourning before the Feast of Tabernacles, it is 
counted as seven days, which together with the seven days of Taber- 
nacles are reckoned as fourteen days, the Festival of Shemini 'Azereth 
counts also as seven days making a total of twenty-one days, the 
Simchath Torah day completing twenty-two days, and by the obser- 
vance of eight days more he completes the thirty days. 

9. The New Year and the Day of Atonement are reckoned as 
Festivals with regard to the annulment of the seven days and the 
thirty days of mourning, thus if one had observed one hour's mourning 
before the New Year it annuls the seven days of mourning, whil&r, 
the Day of Atonement annuls the thirty days of mourning. If he had 
observed one hour's mourning before the Day of Atonement, the latter 
annuls the seven days of mourning, whilst the Feast of Tabernacles 
annuls the thirty days of mourning. 

10. Although the Festival annuls the period of seven days 
mourning, nevertheless the custom of lighting a lamp (or candle) and 
keeping it in the place where the relative died in honour of his or her 
soul, should be observed also on the Festival, although the most appro- 
priate course is to do this in the Synagogue. 

" He toill destroy death for ever; and the Lord God will wipe away tears from 
off all faces" (Is. xxc. 8). May we be found worthy to go up to Zlon with 


N.B. The last sentence in vol. i. p. 17 §7 should read: "In some 
places they appoint a committee to confirm the appointment,' ' etc